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U+88AB, 被
CJK UNIFIED IDEOGRAPH-88AB

[U+88AA]
CJK Unified Ideographs
[U+88AC]

Translingual[edit]

Han character[edit]

(radical 145, +5, 10 strokes, cangjie input 中木竹水 (LDHE), four-corner 34247, composition)

References[edit]

  • KangXi: page 1115, character 10
  • Dai Kanwa Jiten: character 34222
  • Dae Jaweon: page 1580, character 26
  • Hanyu Da Zidian (first edition): volume 5, page 3085, character 11
  • Unihan data for U+88AB

Chinese[edit]

simp. and trad.

Glyph origin[edit]

Phono-semantic compound (形聲, OC *bralʔ, *brals): semantic  (clothing) + phonetic  (OC *bral).

Etymology[edit]

Cognate with (). The meaning of passive marker is an extension of "to wear; to be covered by something".

Pronunciation 1[edit]


Note: colloquial reading.
Note: colloquial reading.
Note: colloquial reading.
Note: colloquial reading.
Note: colloquial reading.
Note: colloquial reading.

Rime
Character
Reading # 1/2
Initial () (3)
Final () (13)
Tone (調) Rising (X)
Openness (開合) Open
Division () Chongniu III
Fanqie
Reconstructions
Zhengzhang
Shangfang
/bˠiᴇX/
Pan
Wuyun
/bᵚiɛX/
Shao
Rongfen
/biɛX/
Edwin
Pulleyblank
/bjiə̆X/
Li
Rong
/bjeX/
Wang
Li
/bǐeX/
Bernard
Karlgren
/bʱie̯X/
Expected
Mandarin
Reflex
BaxterSagart system 1.1 (2014)
Character
Reading # 1/4 2/4
Modern
Beijing
(Pinyin)
bèi bèi
Middle
Chinese
‹ bjeX › ‹ bjeH ›
Old
Chinese
/*m-pʰ(r)ajʔ/ /*m-pʰ(r)ajʔ-s/
English coverlet cover (v.)

Notes for Old Chinese notations in the Baxter–Sagart system:

* Parentheses "()" indicate uncertain presence;
* Square brackets "[]" indicate uncertain identity, e.g. *[t] as coda may in fact be *-t or *-p;
* Angle brackets "<>" indicate infix;
* Hyphen "-" indicates morpheme boundary;

* Period "." indicates syllable boundary.
Zhengzhang system (2003)
Character
Reading # 1/2
No. 9713
Phonetic
component
Rime
group
Rime
subdivision
1
Corresponding
MC rime
Old
Chinese
/*bralʔ/

Definitions[edit]

  1. bedding; quilt; blanket (Classifier: c;  mn)
      ―  bèizi  ―  quilt
      ―  bèi  ―  bedding, bedclothes
    /   ―  diànbèi  ―  mattress
  2. to cover

Pronunciation 2[edit]


Note: literary reading.
Note: literary reading.
Note: literary reading.
Note: literary reading.
Note: literary reading.
Note: literary reading.

Rime
Character
Reading # 1/2
Initial () (3)
Final () (13)
Tone (調) Rising (X)
Openness (開合) Open
Division () Chongniu III
Fanqie
Reconstructions
Zhengzhang
Shangfang
/bˠiᴇX/
Pan
Wuyun
/bᵚiɛX/
Shao
Rongfen
/biɛX/
Edwin
Pulleyblank
/bjiə̆X/
Li
Rong
/bjeX/
Wang
Li
/bǐeX/
Bernard
Karlgren
/bʱie̯X/
Expected
Mandarin
Reflex
BaxterSagart system 1.1 (2014)
Character
Reading # 1/4 2/4
Modern
Beijing
(Pinyin)
bèi bèi
Middle
Chinese
‹ bjeX › ‹ bjeH ›
Old
Chinese
/*m-pʰ(r)ajʔ/ /*m-pʰ(r)ajʔ-s/
English coverlet cover (v.)

Notes for Old Chinese notations in the Baxter–Sagart system:

* Parentheses "()" indicate uncertain presence;
* Square brackets "[]" indicate uncertain identity, e.g. *[t] as coda may in fact be *-t or *-p;
* Angle brackets "<>" indicate infix;
* Hyphen "-" indicates morpheme boundary;

* Period "." indicates syllable boundary.
Zhengzhang system (2003)
Character
Reading # 1/2
No. 9713
Phonetic
component
Rime
group
Rime
subdivision
1
Corresponding
MC rime
Old
Chinese
/*bralʔ/

Definitions[edit]

