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Translingual[edit]

Shinjitai
Simplified
Traditional

Alternative forms[edit]

Etymology[edit]

Historical forms of the character
Bronze inscriptions Large seal script Small seal script
參-bronze.svg 參-bigseal.svg 參-seal.svg

Simplified from ().

Han character[edit]

(radical 28 +9, 11 strokes, cangjie input 戈戈戈竹 (IIIH), four-corner 23202, composition𠫯)

  1. take part in, intervene
  2. three
  3. uneven
  4. name of a constellation
  5. second syllable of ginseng (renshen) and Codonopsis pilosula (dangshen)

References[edit]

  • KangXi: page 164, character 28
  • Dai Kanwa Jiten: character 3098
  • Dae Jaweon: page 372, character 28
  • Hanyu Da Zidian: volume 1, page 387, character 23
  • Unihan data for U+53C3

Chinese[edit]

trad.
simp.

Pronunciation[edit]



  • Middle Chinese: /ʃˠiɪm/, /t͡ʃʰˠiɪm/, /t͡sʰʌm/, /sɑm/, /t͡sʰʌmH/
Rime
Character
Reading # 1/5 2/5 3/5 4/5 5/5
Initial () (21) (19) (14) (16) (14)
Final () (140) (140) (159) (143) (159)
Tone (調) Level (Ø) Level (Ø) Level (Ø) Level (Ø) Departing (H)
Openness (開合) Open Open Open Open Open
Division () Chongniu III Chongniu III I I I
Fanqie
Reconstructions
Zhengzhang
Shangfang
/ʃˠiɪm/ /t͡ʃʰˠiɪm/ /t͡sʰʌm/ /sɑm/ /t͡sʰʌmH/
Pan
Wuyun
/ʃᵚim/ /ʈ͡ʂʰᵚim/ /t͡sʰəm/ /sɑm/ /t͡sʰəmH/
Shao
Rongfen
/ʃiem/ /t͡ʃʰiem/ /t͡sʰɒm/ /sɑm/ /t͡sʰɒmH/
Edwin
Pulleyblank
/ʂjim/ /ʈ͡ʂʰjim/ /t͡sʰəm/ /sam/ /t͡sʰəmH/
Li
Rong
/ʃjəm/ /t͡ʃʰjəm/ /t͡sʰᴀm/ /sɑm/ /t͡sʰᴀmH/
Wang
Li
/ʃĭĕm/ /t͡ʃʰĭĕm/ /t͡sʰɒm/ /sɑm/ /t͡sʰɒmH/
Bernard
Karlgren
/ʂi̯əm/ /ʈ͡ʂʰi̯əm/ /t͡sʰăm/ /sɑm/ /t͡sʰămH/
Expected
Mandarin
Reflex
shēn chēn cān sān càn
Baxter-Sagart system 1.1 (2014)
Character
Reading # 1/4 2/4 3/4 4/4
Modern
Beijing
(Pinyin)
cān cēn sān shēn
Middle
Chinese
‹ tshom › ‹ tsrhim › ‹ sam › ‹ srim ›
Old
Chinese
/*r̥ˤəʔ/ /*[tsʰr][u]m/ /*s.rum/ (*s.r- > s-; infl. by 四 *s-?) /*srum/ (should be *s.rum)
English accumulate 參差 tsrhim.tsrhje uneven three the constellation Orion’ (named for the three stars in Orion’s belt)

Notes for Old Chinese notations in the Baxter-Sagart system:

* Parentheses "()" indicate uncertain presence;
* Square brackets "[]" indicate uncertain identity, e.g. *[t] as coda may in fact be *-t or *-p;
* Angle brackets "<>" indicate infix;
* Hyphen "-" indicates morpheme boundary;

* Period "." indicates syllable boundary.
Zhengzhang system (2003)
Character
Reading # 1/5 2/5 3/5 4/5 5/5
No. 1081 1088 1094 1103 1108
Phonetic
component
Rime
group
Rime
subdivision
3 3 3 3 3
Corresponding
MC rime
Old
Chinese
/*sʰluːm/ /*sʰluːms/ /*sloːm/ /*sʰrum/ /*srum/
Notes

Definitions[edit]

  1. This term needs a translation to English. Please help out and add a translation, then remove the text {{rfdef}}.

Compounds[edit]


Japanese[edit]

Kanji[edit]

(uncommon “Hyōgai” kanjikyūjitai kanji, shinjitai form )

  1. three

Readings[edit]


Korean[edit]

Hanja[edit]

‎(cham, sam) (hangeul , , revised cham, sam, McCune-Reischauer ch'am, sam, Yale cham, sam)

  1. This term needs a translation to English. Please help out and add a translation, then remove the text {{rfdef}}.

Vietnamese[edit]

Han character[edit]

(tham, sâm)

  1. This term needs a translation to English. Please help out and add a translation, then remove the text {{rfdef}}.