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See also:
U+6210, 成
CJK UNIFIED IDEOGRAPH-6210

[U+620F]
CJK Unified Ideographs
[U+6211]
U2f8b2.svg
成 U+2F8B2, 成
CJK COMPATIBILITY IDEOGRAPH-2F8B2
懶
[U+2F8B1]
CJK Compatibility Ideographs Supplement 戛
[U+2F8B3]

Translingual[edit]

Stroke order
成-order.gif

Han character[edit]

(Kangxi radical 62, +3, 6 strokes, cangjie input 戈竹尸 (IHS), four-corner 53200, composition𠃌)

Derived characters[edit]

References[edit]

  • KangXi: page 411, character 11
  • Dai Kanwa Jiten: character 11542
  • Dae Jaweon: page 752, character 17
  • Hanyu Da Zidian (first edition): volume 2, page 1399, character 1
  • Unihan data for U+6210

Chinese[edit]

simp. and trad.
alternative forms 𢦩

Glyph origin[edit]

Historical forms of the character
Shang Western Zhou Warring States Shuowen Jiezi (compiled in Han) Liushutong (compiled in Ming)
Oracle bone script Bronze inscriptions Chu slip and silk script Small seal script Transcribed ancient scripts
成-oracle.svg 成-bronze.svg 成-silk.svg 成-seal.svg 成-bigseal.svg

Phono-semantic compound (形聲, OC *djeŋ): semantic + phonetic (OC *rteːŋ, *teːŋ).

Etymology[edit]

Cognate with (OC *djeŋ, “to hold with a receptacle”), (OC *djeŋ, “city wall; city”), (OC *djeŋs, “abundant; flourishing”) (Schuessler, 2007).

According to Bodman (1980), cognate with Tibetan གྱང༌ (gyang, wall), Tibetan འགེངས་པ ('gengs pa, to fill), Tibetan བཀང༌ (bkang, to fill to the brim), Tibetan སྐོང་བ (skong ba, to fulfill).

Pronunciation[edit]


Note: chéngr - "one tenth".
Note:
  • sing4 - literary;
  • seng4 - vernacular;
  • cing4 - rare (e.g. 成數).
Note:
  • sen3 - literary;
  • siang3 - vernacular.
  • Gan
  • Hakka
  • Note:
    • sṳ̀n/sen2 - literary;
    • sàng/sang2 - vernacular.
  • Jin
  • Min Bei
  • Min Dong
  • Note:
    • chiàng - vernacular ("to help complete");
    • siàng - vernacular ("approximate number, post-verbal complement");
    • sìng - literary.
  • Min Nan
  • Note:
    • chhiâⁿ - vernacular in 成格 ;
    • chiâⁿ - vernacular ("almost", "to become");
    • siâⁿ - vernacular ("one tenth");
    • sêng - literary.
    • (Teochew)
      • Peng'im: cian5 / zian5 / sian5 / sêng5
      • Pe̍h-ōe-jī-like: tshiâⁿ / tsiâⁿ / siâⁿ / sêng
      • Sinological IPA (key): /t͡sʰĩã⁵⁵/, /t͡sĩã⁵⁵/, /sĩã⁵⁵/, /seŋ⁵⁵/
    Note:
    • cian5, zian5, sian5 - vernacular;
    • sêng5 - literary.
  • Wu
  • Xiang

