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Translingual[edit]

Etymology[edit]

Historical forms of the character
Oracle bone script Bronze inscriptions Large seal script Small seal script
祭-oracle.svg 祭-bronze.svg 祭-bigseal.svg 祭-seal.svg

Ideogrammic compound (會意):  ‎(meat) +  ‎(hand) +  ‎(altar, ceremony) – the hand offers a piece of meat at the altar during a ceremony.

Note that the top is not . The left part is ⺼ twisted to the left (compare , ). The right part (which looks like 又 without the tail to the left) actually a simplified form of hand, which was written originally like (three fingers on the arm), with the tail tilted to the right and the leftmost fingers disappearing).

In Japanese handwriting, the diagonals of the upper right component cross: the short upper-right to lower-left stroke crosses the long upper-left to lower-right stroke, rather than abutting there.

Han character[edit]

(radical 113 +6, 11 strokes, cangjie input 月人一一火 (BOMMF), four-corner 27901)

Derived characters[edit]

References[edit]

  • KangXi: page 843, character 7
  • Dai Kanwa Jiten: character 24700
  • Dae Jaweon: page 1263, character 8
  • Hanyu Da Zidian: volume 4, page 2397, character 7
  • Unihan data for U+796D

Chinese[edit]

simp. and trad.

Pronunciation[edit]

Dialectal pronunciations ()
Variety Location
Mandarin Beijing /t͡ɕi⁵¹/
Harbin /t͡ɕi⁵³/
Tianjin /t͡ɕi⁵³/
Jinan /t͡ɕi²¹/
Qingdao /t͡si⁴²/
Zhengzhou /t͡si³¹²/
Xi'an /t͡ɕi⁴⁴/
Xining /t͡ɕji²¹³/
Yinchuan /t͡ɕi¹³/
Lanzhou /t͡ɕi¹³/
Ürümqi /t͡ɕi²¹³/
Wuhan /t͡ɕi³⁵/
Chengdu /t͡ɕi¹³/
Guiyang /t͡ɕi²¹³/
Kunming /t͡ɕi²¹²/
Nanjing /t͡si⁴⁴/
Hefei /t͡sz̩⁵³/
Jin Taiyuan /t͡ɕi⁴⁵/
Pingyao /t͡ɕi³⁵/
/t͡sei³⁵/ ~先人
Hohhot /t͡ɕʰi⁵⁵/
Wu Shanghai /t͡ɕi³⁵/
Suzhou /t͡si⁵¹³/
Hangzhou /t͡ɕi⁴⁴⁵/
Wenzhou /t͡sei⁴²/
Hui Shexian /t͡si³²⁴/
Tunxi /t͡se⁴²/
Xiang Changsha /t͡si⁵⁵/
Xiangtan /t͡si⁵⁵/
Gan Nanchang /t͡ɕʰi⁴⁵/
Hakka Meixian /t͡si⁵³/
Taoyuan /t͡si⁵⁵/
Cantonese Guangzhou /t͡sɐi³³/
Nanning /t͡sɐi³³/
Hong Kong /t͡sɐi³³/
Min Xiamen (Min Nan) /t͡se²¹/
Fuzhou (Min Dong) /t͡si²¹²/
Jian'ou (Min Bei) /t͡si³³/
Shantou (Min Nan) /t͡si²¹³/
Haikou (Min Nan) /t͡si³⁵/
Middle Chinese pronunciation (, reconstructed)
Character (), Pronunciation 1/2

Initial: (13)
Final:
Division: III

Openness: Open
Tone: Departing (H)

Fanqie:
Zhengzhang
Shangfang
Bernard
Karlgren
Li
Rong
Pan
Wuyun
Edwin
Pulleyblank
Wang
Li
Shao
Rongfen
/t͡siᴇiH/ /t͡si̯ɛiH/ /t͡siɛiH/ /t͡siɛiH/ /t͡siajH/ /t͡sĭɛiH/ /t͡sjæiH/
Character (), Pronunciation 2/2

Initial: (18)
Final:
Division: II

Openness: Open
Tone: Departing (H)

Fanqie:
Zhengzhang
Shangfang
Bernard
Karlgren
Li
Rong
Pan
Wuyun
Edwin
Pulleyblank
Wang
Li
Shao
Rongfen
/t͡ʃɣɛiH/ /ʈ͡ʂăiH/ /t͡ʃɛiH/ /ʈ͡ʂɯæiH/ /ʈ͡ʂəɨjH/ /t͡ʃɐiH/ /t͡ʃɐiH/
Old Chinese pronunciation (, reconstructed)
Baxter-Sagart system 1.1 (2014)
Character Modern Beijing
(Pinyin)
Middle Chinese Old Chinese English
‹ tsjejH › /*[ts]et-s/ sacrifice
zhài ‹ tsrɛjH › /*[ts](ˤ)re[t]-s/ (name of a state)

Notes for Old Chinese notations in the Baxter-Sagart system:

  • Parentheses "()" indicate uncertain presence;
  • Square brackets "[]" indicate uncertain identity, e.g. *[t] as coda may in fact be *-t or *-p;
  • Angle brackets "<>" indicate infix;
  • Hyphen "-" indicates morpheme boundary;
  • Period "." indicates syllable boundary.
Zhengzhang system (2003)
Character No. Phonetic
component
Rime
group
Rime
subdivision
Corresponding
MC rime
Old Chinese Notes
5838 2 /*ʔsreːds/
5839 2 /*ʔsleds/

Noun[edit]

  1. a ceremony where one offers sacrifices to one's ancestors

Verb[edit]

  1. to make offerings to, to sacrifice to, to worship

References[edit]


Japanese[edit]

Kanji[edit]

(grade 3 “Kyōiku” kanji)

  1. festival

Readings[edit]

Derived terms[edit]


Korean[edit]

Hanja[edit]

‎(je, chae) (hangeul , , revised je, chae, McCune-Reischauer che, ch'ae, Yale cey, chay)

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Vietnamese[edit]

Han character[edit]

(tế, sái)

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