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Translingual[edit]

Stroke order
了-order.gif

Etymology[edit]

Pictogram (象形) – an image of a baby wrapped in a blanket, with only the head visible. Compare with , where the arms are visible.

Han character[edit]

(radical 6 +1, 2 strokes, cangjie input 弓弓 (NN), four-corner 17207)

References[edit]

  • KangXi: page 85, character 11
  • Dai Kanwa Jiten: character 226
  • Dae Jaweon: page 173, character 20
  • Hanyu Da Zidian: volume 1, page 48, character 6
  • Unihan data for U+4E86

Chinese[edit]

simp. and trad.

Pronunciation[edit]


Middle Chinese pronunciation (, reconstructed)
Character (), Pronunciation 1/1

Initial: (37)
Final:
Division: IV

Openness: Open
Tone: Rising (X)

Fanqie:
Zhengzhang
Shangfang
Bernard
Karlgren
Li
Rong
Pan
Wuyun
Edwin
Pulleyblank
Wang
Li
Shao
Rongfen
/leuX/ /lieuX/ /leuX/ /leuX/ /lɛwX/ /lieuX/ /leuX/
Old Chinese pronunciation (, reconstructed)
Zhengzhang system (2003)
Character No. Phonetic
component
Rime
group
Rime
subdivision
Corresponding
MC rime
Old Chinese Notes
8067 2 /*reːwʔ/

Definitions[edit]

  1. (Beginning Mandarin) Used after a verb, indicate perfective aspect (action completion)
    蘋果 / 苹果  ―  Wǒ chī le zhè ge píngguǒ.  ―  I ate the apple.
    北京 / 北京  ―  Tā zài Běijīng zhù le liǎng nián.  ―  He lived in Beijing for two years.
  2. Used at the end of a sentence, indicate a change of state.
    大學生 / 大学生  ―  Tā shì dàxuéshēng le.  ―  He has become student / He is a student now.

Usage notes[edit]

  • (perfective aspect particle):
Most of the time, 了 is translated by a past tense. But it can also indicate that one action is completed before another.
以後告訴 / 以后告诉  ―  Nǐ chī le yǐhòu, gàosu wǒ.  ―  Tell me when you are done eating.
  • (change of state particle):
When used as the change of state particle, 了 can be translated by now, already or not anymore.
中文 / 中文  ―  Wǒ huì shuō zhōngwén le.  ―  I can speak Chinese now. (I couldn't before)
吃飯 / 吃饭  ―  Wǒ chīfàn le.  ―  I've eaten (already).
沒有 / 没有  ―  Méiyǒu zhǐ le.  ―  There's no paper anymore.
In a question, 了 is put before the particle (ma).

Pronunciation[edit]


Definitions[edit]

  1. to finish
  2. to understand
    /   ―  liǎojiě  ―  to understand, to realize

References[edit]

  • in CEDICT on MDBG
  • “Tatoeba”, in (Please provide the title of the work)[1], accessed 2014-02-13
  • “Change of state with "le"”, in Chinese Grammar Wiki[2], accessed 2014-02-13
  • “Expressing completion with "le"”, in Chinese Grammar Wiki[3], accessed 2014-02-13
  • “Expressing duration with "le"”, in Chinese Grammar Wiki[4], accessed 2014-02-13

Japanese[edit]

Kanji[edit]

(common “Jōyō” kanji)

  1. finish, complete

Readings[edit]

Compounds[edit]

Proper noun[edit]

‎(hiragana さとる, romaji Satoru)

  1. A male given name

Korean[edit]

Hanja[edit]

‎(ryo>yo) (hangeul >, revised ryo>yo, McCune-Reischauer ryo>yo, Yale lyo>yo)

  1. This entry needs a definition. Please add one, then remove {{defn}}.

Vietnamese[edit]

Han character[edit]

(liễu)

  1. This entry needs a definition. Please add one, then remove {{defn}}.