son

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See also: Son, són, søn, and sơn

Contents

English[edit]

English Wikipedia has an article on:
Wikipedia

Alternative forms[edit]

Pronunciation[edit]

  • IPA(key): /sʌn/
  • (file)
  • (file)
  • Rhymes: -ʌn
  • Homophone: sun

Etymology 1[edit]

From Middle English sonn, sone, sun, sune, from Old English sunu (son), from Proto-Germanic *sunuz (son), from Proto-Indo-European *suHnús (son), from Proto-Indo-European *sewH- (to bear; give birth). Cognate with Scots son (son), Saterland Frisian Suun (son), West Frisian soan (son), Dutch zoon (son), Afrikaans seun (son), Low German sone, son (son), German Sohn (son), Danish søn (son), Swedish son (son), Icelandic sonur (son), Lithuanian sūnùs (son), Russian сын (syn, son), Avestan 𐬵𐬏𐬥𐬎𐬱 (hūnuš, son), Sanskrit सूनु (sūnú, son), Ancient Greek υἱύς (huiús), υἱός (huiós, son), Albanian çun (lad, boy, son), Armenian ուստր (ustr, son), Tocharian B soy, soṃśke (son).

Noun[edit]

English Wikipedia has an article on:
Wikipedia

son (plural sons)

  1. One's male offspring.
    Before the birth of the man's child, he said: "I want a son, not a daughter."
  2. A male adopted person in relation to his adoption parents.
  3. A male person who has such a close relationship with an older or otherwise more authoritative person that he can be regarded as a son of the other person.
  4. A male person considered to have been significantly shaped by some external influence.
    He was a son of the mafia system.
  5. A male descendant.
    The pharaohs were believed to be sons of the Sun.
  6. A familiar address to a male person from an older or otherwise more authoritative person.
  7. (Britain, colloquial) An informal address to a friend or person of equal authority.
Synonyms[edit]
Antonyms[edit]
Hypernyms[edit]
Derived terms[edit]
Translations[edit]

See son/translations § Noun.

Etymology 2[edit]

From Middle English sonen, sunen, from the noun (see above).

Verb[edit]

son (third-person singular simple present sons, present participle sonning, simple past and past participle sonned)

  1. (transitive) To produce (i.e. bear, father, beget) a son.
    • 1997, Noel Polk, Outside the Southern Myth:
      I sonned a father who would not be sonned, [...]
  2. (transitive) To address (someone) as "son".
    • 2005, Jerry Flesher, Tomorrow I'll Miss You:
      “Don't 'son' me.” “I'm old enough to be your father,” he said with a dismissive wave of his hand.
    • 2014, Stuart A. McKeever, Becoming Joey Fizz:
      “Son—now's not the time, please.” “It's the perfect time—it's the best time fucking time I ever had. There's not gonna be another time, so don't son me, you bastard. [...]”

Anagrams[edit]


Aromanian[edit]

Etymology[edit]

From Latin sonus. Compare Daco-Romanian sun.

Noun[edit]

son n (plural sonuri)

  1. sound

Related terms[edit]


Asturian[edit]

Verb[edit]

son

  1. third-person plural present indicative of ser

Azerbaijani[edit]

Other scripts
Cyrillic сон
Roman son
Perso-Arabic سون

Etymology[edit]

From Proto-Turkic *soŋ (back, end). Compare Turkish son below.

Pronunciation[edit]

Noun[edit]

son (definite accusative sonu, plural sonlar)

  1. end, ending
    sonda isə başa düşdük ki...
    but at the end we understood that...
    Filmin sonunda əsas personaj ölür.
    The main character dies at the end of the movie.
    Synonym: axır
    Antonym: baş

Declension[edit]

Derived terms[edit]


Catalan[edit]

Etymology 1[edit]

From Vulgar Latin sum, from Classical Latin suum.

Determiner[edit]

son m (feminine sa, masculine plural sos, feminine plural ses)

  1. his, her, its
  2. their
  3. your (alluding to vostè or vostès)
Usage notes[edit]

The use of son and the other possessive determiners is mostly archaic in the majority of dialects, with articulated possessive pronouns (e.g. el meu) mostly being used in their stead. However, mon, ton, and son are still widely used before certain nouns referring to family members and some affective nouns, such as amic, casa, and vida. Which nouns actually find use with the possessive determiners depends greatly on the locale.

The standard masculine plural form is sos, but sons can be found in some dialects.

