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U+8C9D, 貝
CJK UNIFIED IDEOGRAPH-8C9D

[U+8C9C]
CJK Unified Ideographs
[U+8C9E]

Translingual[edit]

Stroke order
貝-order.gif

Han character[edit]

(radical 154 +0, 7 strokes, cangjie input 月山金 (BUC), four-corner 60800, composition)

  1. Kangxi radical #154, .

Derived terms[edit]

References[edit]

  • KangXi: page 1204, character 1
  • Dai Kanwa Jiten: character 36656
  • Dae Jaweon: page 1665, character 2
  • Hanyu Da Zidian: volume 6, page 3622, character 1
  • Unihan data for U+8C9D

Chinese[edit]

trad.
simp.

Glyph origin[edit]

Historical forms of the character
Oracle bone script Bronze inscriptions Large seal script Small seal script
貝-oracle.svg 貝-bronze.svg 貝-bigseal.svg 貝-seal.svg
Characters in the same phonetic series () (Zhengzhang, 2003) 
Old Chinese
paːds
paːds
paːds
浿 pʰaːds, *pʰreːds
praːs
praːds, *braːds
braːds

Pictogram (象形) – cowry.

Etymology[edit]

Cowries were used as money in ancient China (Shell money). Guo (1945) proposes that cowries used by the ancient Chinese dynasties in Central China must have come from the southeastern shores of China and areas further south, as the species of sea snail used as decoration and currency—Monetaria moneta (money cowry)—is not native to the eastern seashores of China. He further proposes that in addition to the cowry itself, the word for cowry, , is also an ancient loanword from languages of the south (which call it “bia”).

Compare Malay bia (cowry), Thai เบี้ย (bîia, cowry shell; money), Proto-Mon-Khmer *ɓa(a)j (bean, small weight or coin) > Khasi sbâi, 'bâi (money, cowry, shell), Khmer ពៃ (pey, obsolete small coin).

Alternatively, Starostin, Matisoff (2003) and Schuessler (2007) relate to Proto-Sino-Tibetan *bwap (snail), via (OC *paːds) < *pāps. If so it would be cognate with Jingpho pawp, lapawp (snail).

Pronunciation[edit]



Rime
Character
Reading # 1/1
Initial () (1)
Final () (25)
Tone (調) Departing (H)
Openness (開合) Open
Division () I
Fanqie
Reconstructions
Zhengzhang
Shangfang
/pɑiH/
Pan
Wuyun
/pɑiH/
Shao
Rongfen
/pɑiH/
Edwin
Pulleyblank
/pajH/
Li
Rong
/pɑiH/
Wang
Li
/pɑiH/
Bernard
Karlgren
/pɑiH/
Expected
Mandarin
Reflex
bèi
Zhengzhang system (2003)
Character
Reading # 1/1
No. 415
Phonetic
component
Rime
group
Rime
subdivision
1
Corresponding
MC rime
Old
Chinese
/*paːds/

Definitions[edit]

  1. shellfish; cowrie
  2. money; currency
  3. A surname​.

Compounds[edit]


Japanese[edit]

Kanji[edit]

(grade 1 “Kyōiku” kanji)

Readings[edit]

Etymology[edit]

Japanese Wikipedia has an article on:
Wikipedia ja
Kanji in this term
かい
Grade: 1
kun’yomi

/*kapi1/ invalid IPA characters (1)/kaɸi//kawi//kai/

From Old Japanese.[1] Found in the Man'yōshū, completed some time after 759 CE.[2]

Pronunciation[edit]

Noun[edit]

(hiragana かい, rōmaji kai, historical hiragana かひ)

  1. a shellfish

Derived terms[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ 1988, 国語大辞典(新装版) (Kokugo Dai Jiten, Revised Edition) (in Japanese), Tōkyō: Shogakukan
  2. ^ c. 759, Man'yōshū (book 15, poem 3709), text here
  3. ^ 2006, 大辞林 (Daijirin), Third Edition (in Japanese), Tōkyō: Sanseidō, ISBN 4-385-13905-9
  4. ^ 1998, NHK日本語発音アクセント辞典 (NHK Japanese Pronunciation Accent Dictionary) (in Japanese), Tōkyō: NHK, ISBN 978-4-14-011112-3
  5. ^ 1974, 新明解国語辞典 (Shin Meikai Kokugo Jiten), Second Edition (in Japanese), Tōkyō: Sanseidō

Korean[edit]

Hanja[edit]

(pae)

  • Eumhun:
    • Sound (hangeul): (revised: pae, McCune-Reischauer: p'ae, Yale: phay)
    • Name (hangeul): 조개 (revised: jogae)
  1. This term needs a translation to English. Please help out and add a translation, then remove the text {{rfdef}}.

Vietnamese[edit]

Han character[edit]

(bối, buổi, bói, búi, với, mấy, mới, vuối, thói)

  1. This term needs a translation to English. Please help out and add a translation, then remove the text {{rfdef}}.