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Translingual[edit]

Stroke order
了-order.gif

Han character[edit]

(radical 6 +1, 2 strokes, cangjie input 弓弓 (NN), four-corner 17207, composition)

References[edit]

  • KangXi: page 85, character 11
  • Dai Kanwa Jiten: character 226
  • Dae Jaweon: page 173, character 20
  • Hanyu Da Zidian: volume 1, page 48, character 6
  • Unihan data for U+4E86

Chinese[edit]

trad. /
simp.
瞭 – sense “clear”

Glyph origin[edit]

Historical forms of the character



References:

Mostly from Richard Sears' Chinese Etymology site (authorisation),
which in turn draws data from various collections of ancient forms of Chinese characters, including:

  • Shuowen Jiezi (small seal),
  • Jinwen Bian (bronze inscriptions),
  • Liushutong (large seal) and
  • Xu Jiaguwen Bian (oracle bone script).

Pictogram (象形) – an image of a baby wrapped in a blanket, with only the head visible. Compare with , where the arms are visible.

Etymology[edit]

Pronunciation 1 is derived from weakening of Pronunciation 2 (“to finish”). Cognate with Thai แล้ว ‎(lɛ́ɛo, to be finished; already; then, afterwards), Lao ແລ້ວ ‎(lǣu, to finish; to be completed; perfective particle), Vietnamese rồi ‎(already).

Pronunciation 1[edit]


Definitions[edit]

  1. Used after a verb to indicate perfective aspect (action completion).
    蘋果 / 苹果  ―  Wǒ chī le yī ge pínguǒ.  ―  I ate an apple.
  2. Used at the end of a sentence to indicate a change of state.
    大學生 / 大学生  ―  Tā shì dàxuéshēng le.  ―  He has become a student / He is a student now.
Synonyms[edit]
Dialectal synonyms of (“perfective particle”)
Variety Location Words
Mandarin Beijing
Cantonese Guangzhou
Hong Kong
Taishan
Hakka Miaoli (N. Sixian)
Liudui (S. Sixian)
Hsinchu (Hailu)
Dongshi (Dabu)
Taiwanese Raoping
Yunlin (Zhao'an)
Min Nan Quanzhou
Xiamen
Taipei
Wu Wenzhou
Usage notes[edit]
  • (perfective aspect particle):
Most of the time, 了 is translated by a past tense. But it can also indicate that one action is completed before another.
以後 / 以后  ―  Nǐ chī le yǐhòu jiào wǒ.  ―  Call me when you are done eating.
  • (change of state particle):
When used as the change of state particle, 了 can be translated by “now”, “already” or “not anymore”.
中文 / 中文  ―  Wǒ huì shuō zhōngwén le.  ―  I can speak Chinese now. (I couldn't before)
吃飯 / 吃饭  ―  Wǒ chīfàn le.  ―  I've eaten (already).
沒有 / 没有  ―  Méiyǒu zhǐ le.  ―  There's no paper anymore.
In a question, 了 is put before the particle (ma).

Compounds[edit]

Pronunciation 2[edit]



Rime
Character
Reading # 1/1
Initial () (37)
Final () (93)
Tone (調) Rising (X)
Openness (開合) Open
Division () IV
Fanqie
Reconstructions
Zhengzhang
Shangfang
/leuX/
Pan
Wuyun
/leuX/
Shao
Rongfen
/leuX/
Edwin
Pulleyblank
/lɛwX/
Li
Rong
/leuX/
Wang
Li
/lieuX/
Bernard
Karlgren
/lieuX/
Expected
Mandarin
Reflex
liǎo
Zhengzhang system (2003)
Character
Reading # 1/1
No. 8067
Phonetic
component
Rime
group
Rime
subdivision
2
Corresponding
MC rime
Old
Chinese
/*reːwʔ/

Definitions[edit]

  1. to be finished; to be completed
  2. to end; to finish
  3. to understand; to comprehend
    /   ―  liǎojiě  ―  to understand, to realize
  4. clear; plain; understandable
  5. bright; intelligent; smart
  6. (in negative sentences) completely; utterly; entirely
  7. Used with () or (de) after verbs to express possibility.

Compounds[edit]


Japanese[edit]

Kanji[edit]

(common “Jōyō” kanji)

  1. finish, complete

Readings[edit]

Compounds[edit]

Proper noun[edit]

‎(hiragana さとる, romaji Satoru)

  1. A male given name

Korean[edit]

Hanja[edit]

‎(ryo>yo) (hangeul >, revised ryo>yo, McCune-Reischauer ryo>yo, Yale lyo>yo)

  1. This term needs a translation to English. Please help out and add a translation, then remove the text {{rfdef}}.

Vietnamese[edit]

Han character[edit]

(liễu)

  1. This term needs a translation to English. Please help out and add a translation, then remove the text {{rfdef}}.