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U+88AB, 被
CJK UNIFIED IDEOGRAPH-88AB

[U+88AA]
CJK Unified Ideographs
[U+88AC]

Translingual[edit]

Han character[edit]

(radical 145 +5, 11 strokes, cangjie input 中木竹水 (LDHE), four-corner 34247, composition)

References[edit]

  • KangXi: page 1115, character 10
  • Dai Kanwa Jiten: character 34222
  • Dae Jaweon: page 1580, character 26
  • Hanyu Da Zidian: volume 5, page 3085, character 11
  • Unihan data for U+88AB

Chinese[edit]

simp. and trad.

Glyph origin[edit]

Characters in the same phonetic series () (Zhengzhang, 2003) 
Old Chinese
pral, *prals
pral, *prals
pralʔ
pralʔ
pralʔ, *prals
prals
prals, *paːlʔ
pʰral, *pʰralʔ
pʰral
pʰral, *pʰrals
pʰral
pʰral
pʰral
pʰral
pʰral, *brals
pʰral, *pʰrals
pʰralʔ, *paːl
bral
bral
bralʔ, *brals
brals
brals
mbralʔ
paːl
paːl, *baːl
paːl
paːlʔ, *paːls
paːlʔ, *pʰaːlʔ
pʰaːl, *pʰaːlʔ, *pʰaːls
pʰaːl
pʰaːl
pʰaːls
baːl
baːl

Phono-semantic compound (形聲, OC *bralʔ, *brals): semantic  (clothing) + phonetic  (OC *bral).

Etymology[edit]

EB1911 - Volume 01 - Page 001 - 1.svg This entry lacks etymological information. If you are familiar with the origin of this term, please add it to the page per etymology instructions. You can also discuss it at the Etymology scriptorium.
Particularly: “needs info on semantic development: "blanket" to passive”

Pronunciation 1[edit]


Note: colloquial reading.
Note: colloquial reading.
Note: colloquial reading.
Note: colloquial reading.
Note: colloquial reading.

Rime
Character
Reading # 1/2
Initial () (3)
Final () (13)
Tone (調) Rising (X)
Openness (開合) Open
Division () Chongniu III
Fanqie
Reconstructions
Zhengzhang
Shangfang
/bˠiᴇX/
Pan
Wuyun
/bᵚiɛX/
Shao
Rongfen
/biɛX/
Edwin
Pulleyblank
/bjiə̆X/
Li
Rong
/bjeX/
Wang
Li
/bǐeX/
Bernard
Karlgren
/bʱie̯X/
Expected
Mandarin
Reflex
Baxter-Sagart system 1.1 (2014)
Character
Reading # 1/4 2/4
Modern
Beijing
(Pinyin)
bèi bèi
Middle
Chinese
‹ bjeX › ‹ bjeH ›
Old
Chinese
/*m-pʰ(r)ajʔ/ /*m-pʰ(r)ajʔ-s/
English coverlet cover (v.)

Notes for Old Chinese notations in the Baxter-Sagart system:

* Parentheses "()" indicate uncertain presence;
* Square brackets "[]" indicate uncertain identity, e.g. *[t] as coda may in fact be *-t or *-p;
* Angle brackets "<>" indicate infix;
* Hyphen "-" indicates morpheme boundary;

* Period "." indicates syllable boundary.
Zhengzhang system (2003)
Character
Reading # 1/2 2/2
No. 9713 9715
Phonetic
component
Rime
group
Rime
subdivision
1 1
Corresponding
MC rime
Old
Chinese
/*bralʔ/ /*brals/

Definitions[edit]

  1. bedding; quilt; blanket (Classifier: )
    •   ―  bèizi  ―  quilt
    •   ―  bèi  ―  bedding, bedclothes
    • /   ―  diànbèi  ―  mattress
  2. to cover

Pronunciation 2[edit]


Note: literary reading.
Note: literary reading.
Note: literary reading.
Note: literary reading.
Note: literary reading.

Rime
Character
Reading # 1/2
Initial () (3)
Final () (13)
Tone (調) Rising (X)
Openness (開合) Open
Division () Chongniu III
Fanqie
Reconstructions
Zhengzhang
Shangfang
/bˠiᴇX/
Pan
Wuyun
/bᵚiɛX/
Shao
Rongfen
/biɛX/
Edwin
Pulleyblank
/bjiə̆X/
Li
Rong
/bjeX/
Wang
Li
/bǐeX/
Bernard
Karlgren
/bʱie̯X/
Expected
Mandarin
Reflex
Baxter-Sagart system 1.1 (2014)
Character
Reading # 1/4 2/4
Modern
Beijing
(Pinyin)
bèi bèi
Middle
Chinese
‹ bjeX › ‹ bjeH ›
Old
Chinese
/*m-pʰ(r)ajʔ/ /*m-pʰ(r)ajʔ-s/
English coverlet cover (v.)

