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U+53C3, 參
CJK UNIFIED IDEOGRAPH-53C3

[U+53C2]
CJK Unified Ideographs
[U+53C4]
U+F96B, 參
CJK COMPATIBILITY IDEOGRAPH-F96B

[U+F96A]
CJK Compatibility Ideographs
[U+F96C]

Translingual[edit]

Traditional
Simplified
Japanese
Korean

Han character[edit]

(Kangxi radical 28, +9, 11 strokes, cangjie input 戈戈戈竹 (IIIH), four-corner 23202, composition )

Derived characters[edit]

Descendants[edit]

References[edit]

  • Kangxi Dictionary: page 164, character 28
  • Dai Kanwa Jiten: character 3098
  • Dae Jaweon: page 372, character 28
  • Hanyu Da Zidian (first edition): volume 1, page 387, character 23
  • Unihan data for U+53C3

Chinese[edit]

Glyph origin[edit]

Historical forms of the character
Western Zhou Shuowen Jiezi (compiled in Han) Liushutong (compiled in Ming)
Bronze inscriptions Small seal script Transcribed ancient scripts

Simplified from ().

The bronze script form is an ideogrammic compound (會意会意): (stars) + (light; brightness) + (light rays)Three Stars mansion. (OC *sroːm, *slom) also acts as a phonetic component. Ignoring the lines connecting the three stars, may be interpreted as (“kneeling person”), representing someone looking at the shining stars above him.

Alternatively, it may be the original character of (OC *ʔsɯːm, *ʔsrɯm, “hairpin”), since the bronze script forms resemble a person wearing a hat with three stars.

Based on the seal script form, Shuowen interprets the character as a phono-semantic compound (形聲形声, OC *sʰluːm, *sʰluːms, *sloːm, *sʰrum, *srum): semantic (stars) + phonetic ().

Etymology 1[edit]

trad.
simp.
alternative forms


From (OC *suːm, *suːms, “three”) + other element (Schuessler, 2007).

Pronunciation[edit]



Rime
Character
Reading # 1/5
Initial () (21)
Final () (140)
Tone (調) Level (Ø)
Openness (開合) Open
Division () III
Fanqie
Baxter srim
Reconstructions
Zhengzhang
Shangfang
/ʃˠiɪm/
Pan
Wuyun
/ʃᵚim/
Shao
Rongfen
/ʃiem/
Edwin
Pulleyblank
/ʂjim/
Li
Rong
/ʃjəm/
Wang
Li
/ʃĭĕm/
Bernard
Karlgren
/ʂi̯əm/
Expected
Mandarin
Reflex
shēn
Expected
Cantonese
Reflex
sam1
BaxterSagart system 1.1 (2014)
Character
Reading # 4/4
Modern
Beijing
(Pinyin)
shēn
Middle
Chinese
‹ srim ›
Old
Chinese
/*srum/ (should be *s.rum)
English the constellation Orion’ (named for the three stars in Orion’s belt)

Notes for Old Chinese notations in the Baxter–Sagart system:

* Parentheses "()" indicate uncertain presence;
* Square brackets "[]" indicate uncertain identity, e.g. *[t] as coda may in fact be *-t or *-p;
* Angle brackets "<>" indicate infix;
* Hyphen "-" indicates morpheme boundary;

* Period "." indicates syllable boundary.
Zhengzhang system (2003)
Character
Reading # 5/5
No. 1108
Phonetic
component
Rime
group
Rime
subdivision
3
Corresponding
MC rime
Old
Chinese
/*srum/

Definitions[edit]

Wikipedia has articles on:
  1. (~宿) (Chinese astronomy) Three Stars mansion (one of the Twenty-Eight Mansions)
  2. a surname

Compounds[edit]

Etymology 2[edit]

trad. /*
simp.
alternative forms

Related to Japhug zrɤm (root), Yakkha साम (root) (Jacques, 2015b).

Pronunciation[edit]



Rime
Character
Reading # 1/5
Initial () (21)
Final () (140)
Tone (調) Level (Ø)
Openness (開合) Open
Division () III
Fanqie
Baxter srim
Reconstructions
Zhengzhang
Shangfang
/ʃˠiɪm/
Pan
Wuyun
/ʃᵚim/
Shao
Rongfen
/ʃiem/
Edwin
Pulleyblank
/ʂjim/
Li
Rong
/ʃjəm/
Wang
Li
/ʃĭĕm/
Bernard
Karlgren
/ʂi̯əm/
Expected
Mandarin
Reflex
shēn
Expected
Cantonese
Reflex
sam1

Definitions[edit]

  1. ginseng or any other similar plant
  2. Short for 海參海参 (hǎishēn, “sea cucumber”).
Synonyms[edit]
  • (ginseng):

Compounds[edit]

Etymology 3[edit]

trad.
simp.
alternative forms


𠫵

(This etymology is missing or incomplete. Please add to it, or discuss it at the Etymology scriptorium. Particularly: “derived from 三? related to 審?”)