See also[edit]

Etymology 2[edit]

From Old Occitan, from Latin somnus, from Proto-Indo-European *swépnos.

Alternative forms[edit]

  • so (Balearic)

Pronunciation[edit]

Noun[edit]

son m (plural sons)

  1. sleep

Noun[edit]

son f (plural sons)

  1. sleepiness
Derived terms[edit]

Related terms[edit]

Further reading[edit]


Danish[edit]

Verb[edit]

son

  1. imperative of sone

Faroese[edit]

Noun[edit]

son

  1. indefinite accusative singular of sonur

Finnish[edit]

Contraction[edit]

son

  1. (colloquial) Contraction of se on (it is).

French[edit]

Pronunciation[edit]

Etymology 1[edit]

From Old French son, suen, suon, from Latin sonus (the current form may be remade after or influenced by sonner).

Noun[edit]

son m (plural sons)

  1. sound
    Le son de ce piano est agréable.
    The sound of this piano is nice.
Derived terms[edit]

Related terms[edit]

Etymology 2[edit]

From Middle French son, from Old French son, from Vulgar Latin sum, a reduced/atonic variant of suus, suum, from Proto-Italic *sowos, from Proto-Indo-European *sewos, from *swé (self).

Determiner[edit]

son m (singular)

  1. (possessive) His, her, its (used to qualify masculine nouns and before a vowel).
    Elle a perdu son chapeau.
    She lost her hat.
    Il a perdu son chapeau.
    He lost his hat.
    J'aime son amie.
    I like her/his girlfriend.
    La décision a été prise pendant son absence.
    The decision was taken in his absence.
Related terms[edit]
Possessee
Singular Plural
Masculine Feminine
Possessor Singular First person mon1 ma mes
Second person ton1 ta tes
Third person son1 sa ses
Plural First person notre nos
Second person votre2 vos2
Third person leur leurs
1 Also used before feminine adjectives and nouns beginning with a vowel or mute h.
2 Also used as the polite singular form.

Etymology 3[edit]

From Latin secundus (presumably through an earlier Old French form *seon; cf. an attested Medieval Latin seonno, seonnum). Cognate with Catalan segó, Old Occitan segon. The meaning derives from the fact that bran results from a second sifting of flour. Doublet of second, a borrowing.

Noun[edit]

son m (plural sons)

  1. bran
    Ceci est du pain de son.
    This bread is done with bran.

Anagrams[edit]

Further reading[edit]


Galician[edit]

Etymology[edit]

From Old Portuguese son (probably influenced by or possibly borrowed from Old Occitan son), sõo, from Latin sonus. Alternatively, regressively derived from the verb soar. Compare Portuguese som, Spanish son.

Pronunciation[edit]

Noun[edit]

son m (plural sons)

  1. sound

Related terms[edit]

Verb[edit]

son

  1. inflection of ser:
    1. first-person singular present indicative
    2. third-person plural present indicative

German[edit]

Pronunciation[edit]

Pronoun[edit]

son

  1. Alternative form of so'n
    • 1857, Der Glücksstern. Novelle von Julie Burow (Frau Pfannenschmidt), Bromberg, page 95:
      „[...] Macht Platz Leute! en Wagen wär' so übel nicht in soner Hitze.“

Further reading[edit]

  • son in Duden online

Icelandic[edit]

Noun[edit]

son

  1. indefinite accusative singular of sonur

Irish[edit]

Noun[edit]

son

  1. Only used in ar son

Istriot[edit]

Verb[edit]

son

  1. first-person singular present indicative of ièsi
  2. second-person singular present indicative of ièsi
    • 1877, Antonio Ive, Canti popolari istriani: raccolti a Rovigno, volume 5, Ermanno Loescher, page 29:
      Ti son la manduleîna inzucherada.
      You are the sugared almond.

Japanese[edit]

Romanization[edit]

son

  1. Rōmaji transcription of そん

Ladin[edit]

Etymology 1[edit]

Alternative forms[edit]

Verb[edit]

son

  1. first-person singular present indicative of ester

Etymology 2[edit]

Alternative forms[edit]

Verb[edit]

son

  1. third-person singular present indicative of ester

Lower Sorbian[edit]

Pronunciation[edit]

Noun[edit]

son m

  1. (archaic) swan (waterfowl of genus Cygnus)

Declension[edit]

Synonyms[edit]


Manx[edit]

Alternative forms[edit]

Preposition[edit]

son

  1. for
    Cur booise da Jee son dty hlaynt.
    Thank God for your health.
    Eeckee oo son shen.
    You'll pay for that.
    C're vees ain son jinnair?
    What shall we have for dinner?
  2. by
    Dy cadjin ta mee ec y thie son queig er y chlag.
    I'm usually home by five o'clock.
  3. (used with verbal noun) want
    Cha nel ee son credjal yn irriney.
    She doesn't want to believe the truth.
    Cha nel eh son poosey.
    He's not the marrying kind.
    As myr shen, bee oo son gee?
    You'll be wanting to eat, then?

