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Character
Unicode name CJK UNIFIED IDEOGRAPH-570B
Code point U+570B
Entity number 國
Unicode block CJK Unified Ideographs
[U+570A] [U+570C]

Translingual[edit]

Stroke order
國-order.gif
Taiwanese
stroke order
國-torder.gif

Alternative forms[edit]

  • (This character is used unofficially as a shorthand for 國 and .)
  • (Probably based on 国, but without the dot (丶). Used by the Taiping Heavenly Kingdom in their own name (太平天囯).)
  • (Simplified Chinese (簡體字/简体字) and Japanese shinjitai (新字體/新字体), 或→玉)
  • (The empress Wu Zetian, the only reigning female in the history of China, introduced a number of variant characters to demonstrate her power, this being one of them. The characters were not created by the Empress herself, but were suggested by an official named Zong Qinke (宗秦客), the son of one of her cousins, in December 689 AD. They were forcibly used by people during her reign but fell into disuse immediately after her death, so they help to determine dates of printed materials.)
  • (Uses (people, citizens) instead of 或.)
  • 𡆸 (Also a variant of .)
  • 𡆻
  • 𡆿
  • 𡇅
  • 𡇎
  • 𡇏
  • 𡇕
  • 𡈑
  • 𢦾
  • 𢧌
  • 𤦒
  • 𤦂

Etymology[edit]

國-oracle.svg 國-bronze.svg 國-bigseal.svg 國-seal.svg
Oracle bone script Bronze inscriptions Large seal script Small seal script

From , a sematic ("enclosure") was added to be distinguished from the the original character borrowed for other meanings.

Han character[edit]

(radical 31 +8, 11 strokes, cangjie input 田戈口一 (WIRM), four-corner 60153, composition)

References[edit]

  • KangXi: page 219, character 16
  • Dai Kanwa Jiten: character 4798
  • Dae Jaweon: page 447, character 9
  • Hanyu Da Zidian: volume 1, page 720, character 9
  • Unihan data for U+570B

Chinese[edit]

-
trad.
simp.

Pronunciation[edit]


Middle Chinese pronunciation (, reconstructed)
Character (國), Pronunciation 1/1

Initial: 見 (28)
Final: 德
Division: I

Openness: Closed
Tone: Checked (Ø)

Fanqie: 古或切
Zhengzhang
Shangfang
Bernard
Karlgren
Li
Rong
Pan
Wuyun
Edwin
Pulleyblank
Wang
Li
Shao
Rongfen
/kwək̚/ /kwək̚/ /kuək̚/ /kʷək̚/ /kwək̚/ /kuək̚/ /kuək̚/
Old Chinese pronunciation (, reconstructed)
Baxter-Sagart system 1.1 (2014)
Character Modern Beijing
(Pinyin)
Middle Chinese Old Chinese English
guó ‹ kwok › /*[C.q]ʷˤək/ state (n.)

Notes for Old Chinese notations in the Baxter-Sagart system:

  • Parentheses "()" indicate uncertain presence;
  • Square brackets "[]" indicate uncertain identity, e.g. *[t] as coda may in fact be *-t or *-p;
  • Angle brackets "<>" indicate infix;
  • Hyphen "-" indicates morpheme boundary;
  • Period "." indicates syllable boundary.
Zhengzhang system (2003)
Character No. Phonetic
component
Rime
group
Rime
subdivision
Corresponding
MC rime
Old Chinese Notes
5547 0 /*kʷɯːɡ/

Noun[edit]

(classifier )

  1. (Beginning Mandarin) country, nation, nation-state

Synonyms[edit]

Proper noun[edit]

  1. A surname​. Guo (mainland China, Taiwan), Gwok (Hong Kong)

Compounds[edit]


Japanese[edit]

Kanji[edit]

(uncommon “Hyōgai” kanjikyūjitai kanji, shinjitai form )

  1. country

Readings[edit]

Noun[edit]

‎(kyūjitai kanji, shinjitai kanji , hiragana くに, romaji kuni)

  1. a land, a country

Korean[edit]

A variant of "國" commonly found in old books of pre-modern Korea.

Hanja[edit]

‎(guk)
Eumhun:

  • Sound (hangeul):  (McCune-Reischauer: kuk, Yale: kwuk)
  • Name (hangeul): 나라 (revised: nara, McCune-Reischauer: nara, Yale: nala)
  1. country, state, nation, land

Compounds[edit]


Vietnamese[edit]

Han character[edit]

(quốc, cuốc)

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