  1. to suffer; to sustain (loss, misfortune, etc.)
  2. by
    蚊子  ―  bèi wénzi yǎo le.  ―  I got bitten by mosquitoes.
  3. Used before a verb to indicate passive voice, often with a negative connotation.
    /   ―  Wǒ de biǎo bèi tōu le.  ―  My watch has been stolen.
    我們汽車尾巴撞壞 [MSC, trad.]
    我们汽车尾巴撞坏 [MSC, simp.]
    Wǒmen de qìchē wěiba bèi zhuànghuài le. [Pinyin]
    The rear end of our car was smashed.
  4. (neologism) passively
    自殺 / 自杀  ―  bèi zìshā  ―  to "be suicided"; to be killed by the authorities who then pass one's death off as suicide
    就業 / 就业  ―  bèi jiùyè  ―  to "be employed"; to falsify a graduate's employment status
  5. A surname​.
Usage notes[edit]
  • In a passive-voice sentence, is placed after the subject and before the doer of the action. The doer of the action is placed before the verb or can be omitted.
Synonyms[edit]

Pronunciation 3[edit]



BaxterSagart system 1.1 (2014)
Character
Reading # 3/4
Modern
Beijing
(Pinyin)
Middle
Chinese
‹ phje ›
Old
Chinese
/*mə-pʰ(r)aj/
English cover oneself with

Notes for Old Chinese notations in the Baxter–Sagart system:

* Parentheses "()" indicate uncertain presence;
* Square brackets "[]" indicate uncertain identity, e.g. *[t] as coda may in fact be *-t or *-p;
* Angle brackets "<>" indicate infix;
* Hyphen "-" indicates morpheme boundary;

* Period "." indicates syllable boundary.

Definitions[edit]

  1. Alternative form of (, “to cover oneself”).

Pronunciation 4[edit]



Rime
Character
Reading # 2/2
Initial () (3)
Final () (13)
Tone (調) Departing (H)
Openness (開合) Open
Division () Chongniu III
Fanqie
Reconstructions
Zhengzhang
Shangfang
/bˠiᴇH/
Pan
Wuyun
/bᵚiɛH/
Shao
Rongfen
/biɛH/
Edwin
Pulleyblank
/bjiə̆H/
Li
Rong
/bjeH/
Wang
Li
/bǐeH/
Bernard
Karlgren
/bʱie̯H/
Expected
Mandarin
Reflex
Zhengzhang system (2003)
Character
Reading # 2/2
No. 9715
Phonetic
component
Rime
group
Rime
subdivision
1
Corresponding
MC rime
Old
Chinese
/*brals/

Definitions[edit]

  1. Alternative form of (, “wig”).
  2. Alternative form of (, “that”).

Pronunciation 5[edit]



BaxterSagart system 1.1 (2014)
Character
Reading # 4/4
Modern
Beijing
(Pinyin)
Middle
Chinese
‹ phjeH ›
Old
Chinese
/*pʰ(r)aj-s/
English cloak

Notes for Old Chinese notations in the Baxter–Sagart system:

* Parentheses "()" indicate uncertain presence;
* Square brackets "[]" indicate uncertain identity, e.g. *[t] as coda may in fact be *-t or *-p;
* Angle brackets "<>" indicate infix;
* Hyphen "-" indicates morpheme boundary;

* Period "." indicates syllable boundary.

Definitions[edit]

  1. Alternative form of (pèi).

Compounds[edit]


Japanese[edit]

Kanji[edit]

(common “Jōyō” kanji)

Readings[edit]

Compounds[edit]

Etymology 1[edit]

Kanji in this term

Grade: S
on’yomi

From Middle Chinese (bjeH, to cover), from the term's use in Chinese as a passive marker.

Pronunciation[edit]

Prefix[edit]

() (hi-

  1. -ed, -ee (marks the passive recipient of an action)
    ()傭者(ようしゃ)
    hiyōsha
    employee
    ()験者(けんしゃ)
    hikensha
    examinee
    ()減数(げんすう)
    higensū
    minuend (number which is reduced)
    ()保護国(ほごこく)
    hihogokoku
    protectorate (protected nation)

Etymology 2[edit]

Kanji in this term
おおい
Grade: S
kun’yomi

The 連用形 (ren'yōkei, continuative or stem form) of verb 被う (ōu, to cover).[1][2]

Pronunciation[edit]

Noun[edit]

(おおい) (ōi (historical kana おほい)

  1. a covering
  2. the act of covering something
  3. (by extension) a protector or patron

References[edit]

  1. ^ 1988, 国語大辞典(新装版) (Kokugo Dai Jiten, Revised Edition) (in Japanese), Tōkyō: Shogakukan
  2. 2.0 2.1 2.2 2006, 大辞林 (Daijirin), Third Edition (in Japanese), Tōkyō: Sanseidō, →ISBN

Korean[edit]

Hanja[edit]

(pi) (hangeul , revised pi, McCune–Reischauer p'i, Yale phi)

  1. This term needs a translation to English. Please help out and add a translation, then remove the text {{rfdef}}.

Vietnamese[edit]

Han character[edit]

(bị, bệ, bỡ, bự, bợ)

  1. This term needs a translation to English. Please help out and add a translation, then remove the text {{rfdef}}.