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U+53C3, 參
CJK UNIFIED IDEOGRAPH-53C3

[U+53C2]
CJK Unified Ideographs
[U+53C4]

Translingual[edit]

Shinjitai
Simplified
Traditional

Han character[edit]

(radical 28 +9, 11 strokes, cangjie input 戈戈戈竹 (IIIH), four-corner 23202, composition𠫯)

References[edit]

  • KangXi: page 164, character 28
  • Dai Kanwa Jiten: character 3098
  • Dae Jaweon: page 372, character 28
  • Hanyu Da Zidian: volume 1, page 387, character 23
  • Unihan data for U+53C3

Chinese[edit]

Glyph origin[edit]

Historical forms of the character
Bronze inscriptions Large seal script Small seal script
參-bronze.svg 參-bigseal.svg 參-seal.svg
Characters in the same phonetic series () (Zhengzhang, 2003) 
Old Chinese
*ʔsluːm, *ʔsluːms
*sʰluːm, *sʰluːms, *sloːm, *sʰrum, *srum
*sʰluːm
*sʰluːm, *sʰluːmʔ
*sʰluːmʔ
*sʰluːmʔ, *sʰloːmʔ
*sʰluːms
毿 *sluːm
*sluːm, *srum
*sluːm, *sru, *srɯu
*sluːmʔ
*sluːmʔ, *sʰrum, *srum, *srumʔ
*sloːm
*sruːm, *sruːmʔ
*sruːmʔ, *sʰrumʔ
縿 *sroːm
*sroːm
*sʰrum
*sʰrumʔ
*sʰrumʔ
*srum
*srumʔ
*srums

Simplified from ().

The bronze script form is an ideogrammic compound (會意):  (stars) +  (light; brightness) +  (light rays)Three Stars mansion. (OC *sroːm, *slom) also acts as a phonetic component. Ignoring the lines connecting the three stars, may be interpreted as (“kneeling person”), representing someone looking at the shining stars above him.

Alternatively, it may be the original character of (OC *ʔsɯːm, *ʔsrɯm, “hairpin”), since the bronze script forms resemble a person wearing a hat with three stars.

Based on the seal script form, Shuowen interprets the character as a phono-semantic compound (形聲, OC *sʰluːm, *sʰluːms, *sloːm, *sʰrum, *srum): semantic  (stars) + phonetic .

Etymology 1[edit]

trad.
simp.
alt. forms


From (OC *suːm, *suːms, “three”) + other element (Schuessler, 2007).

Pronunciation[edit]


Rime
Character
Reading # 1/5
Initial () (21)
Final () (140)
Tone (調) Level (Ø)
Openness (開合) Open
Division () Chongniu III
Fanqie
Reconstructions
Zhengzhang
Shangfang
/ʃˠiɪm/
Pan
Wuyun
/ʃᵚim/
Shao
Rongfen
/ʃiem/
Edwin
Pulleyblank
/ʂjim/
Li
Rong
/ʃjəm/
Wang
Li
/ʃĭĕm/
Bernard
Karlgren
/ʂi̯əm/
Expected
Mandarin
Reflex
shēn
Baxter-Sagart system 1.1 (2014)
Character
Reading # 4/4
Modern
Beijing
(Pinyin)
shēn
Middle
Chinese
‹ srim ›
Old
Chinese
/*srum/ (should be *s.rum)
English the constellation Orion’ (named for the three stars in Orion’s belt)

Notes for Old Chinese notations in the Baxter-Sagart system:

* Parentheses "()" indicate uncertain presence;
* Square brackets "[]" indicate uncertain identity, e.g. *[t] as coda may in fact be *-t or *-p;
* Angle brackets "<>" indicate infix;
* Hyphen "-" indicates morpheme boundary;

* Period "." indicates syllable boundary.
Zhengzhang system (2003)
Character
Reading # 5/5
No. 1108
Phonetic
component
Rime
group
Rime
subdivision
3
Corresponding
MC rime
Old
Chinese
/*srum/

Definitions[edit]

  1. (~宿) (Chinese astronomy) Three Stars mansion (one of the Twenty-Eight Mansions)
  2. A surname​.

Compounds[edit]

Etymology 2[edit]

trad. /
simp.
alt. forms
EB1911 - Volume 01 - Page 001 - 1.svg This entry lacks etymological information. If you are familiar with the origin of this term, please add it to the page per etymology instructions. You can also discuss it at the Etymology scriptorium.

Pronunciation[edit]


Rime
Character
Reading # 1/5
Initial () (21)
Final () (140)
Tone (調) Level (Ø)
Openness (開合) Open
Division () Chongniu III
Fanqie
Reconstructions
Zhengzhang
Shangfang
/ʃˠiɪm/
Pan
Wuyun
/ʃᵚim/
Shao
Rongfen
/ʃiem/
Edwin
Pulleyblank
/ʂjim/
Li
Rong
/ʃjəm/
Wang
Li
/ʃĭĕm/
Bernard
Karlgren
/ʂi̯əm/
Expected
Mandarin
Reflex
shēn

Definitions[edit]

  1. ginseng or any other similar plant
  2. Short for 海參海参 (hǎishēn, “sea cucumber”).