    • Dialectal data
    Variety Location
    Mandarin Beijing /ʈ͡ʂʰəŋ³⁵/
    Harbin /ʈ͡ʂʰəŋ²⁴/
    Tianjin /ʈ͡ʂʰəŋ⁴⁵/
    /t͡sʰəŋ⁴⁵/
    Jinan /ʈ͡ʂʰəŋ⁴²/
    Qingdao /tʃʰəŋ⁴²/
    Zhengzhou /ʈ͡ʂʰəŋ⁴²/
    Xi'an /ʈ͡ʂʰəŋ²⁴/
    Xining /ʈ͡ʂʰə̃²⁴/
    Yinchuan /ʈ͡ʂʰəŋ⁵³/
    Lanzhou /ʈ͡ʂʰə̃n⁵³/
    Ürümqi /ʈ͡ʂʰɤŋ⁵¹/
    Wuhan /t͡sʰən²¹³/
    Chengdu /t͡sʰən³¹/
    Guiyang /t͡sʰen²¹/
    Kunming /ʈ͡ʂʰə̃¹/
    Nanjing /ʈ͡ʂʰən²⁴/
    Hefei /ʈ͡ʂʰən⁵⁵/
    Jin Taiyuan /t͡sʰəŋ¹¹/
    Pingyao /ʈ͡ʂʰəŋ¹³/
    Hohhot /t͡sʰə̃ŋ³¹/
    Wu Shanghai /zəŋ²³/
    Suzhou /zən¹³/
    Hangzhou /d͡zen²¹³/
    Wenzhou /zeŋ³¹/
    Hui Shexian /t͡ɕʰiʌ̃⁴⁴/
    Tunxi /ɕiɛ⁴⁴/
    Xiang Changsha /ʈ͡ʂən¹³/
    Xiangtan /ɖ͡ʐən¹²/
    Gan Nanchang /sɑŋ⁴⁵/ 現~
    /t͡sʰɑŋ²⁴/ 七八~
    Hakka Meixian /sən¹¹/ ~功
    /saŋ¹¹/ 唔~
    Taoyuan /ʃen¹¹/
    Cantonese Guangzhou /seŋ²¹/
    /sɛŋ²¹/
    Nanning /seŋ²¹/
    Hong Kong /siŋ²¹/
    Min Xiamen (Min Nan) /siŋ³⁵/
    /t͡siã³⁵/ ~人
    Fuzhou (Min Dong) /siaŋ⁵³/
    Jian'ou (Min Bei) /t͡sʰeiŋ²¹/
    /iaŋ²¹/
    Shantou (Min Nan) /seŋ⁵⁵/
    /siã⁵⁵/
    Haikou (Min Nan) /seŋ³¹/
    /t͡sia³¹/

    Rime
    Character
    Reading # 1/1
    Initial () (25)
    Final () (121)
    Tone (調) Level (Ø)
    Openness (開合) Open
    Division () III
    Fanqie
    Reconstructions
    Zhengzhang
    Shangfang
    /d͡ʑiᴇŋ/
    Pan
    Wuyun
    /d͡ʑiɛŋ/
    Shao
    Rongfen
    /d͡ʑiæŋ/
    Edwin
    Pulleyblank
    /d͡ʑiajŋ/
    Li
    Rong
    /ʑiɛŋ/
    Wang
    Li
    /ʑĭɛŋ/
    Bernard
    Karlgren
    /ʑi̯ɛŋ/
    Expected
    Mandarin
    Reflex
    chéng
    Expected
    Cantonese
    Reflex
    sing4
    BaxterSagart system 1.1 (2014)
    Character
    Reading # 1/2 2/2
    Modern
    Beijing
    (Pinyin)
    chéng chéng
    Middle
    Chinese
    ‹ dzyeng › ‹ dzyeng ›
    Old
    Chinese
    /*[d]eŋ/ /*m-[d]eŋ/
    English to become (v.i.) to complete (tr. v)

    Notes for Old Chinese notations in the Baxter–Sagart system:

    * Parentheses "()" indicate uncertain presence;
    * Square brackets "[]" indicate uncertain identity, e.g. *[t] as coda may in fact be *-t or *-p;
    * Angle brackets "<>" indicate infix;
    * Hyphen "-" indicates morpheme boundary;

    * Period "." indicates syllable boundary.
    Zhengzhang system (2003)
    Character
    Reading # 1/1
    No. 1417
    Phonetic
    component
    Rime
    group
    Rime
    subdivision
    0
    Corresponding
    MC rime
    Old
    Chinese
    /*djeŋ/
    Notes

    Definitions[edit]