Pronunciation[edit]


Note: cam1 - rare.
Note: cang1 - Chenghai.

Rime
Character
Reading # 3/5
Initial () (14)
Final () (159)
Tone (調) Level (Ø)
Openness (開合) Open
Division () I
Fanqie
Baxter tshom
Reconstructions
Zhengzhang
Shangfang
/t͡sʰʌm/
Pan
Wuyun
/t͡sʰəm/
Shao
Rongfen
/t͡sʰɒm/
Edwin
Pulleyblank
/t͡sʰəm/
Li
Rong
/t͡sʰᴀm/
Wang
Li
/t͡sʰɒm/
Bernard
Karlgren
/t͡sʰăm/
Expected
Mandarin
Reflex
cān
Expected
Cantonese
Reflex
caam1
BaxterSagart system 1.1 (2014)
Character
Reading # 1/4
Modern
Beijing
(Pinyin)
cān
Middle
Chinese
‹ tshom ›
Old
Chinese
/*[tsʰ]ˁ[u]m/
English accumulate

Notes for Old Chinese notations in the Baxter–Sagart system:

* Parentheses "()" indicate uncertain presence;
* Square brackets "[]" indicate uncertain identity, e.g. *[t] as coda may in fact be *-t or *-p;
* Angle brackets "<>" indicate infix;
* Hyphen "-" indicates morpheme boundary;

* Period "." indicates syllable boundary.
Zhengzhang system (2003)
Character
Reading # 1/5
No. 1081
Phonetic
component
Rime
group
Rime
subdivision
3
Corresponding
MC rime
Old
Chinese
/*sʰluːm/

Definitions[edit]

  1. to join; to take part
      ―  cānjūn  ―  to join the army
  2. to consult
      ―  cānyuè  ―  to refer to
      ―  cānzhào  ―  to consult and follow
  3. (literary) to examine; to inspect
  4. (literary) to investigate and understand
      ―  cāntòu  ―  to thoroughly understand
  5. to pay visit to a superior
      ―  cānbài  ―  to make a formal visit to
  6. (historical) to impeach an official before the emperor
  7. (literary) to form a trio with two other things

Compounds[edit]

Etymology 4[edit]

trad. /
simp.

Pronunciation[edit]



Rime
Character
Reading # 4/5
Initial () (16)
Final () (143)
Tone (調) Level (Ø)
Openness (開合) Open
Division () I
Fanqie
Baxter sam
Reconstructions
Zhengzhang
Shangfang
/sɑm/
Pan
Wuyun
/sɑm/
Shao
Rongfen
/sɑm/
Edwin
Pulleyblank
/sam/
Li
Rong
/sɑm/
Wang
Li
/sɑm/
Bernard
Karlgren
/sɑm/
Expected
Mandarin
Reflex
sān
Expected
Cantonese
Reflex
saam1
BaxterSagart system 1.1 (2014)
Character
Reading # 3/4
Modern
Beijing
(Pinyin)
sān
Middle
Chinese
‹ sam ›
Old
Chinese
/*s.rum/ (*s.r- > s-; infl. by 四 *s-?)
English three

Notes for Old Chinese notations in the Baxter–Sagart system:

* Parentheses "()" indicate uncertain presence;
* Square brackets "[]" indicate uncertain identity, e.g. *[t] as coda may in fact be *-t or *-p;
* Angle brackets "<>" indicate infix;
* Hyphen "-" indicates morpheme boundary;

* Period "." indicates syllable boundary.
Zhengzhang system (2003)
Character
Reading # 3/5
No. 1094
Phonetic
component
Rime
group
Rime
subdivision
3
Corresponding
MC rime
Old
Chinese
/*sloːm/

Definitions[edit]

  1. (obsolete or financial) Alternative form of (three)
See also[edit]
Chinese numbers
0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 102 103 104 106 108 1012
Normal
(小寫小写)
, , , , ,
十千 (Malaysia, Singapore)
百萬百万,
(Philippines),
面桶 (Philippines)
亿 (Taiwan)
萬億万亿 (Mainland China)
Financial
(大寫大写)

Compounds[edit]

Etymology 5[edit]

trad.
simp.
alternative forms

Related to (OC *zraːm, *zraːmʔ, “craggy”) (Schuessler, 2007).

Pronunciation[edit]


Note: cam1 - rare.

