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U+53C3, 參
CJK UNIFIED IDEOGRAPH-53C3

[U+53C2]
CJK Unified Ideographs
[U+53C4]
See also: , , and

Translingual[edit]

Shinjitai
Simplified
Traditional

Han character[edit]

(radical 28 +9, 11 strokes, cangjie input 戈戈戈竹 (IIIH), four-corner 23202, composition𠫯)

  1. take part in, intervene
  2. three
  3. uneven
  4. name of a constellation
  5. second syllable of ginseng (renshen) and Codonopsis pilosula (dangshen)

References[edit]

  • KangXi: page 164, character 28
  • Dai Kanwa Jiten: character 3098
  • Dae Jaweon: page 372, character 28
  • Hanyu Da Zidian: volume 1, page 387, character 23
  • Unihan data for U+53C3

Chinese[edit]

trad.
simp.
alt. forms


Glyph origin[edit]

Historical forms of the character
Bronze inscriptions Large seal script Small seal script
參-bronze.svg 參-bigseal.svg 參-seal.svg
Characters in the same phonetic series () (Zhengzhang, 2003) 
Old Chinese
*ʔsluːm, *ʔsluːms
*sʰluːm, *sʰluːms, *sloːm, *sʰrum, *srum
*sʰluːm
*sʰluːm, *sʰluːmʔ
*sʰluːmʔ
*sʰluːmʔ, *sʰloːmʔ
*sʰluːms
毿 *sluːm
*sluːm, *srum
*sluːm, *sru, *srɯu
*sluːmʔ
*sluːmʔ, *sʰrum, *srum, *srumʔ
*sloːm
*sruːm, *sruːmʔ
*sruːmʔ, *sʰrumʔ
縿 *sroːm
*sroːm
*sʰrum
*sʰrumʔ
*sʰrumʔ
*srum
*srumʔ
*srums

Simplified from ().

Phonetik.svg This entry needs pronunciation information. If you are familiar with the IPA then please add some!

Etymology 1[edit]

Pronunciation 1[edit]


Rime
Character
Reading # 1/5
Initial () (21)
Final () (140)
Tone (調) Level (Ø)
Openness (開合) Open
Division () Chongniu III
Fanqie
Reconstructions
Zhengzhang
Shangfang
/ʃˠiɪm/
Pan
Wuyun
/ʃᵚim/
Shao
Rongfen
/ʃiem/
Edwin
Pulleyblank
/ʂjim/
Li
Rong
/ʃjəm/
Wang
Li
/ʃĭĕm/
Bernard
Karlgren
/ʂi̯əm/
Expected
Mandarin
Reflex
shēn
Baxter-Sagart system 1.1 (2014)
Character
Reading # 4/4
Modern
Beijing
(Pinyin)
shēn
Middle
Chinese
‹ srim ›
Old
Chinese
/*srum/ (should be *s.rum)
English the constellation Orion’ (named for the three stars in Orion’s belt)

Notes for Old Chinese notations in the Baxter-Sagart system:

* Parentheses "()" indicate uncertain presence;
* Square brackets "[]" indicate uncertain identity, e.g. *[t] as coda may in fact be *-t or *-p;
* Angle brackets "<>" indicate infix;
* Hyphen "-" indicates morpheme boundary;

* Period "." indicates syllable boundary.
Zhengzhang system (2003)
Character
Reading # 1/5
No. 1081
Phonetic
component
Rime
group
Rime
subdivision
3
Corresponding
MC rime
Old
Chinese
/*sʰluːm/
Definitions[edit]

  1. see 參宿
  2. ginseng, or other similar medicine
  3. Short for 海參海参 (hǎishēn).
  4. A surname​.
Derived terms[edit]

Pronunciation 2[edit]


Rime
Character
Reading # 4/5
Initial () (16)
Final () (143)
Tone (調) Level (Ø)
Openness (開合) Open
Division () I
Fanqie
Reconstructions
Zhengzhang
Shangfang
/sɑm/
Pan
Wuyun
/sɑm/
Shao
Rongfen
/sɑm/
Edwin
Pulleyblank
/sam/
Li
Rong
/sɑm/
Wang
Li
/sɑm/
Bernard
Karlgren
/sɑm/
Expected
Mandarin
Reflex
sān
Baxter-Sagart system 1.1 (2014)
Character
Reading # 3/4
Modern
Beijing
(Pinyin)
sān
Middle
Chinese
‹ sam ›
Old
Chinese
/*s.rum/ (*s.r- > s-; infl. by 四 *s-?)
English three

Notes for Old Chinese notations in the Baxter-Sagart system:

* Parentheses "()" indicate uncertain presence;
* Square brackets "[]" indicate uncertain identity, e.g. *[t] as coda may in fact be *-t or *-p;
* Angle brackets "<>" indicate infix;
* Hyphen "-" indicates morpheme boundary;

* Period "." indicates syllable boundary.
Zhengzhang system (2003)
Character
Reading # 3/5
No. 1094
Phonetic
component
Rime
group
Rime
subdivision
3
Corresponding
MC rime
Old
Chinese
/*sloːm/
Definitions[edit]

  1. financial form of ; 3

Pronunciation 3[edit]



Rime
Character
Reading # 3/5
Initial () (14)
Final () (159)
Tone (調) Level (Ø)
Openness (開合) Open
Division () I
Fanqie
Reconstructions
Zhengzhang
Shangfang
/t͡sʰʌm/
Pan
Wuyun
/t͡sʰəm/
Shao
Rongfen
/t͡sʰɒm/
Edwin
Pulleyblank
/t͡sʰəm/
Li
Rong
/t͡sʰᴀm/
Wang
Li
/t͡sʰɒm/
Bernard
Karlgren
/t͡sʰăm/
Expected
Mandarin
Reflex
cān
Baxter-Sagart system 1.1 (2014)
Character
Reading # 1/4
Modern
Beijing
(Pinyin)
cān
Middle
Chinese
‹ tshom ›
Old
Chinese
/*r̥ˤəʔ/
English accumulate

Notes for Old Chinese notations in the Baxter-Sagart system:

* Parentheses "()" indicate uncertain presence;
* Square brackets "[]" indicate uncertain identity, e.g. *[t] as coda may in fact be *-t or *-p;
* Angle brackets "<>" indicate infix;
* Hyphen "-" indicates morpheme boundary;

* Period "." indicates syllable boundary.
Zhengzhang system (2003)
Character
Reading # 2/5
No. 1088
Phonetic
component
Rime
group
Rime
subdivision
3
Corresponding
MC rime
Old
Chinese
/*sʰluːms/
Definitions[edit]

  1. three objects in a group
  2. to pair up
  3. to equate
  4. to mix
  5. to join
  6. to research
  7. to inspect and verify
  8. to face
  9. to formally call on
  10. to impeach
  11. to spread out
  12. to send a greeting
  13. high
  14. Alternative form of (cān).
Derived terms[edit]

Pronunciation 4[edit]



Rime
Character
Reading # 2/5
Initial () (19)
Final () (140)
Tone (調) Level (Ø)
Openness (開合) Open
Division () Chongniu III
Fanqie
Reconstructions
Zhengzhang
Shangfang
/t͡ʃʰˠiɪm/
Pan
Wuyun
/ʈ͡ʂʰᵚim/
Shao
Rongfen
/t͡ʃʰiem/
Edwin
Pulleyblank
/ʈ͡ʂʰjim/
Li
Rong
/t͡ʃʰjəm/
Wang
Li
/t͡ʃʰĭĕm/
Bernard
Karlgren
/ʈ͡ʂʰi̯əm/
Expected
Mandarin
Reflex
chēn
Baxter-Sagart system 1.1 (2014)
Character
Reading # 2/4
Modern
Beijing
(Pinyin)
cēn
Middle
Chinese
‹ tsrhim ›
Old
Chinese
/*[tsʰr][u]m/
English 參差 tsrhim.tsrhje uneven

Notes for Old Chinese notations in the Baxter-Sagart system:

* Parentheses "()" indicate uncertain presence;
* Square brackets "[]" indicate uncertain identity, e.g. *[t] as coda may in fact be *-t or *-p;
* Angle brackets "<>" indicate infix;
* Hyphen "-" indicates morpheme boundary;

* Period "." indicates syllable boundary.
Zhengzhang system (2003)
Character
Reading # 4/5
No. 1103
Phonetic
component
Rime
group
Rime
subdivision
3
Corresponding
MC rime
Old
Chinese
/*sʰrum/
Notes
Definitions[edit]

  1. see 參差
Derived terms[edit]

Etymology 2[edit]

For pronunciation and definitions of – see .
(This character, , is a variant form of .)

Etymology 3[edit]

For pronunciation and definitions of – see .
(This character, , is a variant form of .)

Japanese[edit]

Kanji[edit]

(uncommon “Hyōgai” kanjikyūjitai kanji, shinjitai form )

  1. three

Readings[edit]


Korean[edit]

Hanja[edit]

(cham, sam) (hangeul , , revised cham, sam, McCune-Reischauer ch'am, sam, Yale cham, sam)

  1. This term needs a translation to English. Please help out and add a translation, then remove the text {{rfdef}}.

Vietnamese[edit]

Han character[edit]

(tham, sâm)

  1. This term needs a translation to English. Please help out and add a translation, then remove the text {{rfdef}}.