Usage notes[edit]

Not used with pronouns. See er son for inflected forms.

Derived terms[edit]


Middle English[edit]

Noun[edit]

son

  1. Alternative form of sonne

References[edit]


Middle French[edit]

Etymology[edit]

From Old French son.

Noun[edit]

son m (plural sons)

  1. sound

Descendants[edit]


Northern Sami[edit]

Etymology[edit]

From Proto-Samic *sonë.

Pronunciation[edit]

Phonetik.svg This entry needs pronunciation information. If you are familiar with the IPA then please add some!

Pronoun[edit]

son

  1. he, she, it

Inflection[edit]

Inflection of son (irregular)
Nominative son
Genitive
Nominative son
Genitive
Accusative
Illative sutnje
Locative sūs
Comitative suinna
Essive sūnin

See also[edit]

Personal pronouns
singular dual plural
1st person mun moai mii
2nd person don doai dii
3rd person son soai sii

Further reading[edit]


Norwegian Nynorsk[edit]

Etymology[edit]

From Old Norse sonr, from Proto-Germanic *sunuz, from Proto-Indo-European *suHnús.

Noun[edit]

son m (definite singular sonen, indefinite plural søner, definite plural sønene)

  1. a son
    Han hadde to søner.
    He had two sons.

Derived terms[edit]

References[edit]


Occitan[edit]

Determiner[edit]

son m sg (feminine singular sa, masculine plural sos, feminine plural sas)

  1. his; her; its
    Synonyms: seu, sieu

Old French[edit]

Alternative forms[edit]

  • soun (Anglo-Norman)
  • sun (Anglo-Norman)

Etymology[edit]

From Vulgar Latin sum, a reduced/atonic variant of Latin suum.

Pronunciation[edit]

Determiner[edit]

son m (feminine sa, plural ses)

  1. his/hers/its (third-person singular possessive)

Descendants[edit]

  • Middle French: son

Old Irish[edit]

Etymology[edit]

Borrowed from Latin sonus.

Noun[edit]

son m

  1. sound

Inflection[edit]

Masculine o-stem
Singular Dual Plural
Nominative son sonL suinL
Vocative suin sonL sunu
Accusative sonN sonL sunu
Genitive suinL son sonN
Dative sunL sonaib sonaib
Initial mutations of a following adjective:
  • H = triggers aspiration
  • L = triggers lenition
  • N = triggers nasalization

References[edit]

  • son” in Dictionary of the Irish Language, Royal Irish Academy, 1913–76.

Old Swedish[edit]

Alternative forms[edit]

Etymology[edit]

From Old Norse sonr, from Proto-Germanic *sunuz.

Noun[edit]

son m

  1. son

Declension[edit]

Descendants[edit]


Scots[edit]

Etymology[edit]

From Old English sunu (son), from Proto-Germanic *sunuz (son), from Proto-Indo-European *suHnús (son), from *sewH- (to bear, give birth).

Pronunciation[edit]

Noun[edit]

son (plural sons)

  1. son, male child

Derived terms[edit]


Scottish Gaelic[edit]

Noun[edit]

son m (indeclinable)

  1. sake, account
    Dèan seo air ar son.
    Do this for us/for our sake.
    Dèan seo air mo shon.
    Do this for me/for my sake.

Usage notes[edit]

Note that a grammaticalised unit meaning ‘for’ is formed by a prepositional phrase combining the preposition air / ar with a nominal or pronominal argument and son. (These structures are sometimes called ‘compound prepositions’.)

Derived terms[edit]


Skolt Sami[edit]

Etymology[edit]

From Proto-Samic *sonë.

Pronoun[edit]

son

  1. he, she, it

Inflection[edit]

Further reading[edit]


Spanish[edit]

Spanish Wikipedia has an article on:
Wikipedia es

Pronunciation[edit]

Etymology 1[edit]

From Latin sonus, probably through the intermediate of Old Occitan son (or influenced by it); alternatively, but less likely, regressively derived from the verb sonar (the more expected form would be *suen, and a sueno appeared in some Medieval texts)[1]. Compare Portuguese som.

