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See also:
U+6557, 敗
CJK UNIFIED IDEOGRAPH-6557

[U+6556]
CJK Unified Ideographs
[U+6558]

Translingual[edit]

Han character[edit]

(radical 66, +7, 11 strokes, cangjie input 月金人大 (BCOK), four-corner 68840, composition)

References[edit]

  • KangXi: page 471, character 15
  • Dai Kanwa Jiten: character 13227
  • Dae Jaweon: page 824, character 2
  • Hanyu Da Zidian (first edition): volume 2, page 1462, character 2
  • Unihan data for U+6557

Chinese[edit]

trad.
simp.

Glyph origin[edit]

Historical forms of the character
Shuowen Jiezi (compiled in Han)
Small seal script
敗-seal.svg

Phono-semantic compound (形聲, OC *praːds, *braːds): phonetic (OC *paːds) + semantic (strike).

Pronunciation[edit]



  • Dialectal data
Variety Location
Mandarin Beijing /pai⁵¹/
Harbin /pai⁵³/
Tianjin /pai⁵³/
Jinan /pɛ²¹/
Qingdao /pɛ⁴²/
Zhengzhou /pai³¹²/
Xi'an /pai⁴⁴/
Xining /pɛ²¹³/
Yinchuan /pɛ¹³/
Lanzhou /pɛ¹³/
Ürümqi /pai²¹³/
Wuhan /pai³⁵/
Chengdu /pai¹³/
Guiyang /pai²¹³/
Kunming /pæ²¹²/
Nanjing /pae⁴⁴/
Hefei /pe̞⁵³/
Jin Taiyuan /pai⁴⁵/
Pingyao /pæ³⁵/
Hohhot /pɛ⁵⁵/
Wu Shanghai /ba²³/
Suzhou /bɑ³¹/
Hangzhou /be̞¹³/
Wenzhou /ba²²/
Hui Shexian /pʰa²²/
Tunxi /pʰa¹¹/
Xiang Changsha /pai⁵⁵/
/pai¹¹/
Xiangtan /bai²¹/
Gan Nanchang /pʰai²¹/
Hakka Meixian /pʰai⁵³/
Taoyuan /pʰɑi⁵⁵/
Cantonese Guangzhou /pai²²/
Nanning /pai²²/
Hong Kong /pai²²/
Min Xiamen (Min Nan) /pai²²/
Fuzhou (Min Dong) /pɑi²⁴²/
Jian'ou (Min Bei) /pai⁴⁴/
Shantou (Min Nan) /pai³¹/
Haikou (Min Nan) /ʔbai³³/ 失~
/ʔbai²³/

Rime
Character
Reading # 1/2 2/2
Initial () (3) (1)
Final () (29) (29)
Tone (調) Departing (H) Departing (H)
Openness (開合) Open Open
Division () II II
Fanqie
Reconstructions
Zhengzhang
Shangfang
/bˠaiH/ /pˠaiH/
Pan
Wuyun
/bᵚaiH/ /pᵚaiH/
Shao
Rongfen
/baiH/ /paiH/
Edwin
Pulleyblank
/baɨjsH/ /paɨjsH/
Li
Rong
/baiH/ /paiH/
Wang
Li
/bæiH/ /pæiH/
Bernard
Karlgren
/bʱaiH/ /paiH/
Expected
Mandarin
Reflex
bài bài
Expected
Cantonese
Reflex
baai6 baai3
BaxterSagart system 1.1 (2014)
Character
Reading # 1/2 2/2
Modern
Beijing
(Pinyin)
bài bài
Middle
Chinese
‹ bæjH › ‹ pæjH ›
Old
Chinese
/*N-pˁra[t]-s/ /*pˁra[t]-s/
English suffer defeat defeat (v.t.)

Notes for Old Chinese notations in the Baxter–Sagart system:

* Parentheses "()" indicate uncertain presence;
* Square brackets "[]" indicate uncertain identity, e.g. *[t] as coda may in fact be *-t or *-p;
* Angle brackets "<>" indicate infix;
* Hyphen "-" indicates morpheme boundary;

* Period "." indicates syllable boundary.
Zhengzhang system (2003)
Character
Reading # 1/2 2/2
No. 421 422
Phonetic
component
Rime
group
Rime
subdivision
1 1
Corresponding
MC rime
Old
Chinese
/*praːds/ /*braːds/

Definitions[edit]

  1. to lose (a game); to be defeated
  2. to fail; to decay
  3. (transitive) to defeat
  4. to destroy

Antonyms[edit]

  • (to lose): (shèng)
  • (to fail): (chéng)

See also[edit]

Compounds[edit]


Japanese[edit]

Kanji[edit]

(grade 4 “Kyōiku” kanji)

Readings[edit]

Counter[edit]

(はい) (-hai

  1. losses

Compounds[edit]


Korean[edit]

Etymology[edit]

From Middle Chinese (MC bˠaiH, pˠaiH).

Historical Readings
Dongguk Jeongun Reading
Dongguk Jeongun, 1448 뺑〮 (Yale: ppáy)
Middle Korean
Text Eumhun
Gloss (hun) Reading
Hunmong Jahoe, 1527[1] ᄒᆡ〮야〮딜 (Yale: hóyyátìl) 패〯 (Yale: phǎy)

Pronunciation[edit]

  • (SK Standard/Seoul) IPA(key): [pʰɛ(ː)] ~ [pʰe̞(ː)]
  • Phonetic hangeul: [(ː)/(ː)]
    • Long vowel distinction only applies at the initial position. Most speakers no longer distinguish vowel length at any position.

Hanja[edit]

Korean Wikisource has texts containing the hanja:

Wikisource

(eumhun (jil pae))

  1. Hanja form? of (defeat; loss). [noun]

Compounds[edit]

References[edit]

  • 국제퇴계학회 대구경북지부 (國際退溪學會 大邱慶北支部) (2007). Digital Hanja Dictionary, 전자사전/電子字典. [2]

Vietnamese[edit]

Han character[edit]

: Hán Nôm readings: bại, bậy

  1. This term needs a translation to English. Please help out and add a translation, then remove the text {{rfdef}}.