Rime
Character
Reading # 2/5
Initial () (19)
Final () (140)
Tone (調) Level (Ø)
Openness (開合) Open
Division () III
Fanqie
Baxter tsrhim
Reconstructions
Zhengzhang
Shangfang
/t͡ʃʰˠiɪm/
Pan
Wuyun
/ʈ͡ʂʰᵚim/
Shao
Rongfen
/t͡ʃʰiem/
Edwin
Pulleyblank
/ʈ͡ʂʰjim/
Li
Rong
/t͡ʃʰjəm/
Wang
Li
/t͡ʃʰĭĕm/
Bernard
Karlgren
/ʈ͡ʂʰi̯əm/
Expected
Mandarin
Reflex
chēn
Expected
Cantonese
Reflex
cam1
BaxterSagart system 1.1 (2014)
Character
Reading # 2/4
Modern
Beijing
(Pinyin)
cēn
Middle
Chinese
‹ tsrhim ›
Old
Chinese
/*[tsʰr][u]m/
English 參差 tsrhim.tsrhje uneven

Notes for Old Chinese notations in the Baxter–Sagart system:

* Parentheses "()" indicate uncertain presence;
* Square brackets "[]" indicate uncertain identity, e.g. *[t] as coda may in fact be *-t or *-p;
* Angle brackets "<>" indicate infix;
* Hyphen "-" indicates morpheme boundary;

* Period "." indicates syllable boundary.
Zhengzhang system (2003)
Character
Reading # 4/5
No. 1103
Phonetic
component
Rime
group
Rime
subdivision
3
Corresponding
MC rime
Old
Chinese
/*sʰrum/
Notes

Definitions[edit]

  1. Only used in 參差参差 (cēncī) and 參錯参错 (cēncuò).

Compounds[edit]

Etymology 6[edit]

trad.
simp.
alternative forms
𫎺

Pronunciation[edit]


Definitions[edit]

  1. (Siyi Cantonese) clever; capable; competent; powerful
Synonyms[edit]

Etymology 7[edit]

trad.
simp.

From English ransom (Cheung, 2007, page 219).

Pronunciation[edit]

Definitions[edit]

  1. (Cantonese) hostage (Classifier: c)
Synonyms[edit]
Compounds[edit]

Etymology 8[edit]

For pronunciation and definitions of – see (“càn, type of drum music”).
(This character, , is a variant form of ).

Etymology 9[edit]

For pronunciation and definitions of – see (“mixed; impure”).
(This character, , is a variant form of ).

Japanese[edit]

Shinjitai

Kyūjitai

Kanji[edit]

(uncommon “Hyōgai” kanjikyūjitai kanji, shinjitai form )

  1. three

Readings[edit]

Korean[edit]

Etymology 1[edit]

From Middle Chinese (MC tshom, “add; influence; join”).

Historical Readings
Dongguk Jeongun Reading
Dongguk Jeongun, 1448 (Yale: chàm)
Middle Korean
Text Eumhun
Gloss (hun) Reading
Sinjeung Yuhap, 1576 참예 (Yale: chamyey) (Yale: cham)
Early Modern Korean
Text Final (韻) Reading
Samun Seonghwi, 1751 (cham)

Pronunciation[edit]

Hanja[edit]

Korean Wikisource has texts containing the hanja:

Wikisource

(eumhun 참여할 (chamyeohal cham))

  1. Hanja form? of (to join; to participate). [affix]

Compounds[edit]

Etymology 2[edit]

From Middle Chinese (MC tsrhim, “jagged; uneven”).

Historical Readings
Dongguk Jeongun Reading
Dongguk Jeongun, 1448 ᄎᆞᆷ (Yale: chòm)
Early Modern Korean
Text Final (韻) Reading
Samun Seonghwi, 1751 ᄎᆞᆷ (cham)

Pronunciation[edit]

Hanja[edit]

(eumhun 들쭉날쭉할 (deuljjungnaljjukhal cham))

  1. (literary) Hanja form? of (jagged; uneven).

Compounds[edit]

Etymology 3[edit]

From Middle Chinese (MC srim, “Three Stars mansion”).

Historical Readings
Dongguk Jeongun Reading
Dongguk Jeongun, 1448 ᄉᆞᆷ (Yale: sòm)
Early Modern Korean
Text Final (韻) Reading
Samun Seonghwi, 1751 ᄉᆞᆷ (sam)

Pronunciation[edit]

Hanja[edit]

(eumhun 이름 (byeol ireum sam))

  1. Hanja form? of ((Chinese astronomy) Three Stars mansion (one of the Twenty-Eight Mansions)).

Compounds[edit]

Etymology 4[edit]

From Middle Chinese (MC sam, “three”).

Hanja[edit]

(eumhun (seok sam))

  1. (financial) Alternative form of (Hanja form? of (three).)

References[edit]

  • 국제퇴계학회 대구경북지부 (國際退溪學會 大邱慶北支部) (2007). Digital Hanja Dictionary, 전자사전/電子字典. [1]

Vietnamese[edit]

Han character[edit]

: Hán Nôm readings: tham

  1. This term needs a translation to English. Please help out and add a translation, then remove the text {{rfdef}}.