Notes for Old Chinese notations in the Baxter-Sagart system:

* Parentheses "()" indicate uncertain presence;
* Square brackets "[]" indicate uncertain identity, e.g. *[t] as coda may in fact be *-t or *-p;
* Angle brackets "<>" indicate infix;
* Hyphen "-" indicates morpheme boundary;

* Period "." indicates syllable boundary.
Zhengzhang system (2003)
Character
Reading # 1/2 2/2
No. 9713 9715
Phonetic
component
Rime
group
Rime
subdivision
1 1
Corresponding
MC rime
Old
Chinese
/*bralʔ/ /*brals/

Definitions[edit]

  1. to suffer; to sustain (loss, misfortune, etc.)
  2. by
    • 蚊子  ―  bèi wénzi yǎo le.  ―  I got bitten by mosquitoes.
  3. Used before a verb to indicate passive voice.
  4. A surname​.
Usage notes[edit]
  • In a passive-voice sentence, is placed after the subject and before the doer of the action. The doer of the action is placed before the verb or can be omitted.
Synonyms[edit]
Dialectal synonyms of (“by; passive marker”) [map]
Variety Location Words
Formal (Written Standard Chinese)
Mandarin Beijing
Taiwan
Jinan
Xi'an
Wuhan 把得
Chengdu
Yangzhou
Hefei
Cantonese Guangzhou
Hong Kong
Taishan
Yangjiang
Gan Nanchang
Hakka Meixian
Xingning
Huidong
Qujiang
Xiaosanjiang
Changting
Pingyu
Wuping
Liancheng
Ninghua
Ruijin
Shicheng
Shangyou
Miaoli (N. Sixian)
Liudui (S. Sixian)
Hsinchu (Hailu)
Dongshi (Dabu)
Zhuolan (Raoping)
Yunlin (Zhao'an)
Jin Taiyuan
Min Bei Jian'ou
Min Dong Fuzhou
Min Nan Xiamen
Quanzhou
Zhangzhou
Taipei
Kaohsiung
Tainan
Taichung
Hsinchu
Lukang
Sanxia
Yilan
Kinmen
Magong
Chaozhou
Wu Suzhou 撥勒
Wenzhou
Xiang Changsha
Shuangfeng

Pronunciation 3[edit]


Baxter-Sagart system 1.1 (2014)
Character
Reading # 3/4
Modern
Beijing
(Pinyin)
Middle
Chinese
‹ phje ›
Old
Chinese
/*mə-pʰ(r)aj/
English cover oneself with

Notes for Old Chinese notations in the Baxter-Sagart system:

* Parentheses "()" indicate uncertain presence;
* Square brackets "[]" indicate uncertain identity, e.g. *[t] as coda may in fact be *-t or *-p;
* Angle brackets "<>" indicate infix;
* Hyphen "-" indicates morpheme boundary;

* Period "." indicates syllable boundary.

Definitions[edit]

  1. Alternative form of (, “to cover oneself”).

Pronunciation 4[edit]


Rime
Character
Reading # 2/2
Initial () (3)
Final () (13)
Tone (調) Departing (H)
Openness (開合) Open
Division () Chongniu III
Fanqie
Reconstructions
Zhengzhang
Shangfang
/bˠiᴇH/
Pan
Wuyun
/bᵚiɛH/
Shao
Rongfen
/biɛH/
Edwin
Pulleyblank
/bjiə̆H/
Li
Rong
/bjeH/
Wang
Li
/bǐeH/
Bernard
Karlgren
/bʱie̯H/
Expected
Mandarin
Reflex
Zhengzhang system (2003)
Character
Reading # 2/2
No. 9715
Phonetic
component
Rime
group
Rime
subdivision
1
Corresponding
MC rime
Old
Chinese
/*brals/

Definitions[edit]

  1. Alternative form of (“wig”).
  2. Alternative form of (, “that”).

Pronunciation 5[edit]


Baxter-Sagart system 1.1 (2014)
Character
Reading # 4/4
Modern
Beijing
(Pinyin)
Middle
Chinese
‹ phjeH ›
Old
Chinese
/*pʰ(r)aj-s/
English cloak

Notes for Old Chinese notations in the Baxter-Sagart system:

* Parentheses "()" indicate uncertain presence;
* Square brackets "[]" indicate uncertain identity, e.g. *[t] as coda may in fact be *-t or *-p;
* Angle brackets "<>" indicate infix;
* Hyphen "-" indicates morpheme boundary;

* Period "." indicates syllable boundary.

Definitions[edit]

  1. Alternative form of .

Compounds[edit]


Japanese[edit]

Kanji[edit]

(common “Jōyō” kanji)

Readings[edit]

Compounds[edit]

Etymology 1[edit]

Kanji in this term

Grade: S
on’yomi

From Middle Chinese (bjeH, to cover), from the term's use in Chinese as a passive marker.

Pronunciation[edit]

Prefix[edit]

(hiragana , rōmaji hi-)

  1. -ee: marks the passive recipient of an action, as the -ee in English employee
     ()害者 (がいしゃ)
    higaisha
    victim (one who is harmed)

Etymology 2[edit]

Kanji in this term
おおい
Grade: S
kun’yomi

The 連用形 (ren'yōkei, continuative or stem form) of verb 被う (ōu, to cover).[1][2]

Pronunciation[edit]

Noun[edit]

(hiragana おおい, rōmaji ōi, historical hiragana おほい)

  1. a covering
  2. the act of covering something
  3. (by extension) a protector or patron

References[edit]

  1. ^ 1988, 国語大辞典(新装版) (Kokugo Dai Jiten, Revised Edition) (in Japanese), Tōkyō: Shogakukan
  2. 2.0 2.1 2.2 2006, 大辞林 (Daijirin), Third Edition (in Japanese), Tōkyō: Sanseidō, ISBN 4-385-13905-9

Korean[edit]

Hanja[edit]

(pi) (hangeul , revised pi, McCune-Reischauer p'i, Yale phi)

  1. This term needs a translation to English. Please help out and add a translation, then remove the text {{rfdef}}.

Vietnamese[edit]

Han character[edit]

(bị, bệ, bỡ, bự, bợ)

  1. This term needs a translation to English. Please help out and add a translation, then remove the text {{rfdef}}.