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Translingual[edit]

Stroke order
了-order.gif

Han character[edit]

(radical 6 +1, 2 strokes, cangjie input 弓弓 (NN), four-corner 17207)

References[edit]

  • KangXi: page 85, character 11
  • Dai Kanwa Jiten: character 226
  • Dae Jaweon: page 173, character 20
  • Hanyu Da Zidian: volume 1, page 48, character 6
  • Unihan data for U+4E86

Chinese[edit]

simp. and trad.

Glyph origin[edit]

Pictogram (象形) – an image of a baby wrapped in a blanket, with only the head visible. Compare with , where the arms are visible.

Etymology[edit]

Pronunciation 1 is derived from weakening of Pronunciation 2 ("to finish"). Cognate with Thai แล้ว ‎(lɛ́ɛo, to be finished; already; then, afterwards), Lao ແລ້ວ ‎(luǣ, to finish; to be completed; perfective particle), Vietnamese rồi ‎(already).

Pronunciation 1[edit]


Definitions[edit]

  1. Used after a verb, indicate perfective aspect (action completion).
    蘋果 / 苹果  ―  Wǒ chī le zhè ge pínguǒ.  ―  I ate the apple.
    北京 / 北京  ―  Tā zài Běijīng zhù le liǎng nián.  ―  He lived in Beijing for two years.
  2. Used at the end of a sentence, indicate a change of state.
    大學生 / 大学生  ―  Tā shì dàxuéshēng le.  ―  He has become student / He is a student now.
Synonyms[edit]
Dialectal synonyms of ("perfective particle")
Variety Location Words
Mandarin Beijing
Cantonese Guangzhou
Hong Kong
Taishan
Min Nan Xiamen
Taipei
Wu Wenzhou
Usage notes[edit]

Pronunciation 2[edit]


Middle Chinese pronunciation (, reconstructed)
Character (), Pronunciation 1/1

Initial: (37)
Final: (93)
Tone: Rising (X)

Openness: Open
Division: IV
Fanqie:

Expected Mandarin reflex: liǎo
Zhengzhang
Shangfang
Pan
Wuyun
Shao
Rongfen
Edwin
Pulleyblank
Li
Rong
Wang
Li
Bernard
Karlgren
/leuX/ /leuX/ /leuX/ /lɛwX/ /leuX/ /lieuX/ /lieuX/
Old Chinese pronunciation (, reconstructed)
Zhengzhang system (2003)
Character No. Phonetic
component
Rime
group
Rime
subdivision
Corresponding
MC rime
Old Chinese Notes
8067 2 /*reːwʔ/

Definitions[edit]

  1. to finish, to be completed
  2. to understand
    /   ―  liǎojiě  ―  to understand, to realize
  3. intelligent, smart
  4. (in negative sentences) completely, utterly
  5. Used with () or (de) to express possibility.

Compounds[edit]


Japanese[edit]

Kanji[edit]

(common “Jōyō” kanji)

  1. finish, complete

Readings[edit]

Compounds[edit]

Proper noun[edit]

‎(hiragana さとる, romaji Satoru)

  1. A male given name

Korean[edit]

Hanja[edit]

‎(ryo>yo) (hangeul >, revised ryo>yo, McCune-Reischauer ryo>yo, Yale lyo>yo)

  1. This entry needs a definition. Please add one, then remove {{defn}}.

Vietnamese[edit]

Han character[edit]

(liễu)

  1. This entry needs a definition. Please add one, then remove {{defn}}.