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Translingual[edit]

Stroke order
了-bw.png
Stroke order
了-order.gif

Etymology[edit]

Pictogram (象形) – an image of a baby wrapped in a blanket, with only the head visible. Compare with , where the arms are visible.

Han character[edit]

(radical 6 +1, 2 strokes, cangjie input 弓弓 (NN), four-corner 17207)

References[edit]

  • KangXi: page 85, character 11
  • Dai Kanwa Jiten: character 226
  • Dae Jaweon: page 173, character 20
  • Hanyu Da Zidian: volume 1, page 48, character 6
  • Unihan data for U+4E86

Chinese[edit]

-
simp. and trad.

Pronunciation[edit]


Middle Chinese pronunciation (, reconstructed)
Character (了), Pronunciation 1/1

Initial: 來 (37)
Final: 蕭
Division: IV

Openness: Open
Tone: Rising (X)

Fanqie: 盧鳥切
Zhengzhang
Shangfang
Bernard
Karlgren
Li
Rong
Pan
Wuyun
Edwin
Pulleyblank
Wang
Li
Shao
Rongfen
/leuX/ /lieuX/ /leuX/ /leuX/ /lɛwX/ /lieuX/ /leuX/
Old Chinese pronunciation (, reconstructed)
Zhengzhang system (2003)
Character No. Phonetic
component
Rime
group
Rime
subdivision
Corresponding
MC rime
Old Chinese Notes
8067 2 /*reːwʔ/

Definitions[edit]

  1. (Beginning Mandarin) Used after a verb, indicate perfective aspect (action completion)
    蘋果 [MSC, trad.]
    苹果 [MSC, simp.]
    Wǒ chī le zhè ge píngguǒ. [Pinyin]
    I ate the apple.
  2. Used at the end of a sentence, indicate a change of state.
    大學生 [MSC, trad.]
    大学生 [MSC, simp.]
    Tā shì dàxuéshēng le. [Pinyin]
    He has become student / He is a student now
  3. (Used after a verb and followed by an amount of time, express duration) for
    北京 [MSC, trad.]
    北京 [MSC, simp.]
    Tā zài Běijīng zhù le liǎng nián. [Pinyin]
    He lived in Beijing for two years.

Usage notes[edit]

  • (perfective aspect particle):
Most of the time, 了 is translated by a past tense. But it can also indicate that one action is completed before another.
以後告訴 [MSC, trad.]
以后告诉 [MSC, simp.]
Nǐ chī le yǐhòu, gàosu wǒ. [Pinyin]
Tell me when you are done eating.
  • (change of state particle):
When used as the change of state particle, 了 can be translated by now, already or not anymore.
中文 [MSC, trad.]
中文 [MSC, simp.]
Wǒ huì shuō zhōngwén le. [Pinyin]
I can speak Chinese now. (I couldn't before)
吃飯 [MSC, trad.]
吃饭 [MSC, simp.]
Wǒ chīfàn le. [Pinyin]
I've eaten (already).
沒有 [MSC, trad.]
没有 [MSC, simp.]
Méiyǒu zhǐ le. [Pinyin]
There's no paper anymore.
In a question, 了 is put before the particle .

Pronunciation[edit]


Definitions[edit]

  1. to finish
  2. to understand
    瞭解了解 (liǎojiě) (to understand, to realize )

References[edit]


Japanese[edit]

Kanji[edit]

(common “Jōyō” kanji)

  1. finish, complete

Readings[edit]

Compounds[edit]

Proper noun[edit]

(hiragana さとる, romaji Satoru)

  1. A male given name

Korean[edit]

Hanja[edit]

(ryo>yo) (hangeul >, revised ryo>yo, McCune-Reischauer ryo>yo, Yale lyo>yo)

  1. This entry needs a definition. Please add one, then remove {{defn}}.

Vietnamese[edit]

Han character[edit]

(liễu)

  1. This entry needs a definition. Please add one, then remove {{defn}}.