Compounds[edit]

Etymology 3[edit]

trad.
simp.
alt. forms

EB1911 - Volume 01 - Page 001 - 1.svg This entry lacks etymological information. If you are familiar with the origin of this term, please add it to the page per etymology instructions. You can also discuss it at the Etymology scriptorium.
Particularly: “derived from 三? related to 審?”

Pronunciation[edit]


Note: cam1 - rare.

Rime
Character
Reading # 3/5
Initial () (14)
Final () (159)
Tone (調) Level (Ø)
Openness (開合) Open
Division () I
Fanqie
Reconstructions
Zhengzhang
Shangfang
/t͡sʰʌm/
Pan
Wuyun
/t͡sʰəm/
Shao
Rongfen
/t͡sʰɒm/
Edwin
Pulleyblank
/t͡sʰəm/
Li
Rong
/t͡sʰᴀm/
Wang
Li
/t͡sʰɒm/
Bernard
Karlgren
/t͡sʰăm/
Expected
Mandarin
Reflex
cān
Baxter-Sagart system 1.1 (2014)
Character
Reading # 1/4
Modern
Beijing
(Pinyin)
cān
Middle
Chinese
‹ tshom ›
Old
Chinese
/*[tsʰ]ˤ[u]m/
English accumulate

Notes for Old Chinese notations in the Baxter-Sagart system:

* Parentheses "()" indicate uncertain presence;
* Square brackets "[]" indicate uncertain identity, e.g. *[t] as coda may in fact be *-t or *-p;
* Angle brackets "<>" indicate infix;
* Hyphen "-" indicates morpheme boundary;

* Period "." indicates syllable boundary.
Zhengzhang system (2003)
Character
Reading # 1/5
No. 1081
Phonetic
component
Rime
group
Rime
subdivision
3
Corresponding
MC rime
Old
Chinese
/*sʰluːm/

Definitions[edit]

  1. three objects in a group
  2. to pair up
  3. to equate
  4. to mix
  5. to be spread out; to be displayed
  6. to join
  7. to study; to discuss; to understand
  8. to inspect and verify
  9. to face
  10. to greet
  11. to refer; to consult
  12. to visit; to pay one's respect to
  13. to impeach
  14. high
  15. a unit of weight
  16. Alternative form of (cān).

Compounds[edit]

Etymology 4[edit]

For pronunciation and definitions of – see (“three”).
(This character, , is a variant form of .)

Etymology 5[edit]

trad.
simp.
alt. forms

Related to (OC *zraːm, *zraːmʔ, “craggy”) (Schuessler, 2007).

Pronunciation[edit]


Note: cam1 - rare.

Rime
Character
Reading # 2/5
Initial () (19)
Final () (140)
Tone (調) Level (Ø)
Openness (開合) Open
Division () Chongniu III
Fanqie
Reconstructions
Zhengzhang
Shangfang
/t͡ʃʰˠiɪm/
Pan
Wuyun
/ʈ͡ʂʰᵚim/
Shao
Rongfen
/t͡ʃʰiem/
Edwin
Pulleyblank
/ʈ͡ʂʰjim/
Li
Rong
/t͡ʃʰjəm/
Wang
Li
/t͡ʃʰĭĕm/
Bernard
Karlgren
/ʈ͡ʂʰi̯əm/
Expected
Mandarin
Reflex
chēn
Baxter-Sagart system 1.1 (2014)
Character
Reading # 2/4
Modern
Beijing
(Pinyin)
cēn
Middle
Chinese
‹ tsrhim ›
Old
Chinese
/*[tsʰr][u]m/
English 參差 tsrhim.tsrhje uneven

Notes for Old Chinese notations in the Baxter-Sagart system:

* Parentheses "()" indicate uncertain presence;
* Square brackets "[]" indicate uncertain identity, e.g. *[t] as coda may in fact be *-t or *-p;
* Angle brackets "<>" indicate infix;
* Hyphen "-" indicates morpheme boundary;

* Period "." indicates syllable boundary.
Zhengzhang system (2003)
Character
Reading # 4/5
No. 1103
Phonetic
component
Rime
group
Rime
subdivision
3
Corresponding
MC rime
Old
Chinese
/*sʰrum/
Notes

Definitions[edit]

  1. Only used in 參差参差 (cēncī) and 參錯参错.
Derived terms[edit]

Etymology 6[edit]

For pronunciation and definitions of – see (“a genre of drum music”).
(This character, , is a variant form of .)

Etymology 7[edit]

For pronunciation and definitions of – see (“mixed; impure”).
(This character, , is a variant form of .)

Japanese[edit]

Shinjitai

Kyūjitai

Kanji[edit]

(uncommon “Hyōgai” kanjikyūjitai kanji, shinjitai form )

  1. three

Readings[edit]


Korean[edit]

Hanja[edit]

(cham, sam) (hangeul , , revised cham, sam, McCune-Reischauer ch'am, sam, Yale cham, sam)

  1. This term needs a translation to English. Please help out and add a translation, then remove the text {{rfdef}}.

Vietnamese[edit]

Han character[edit]

(tham, sâm)

  1. This term needs a translation to English. Please help out and add a translation, then remove the text {{rfdef}}.