Noun[edit]

son m (plural sones)

  1. A pleasant sound, tone
  2. An Afro-Cuban musical form.
  3. A musical composition in this form.

Related terms[edit]

Etymology 2[edit]

See the etymology of the main entry.

Verb[edit]

son

  1. Second-person plural (ustedes) present indicative form of ser.
  2. Third-person plural (ellos, ellas, also used with ustedes?) present indicative form of ser.

Further reading[edit]

References[edit]


Sranan Tongo[edit]

Etymology[edit]

Borrowed from English Sun (from Middle English sunne, from Old English sunne (sun; the Sun)) or Dutch zon (from Middle Dutch sonne (sun), from Old Dutch sunna), both from Proto-Germanic *sunnǭ, from Proto-Indo-European *sh₂un-, *sóh₂wl̥.

Noun[edit]

son

  1. Sun

Derived terms[edit]


Swedish[edit]

Etymology[edit]

From Old Swedish son, sun, from Old Norse sonr, sunr from Proto-Germanic *sunuz, from Proto-Indo-European *suHnús. Masculine in Late Modern Swedish.

Pronunciation[edit]

Noun[edit]

son c

  1. son; someone's male child
  2. definite singular of so

Declension[edit]

Declension of son 
Singular Plural
Indefinite Definite Indefinite Definite
Nominative son sonen söner sönerna
Genitive sons sonens söners sönernas

Antonyms[edit]

Related terms[edit]

References[edit]


Turkish[edit]

Etymology[edit]

From Ottoman Turkish صوك (soŋ, end, consequence), from Proto-Turkic *soŋ (back, end, after).

Adjective[edit]

son

  1. last, final

Antonyms[edit]

Noun[edit]

son (definite accusative sonu, plural sonlar)

  1. end, ending
    Mutlu sonum.I am the happy ending.
    (stress on the first syllable: sonum)
    Mutlu sonumMy happy ending
    (stress on the final syllable: sonum)
  2. consequence, result, conclusion

Declension[edit]

Inflection
Nominative son
Definite accusative sonu
Singular Plural
Nominative son sonlar
Definite accusative sonu sonları
Dative sona sonlara
Locative sonda sonlarda
Ablative sondan sonlardan
Genitive sonun sonların
Possessive forms
Singular Plural
1st singular sonum sonlarım
2nd singular sonun sonların
3rd singular sonu sonları
1st plural sonumuz sonlarımız
2nd plural sonunuz sonlarınız
3rd plural sonları sonları
Predicative forms
Singular Plural
1st singular sonum sonlarım
2nd singular sonsun sonlarsın
3rd singular son
sondur
sonlar
sonlardır
1st plural sonuz sonlarız
2nd plural sonsunuz sonlarsınız
3rd plural sonlar sonlardır

Related terms[edit]


Uzbek[edit]

Etymology[edit]

EB1911 - Volume 01 - Page 001 - 1.svg This entry lacks etymological information. If you are familiar with the origin of this term, please add it to the page per etymology instructions. You can also discuss it at the Etymology scriptorium.

Noun[edit]

son (plural sonlar)

  1. thigh

Venetian[edit]

Verb[edit]

son

  1. first-person singular present indicative of èser

Vietnamese[edit]

Pronunciation[edit]

Adjective[edit]

son

  1. unshakable; firm
    Lòng son dạ sắt càng thêm
    Lòng đà trăng gió ai tìm thấy ai.

Derived terms[edit]

Noun[edit]

son

  1. lipstick

Derived terms[edit]


Volapük[edit]

Pronunciation[edit]

Noun[edit]

son (plural sons)

  1. son

Declension[edit]

Synonyms[edit]

Hypernyms[edit]

Coordinate terms[edit]

Derived terms[edit]

See also[edit]


Zhuang[edit]

Etymology[edit]

From Proto-Tai *soːlᴬ (to teach). Cognate with Thai สอน (sɔ̌ɔn), Lao ສອນ (sǭn), ᦉᦸᧃ (ṡoan), Tai Dam ꪎꪮꪙ, Shan သွၼ် (sǒan), Ahom 𑜏𑜨𑜃𑜫 (son).

Pronunciation[edit]

  • (Standard Zhuang) IPA(key): /θoːn˨˦/
  • Tone numbers: son1
  • Hyphenation: son

Verb[edit]

son (old orthography son)

  1. to teach