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Translingual[edit]

shinjitai

simplified

traditional

Alternative forms[edit]

Etymology[edit]

Historical forms of the character
Bronze inscriptions Large seal script Small seal script
參-bronze.svg 參-bigseal.svg 參-seal.svg

Simplified from ().

Han character[edit]

(radical 28 +9, 11 strokes, cangjie input 戈戈戈竹 (IIIH), four-corner 23202, composition𠫯)

  1. take part in, intervene
  2. three
  3. uneven
  4. name of a constellation
  5. second syllable of ginseng (renshen) and Codonopsis pilosula (dangshen)

References[edit]

  • KangXi: page 164, character 28
  • Dai Kanwa Jiten: character 3098
  • Dae Jaweon: page 372, character 28
  • Hanyu Da Zidian: volume 1, page 387, character 23
  • Unihan data for U+53C3

Chinese[edit]

trad.
simp.

Pronunciation[edit]


Middle Chinese pronunciation (, reconstructed)
Character (), Pronunciation 1/5

Initial: (21)
Final: (140)
Tone: Level (Ø)

Openness: Open
Division: Chongniu III
Fanqie:

Expected Mandarin reflex: shēn
Zhengzhang
Shangfang
Pan
Wuyun
Shao
Rongfen
Edwin
Pulleyblank
Li
Rong
Wang
Li
Bernard
Karlgren
/ʃɣiɪm/ /ʃɯim/ /ʃiem/ /ʂjim/ /ʃjəm/ /ʃĭĕm/ /ʂi̯əm/
Character (), Pronunciation 2/5

Initial: (19)
Final: (140)
Tone: Level (Ø)

Openness: Open
Division: Chongniu III
Fanqie:

Expected Mandarin reflex: chēn
Zhengzhang
Shangfang
Pan
Wuyun
Shao
Rongfen
Edwin
Pulleyblank
Li
Rong
Wang
Li
Bernard
Karlgren
/t͡ʃʰɣiɪm/ /ʈ͡ʂʰɯim/ /t͡ʃʰiem/ /ʈ͡ʂʰjim/ /t͡ʃʰjəm/ /t͡ʃʰĭĕm/ /ʈ͡ʂʰi̯əm/
Character (), Pronunciation 3/5

Initial: (14)
Final: (159)
Tone: Level (Ø)

Openness: Open
Division: I
Fanqie:

Expected Mandarin reflex: cān
Zhengzhang
Shangfang
Pan
Wuyun
Shao
Rongfen
Edwin
Pulleyblank
Li
Rong
Wang
Li
Bernard
Karlgren
/t͡sʰʌm/ /t͡sʰəm/ /t͡sʰɒm/ /t͡sʰəm/ /t͡sʰᴀm/ /t͡sʰɒm/ /t͡sʰăm/
Character (), Pronunciation 4/5

Initial: (16)
Final: (143)
Tone: Level (Ø)

Openness: Open
Division: I
Fanqie:

Expected Mandarin reflex: sān
Zhengzhang
Shangfang
Pan
Wuyun
Shao
Rongfen
Edwin
Pulleyblank
Li
Rong
Wang
Li
Bernard
Karlgren
/sɑm/ /sɑm/ /sɑm/ /sam/ /sɑm/ /sɑm/ /sɑm/
Character (), Pronunciation 5/5

Initial: (14)
Final: (159)
Tone: Departing (H)

Openness: Open
Division: I
Fanqie:

Expected Mandarin reflex: càn
Zhengzhang
Shangfang
Pan
Wuyun
Shao
Rongfen
Edwin
Pulleyblank
Li
Rong
Wang
Li
Bernard
Karlgren
/t͡sʰʌmH/ /t͡sʰəmH/ /t͡sʰɒmH/ /t͡sʰəmH/ /t͡sʰᴀmH/ /t͡sʰɒmH/ /t͡sʰămH/
Old Chinese pronunciation (, reconstructed)
Baxter-Sagart system 1.1 (2014)
Character Modern Beijing
(Pinyin)
Middle Chinese Old Chinese English
cān ‹ tshom › /r̥ˤəʔ/ accumulate
cēn ‹ tsrhim › /*[tsʰr][u]m/ 參差 tsrhim.tsrhje uneven
sān ‹ sam › /*s.rum (*s.r- > s-; infl. by 四 *s-?)/ three
shēn ‹ srim › /*srum (should be *s.rum)/ the constellation Orion’ (named for the three stars in Orion’s belt)

Notes for Old Chinese notations in the Baxter-Sagart system:

  • Parentheses "()" indicate uncertain presence;
  • Square brackets "[]" indicate uncertain identity, e.g. *[t] as coda may in fact be *-t or *-p;
  • Angle brackets "<>" indicate infix;
  • Hyphen "-" indicates morpheme boundary;
  • Period "." indicates syllable boundary.
Zhengzhang system (2003)
Character No. Phonetic
component
Rime
group
Rime
subdivision
Corresponding
MC rime
Old Chinese Notes
1081 3 /*sʰluːm/
1088 3 /*sʰluːms/
1094 3 /*sloːm/
1103 3 /*sʰrum/
1108 3 /*srum/

Definitions[edit]

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Compounds[edit]


Japanese[edit]

Kanji[edit]

(uncommon “Hyōgai” kanjikyūjitai kanji, shinjitai form )

  1. three

Readings[edit]


Korean[edit]

Hanja[edit]

‎(cham, sam) (hangeul , , revised cham, sam, McCune-Reischauer ch'am, sam, Yale cham, sam)

  1. This entry needs a definition. Please add one, then remove {{defn}}.

Vietnamese[edit]

Han character[edit]

(tham, sâm)

  1. This entry needs a definition. Please add one, then remove {{defn}}.