    1. to succeed; to finish; to complete; to accomplish
      大功告  ―  dàgōnggàochéng  ―  (of a project, work, etc.) to be completed
      沒有什麼事情 [MSC, trad.]
      没有什么事情 [MSC, simp.]
      Méiyǒu qián shénme shìqíng dōu bàn bù chéng. [Pinyin]
      Without money nothing can be done.
      不了大事 [MSC, trad.]
      不了大事 [MSC, simp.]
      Zhè zhǒng rén chéng bùliǎo dàshì de. [Pinyin]
      These people are not able to accomplish anything significant.
    2. to help to achieve
        ―  chéngquán  ―  to help (somebody) succeed
    3. to become; to turn into
      衰變206衰变206  ―  shuāibiàn chéng qiān 206  ―  decay into 206Pb
      朋友朋友  ―  Liǎng rén chéng le péngyǒu.  ―  The two became friends.
      我們學生培養理想道德文化 [MSC, trad.]
      我们学生培养理想道德文化 [MSC, simp.]
      Wǒmen yào bǎ xuéshēng péiyǎng chéng yǒu lǐxiǎng, yǒu dàodé, yǒu wénhuà de rén. [Pinyin]
      We have to nurture students into people with ideals, morals and education.
      搵工 [Cantonese, trad.]
      揾工 [Cantonese, simp.]
      nei5 wan2 gung1 wan2 seng4 dim2 aa3? [Jyutping]
      How's the job hunting going?
      琴日蛋糕 [Cantonese, trad.]
      琴日蛋糕 [Cantonese, simp.]
      kam4 jat6 go3 daan6 gou1 zing2 seng4 dim2 aa3? [Jyutping]
      How did the cake from yesterday go?
    4. achievement; positive result
        ―  shǒuchéng  ―  to maintain the achievements of one's predecessors
      坐享其  ―  zuòxiǎngqíchéng  ―  to sit idle and enjoy the fruits of others' work
    5. (in compounds) fully developed; fully grown
        ―  chéngrén  ―  adult
        ―  chéngchóng  ―  imago
    6. fixed; ready-made
        ―  chéng  ―  chengyu (a certain kind of Chinese set phrase)
        ―  chéngjiàn  ―  preconceived idea; preconception
        ―  chéng  ―  ready-made clothes
    7. to reach a certain level; to amount to
      購買购买  ―  chéngpī gòumǎi  ―  to buy in batches
      千上萬千上万  ―  chéngqiānshàngwàn  ―  by the thousands and tens of thousands
        ―  chéngshuāngchéngduì  ―  forming pairs
    8. to be all right
        ―  Nǐ bù qù kě bù chéng.  ―  No, you must go.
    9. capable
    10. one tenth
        ―  sān chéng  ―  three tenths (30%)
      [Cantonese]  ―  ng5 sing4 bun3 [Jyutping]  ―  5.5 tenths (55%)
        ―  chéng jiǔ  ―  8.9 tenths (89%)
    11. 73rd tetragram of the Taixuanjing; "completion" (𝍎)
    12. (Cantonese) entire
      [Cantonese]  ―  seng4 faai3 juk6 [Jyutping]  ―  entire piece of meat
      [Cantonese]  ―  seng4 zek3 gau2 gam2 [Jyutping]  ―  entirely like a dog
      [Cantonese]  ―  seng4 gin6 si6 [Jyutping]  ―  the entire matter
    13. (Cantonese, Hokkien) almost; nearly; up to
      [Cantonese]  ―  gou1 zo2 seng4 sei3 cyun3 [Jyutping]  ―  grew almost four inches
      點鐘返屋企 [Cantonese, trad.]
      点钟返屋企 [Cantonese, simp.]
      From: 開放詞典 [Kaifang Cidian]
      seng4 jat1 dim2 zung1 zung6 m4 faan1 uk1 kei5 [Jyutping]
      nearly 1 o'clock, yet they won't return home
    14. a surname

    Synonyms[edit]

    Compounds[edit]


    Japanese[edit]

    Shinjitai U6210-j.svg
    Kyūjitai
    [1][2]

    成
    &#x2F8B2;
    or
    +&#xFE00;?
    U2f8b2.svg
    成󠄁
    +&#xE0101;?
    (Adobe-Japan1)
    成󠄃
    +&#xE0103;?
    (Hanyo-Denshi)
    (Moji_Joho)
    The displayed kanji may be different from the image due to your environment.
    See here for details.

    Kanji[edit]

    (grade 4 “Kyōiku” kanjishinjitai kanji, kyūjitai form 成)

    1. to become
    2. to do something

    Readings[edit]

    Compounds[edit]

    References[edit]

    1. ^ ”, in 漢字ぺディア (Kanjipedia)[1] (in Japanese), 日本漢字能力検定協会, 2015—2022
    2. ^ 1914, 漢和大辭書 (Kanwa Dai Jisho, “The Great Kanji-Japanese Dictionary”) (in Japanese), page 912 (paper), page 506 (digital), Tōkyō: 興文社 (Kōbunsha)

    Korean[edit]

    Hanja[edit]

    (eumhun 이룰 (irul seong))

    1. Hanja form? of (accomplishment).

    Compounds[edit]


    Vietnamese[edit]

    Han character[edit]

    : Hán Nôm readings: thành, thình

    1. This term needs a translation to English. Please help out and add a translation, then remove the text {{rfdef}}.

    References[edit]