son

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English[edit]

English Wikipedia has an article on:
Wikipedia

Alternative forms[edit]

Pronunciation[edit]

Etymology 1[edit]

From Middle English sonn, sone, sun, sune, from Old English sunu (son), from Proto-Germanic *sunuz (son), from Proto-Indo-European *suHnús (son), from Proto-Indo-European *sewH- (to bear; give birth).

Noun[edit]

English Wikipedia has an article on:
Wikipedia

son (plural sons)

  1. One's male offspring.
    Before the birth of the man's child, he said: "I want a son, not a daughter."
  2. A male adopted person in relation to his adoptive parents.
  3. A male person who has such a close relationship with an older or otherwise more authoritative person that he can be regarded as a son of the other person. (Can we add an example for this sense?)
  4. A male person considered to have been significantly shaped by some external influence.
    He was a son of the mafia system.
  5. A male descendant.
    The pharaohs were believed to be sons of the Sun.
  6. A familiar address to a male person from an older or otherwise more authoritative person.
  7. (Britain, colloquial) An informal address to a friend or person of equal authority.
Synonyms[edit]
Antonyms[edit]
Hypernyms[edit]
Derived terms[edit]
Translations[edit]

See son/translations § Noun.

Etymology 2[edit]

From Middle English sonen, sunen, from the noun (see above).

Verb[edit]

son (third-person singular simple present sons, present participle sonning, simple past and past participle sonned)

  1. (transitive) To produce (i.e. bear, father, beget) a son.
    • 1997, Noel Polk, Outside the Southern Myth:
      I sonned a father who would not be sonned, [...]
  2. (transitive) To address (someone) as "son".
    • 2005, Jerry Flesher, Tomorrow I'll Miss You:
      “Don't 'son' me.” “I'm old enough to be your father,” he said with a dismissive wave of his hand.
    • 2014, Stuart A. McKeever, Becoming Joey Fizz:
      “Son—now's not the time, please.” “It's the perfect time—it's the best time fucking time I ever had. There's not gonna be another time, so don't son me, you bastard. [...]”

Anagrams[edit]


Afrikaans[edit]

Etymology[edit]

From Dutch zon, from Middle Dutch sonne, from Old Dutch sunna, from Proto-Germanic *sunnǭ, from Proto-Indo-European *sh₂un-, *sóh₂wl̥.

Pronunciation[edit]

Proper noun[edit]

son

  1. Sun, sun (star of the solar system)

Derived terms[edit]


Aromanian[edit]

Etymology[edit]

From Latin sonus. Compare Daco-Romanian sun.

Noun[edit]

son n (plural sonuri)

  1. sound

Related terms[edit]


Asturian[edit]

Verb[edit]

son

  1. third-person plural present indicative of ser

Azerbaijani[edit]

Other scripts
Cyrillic сон
Roman son
Perso-Arabic سون

Etymology[edit]

From Proto-Turkic *soŋ (back, end).[1] Compare Turkish son below.

Pronunciation[edit]

Noun[edit]

son (definite accusative sonu, plural sonlar)

  1. end, ending
    sonda isə başa düşdük ki...
    but at the end we understood that...
    Filmin sonunda əsas personaj ölür.
    The main character dies at the end of the movie.
    Synonym: axır
    Antonym: baş

Declension[edit]

Derived terms[edit]

Adjective[edit]

son

  1. recent, latest
  2. last, final
    ötən əsrin son onilliyilast decade of the previous century
    Synonym: axırıncı

References[edit]

  1. ^ Starostin, Sergei; Dybo, Anna; Mudrak, Oleg (2003), “*soŋ”, in Etymological dictionary of the Altaic languages (Handbuch der Orientalistik; VIII.8), Leiden, New York, Köln: E.J. Brill

Catalan[edit]

Etymology 1[edit]

From Old Occitan son, from Vulgar Latin *sum, reduced form of Latin suus, suum, from Proto-Italic *sowos. Compare Occitan and French son.

In unstressed position in Vulgar Latin suum, suam etc. were monosyllabic and regularly became son, sa etc. in Catalan. When stressed they were disyllabic and became seu, sua > seua etc.

Determiner[edit]

son m (feminine sa, masculine plural sos, feminine plural ses)

  1. his, her, its
  2. their
  3. your (alluding to vostè or vostès)
Usage notes[edit]

The use of son and the other possessive determiners is mostly archaic in the majority of dialects, with articulated possessive pronouns (e.g. el meu) mostly being used in their stead. However, mon, ton, and son are still widely used before certain nouns referring to family members and some affective nouns, such as amic, casa, and vida. Which nouns actually find use with the possessive determiners depends greatly on the locale.

The standard masculine plural form is sos, but sons can be found in some dialects.

See also[edit]

Etymology 2[edit]

From Old Occitan, from Latin somnus, from Proto-Indo-European *swépnos.

Alternative forms[edit]

  • so (Balearic)

Pronunciation[edit]

Noun[edit]

son m (plural sons)

  1. sleep

Noun[edit]

son f (plural sons)

  1. sleepiness
Derived terms[edit]

Related terms[edit]

Further reading[edit]


Danish[edit]

Verb[edit]

son

  1. imperative of sone

Faroese[edit]

Noun[edit]

son

  1. indefinite accusative singular of sonur

Finnish[edit]

Contraction[edit]

son

  1. (colloquial) Contraction of se on (it is).

French[edit]

Pronunciation[edit]

Etymology 1[edit]

From Old French son, suen, suon, from Latin sonus (the current form may be remade after or influenced by sonner).

Noun[edit]

son m (plural sons)

  1. sound
    Le son de ce piano est agréable.
    The sound of this piano is nice.
Derived terms[edit]

Related terms[edit]

Etymology 2[edit]

From Middle French son, from Old French son, from Vulgar Latin sum, a reduced/atonic variant of suus, suum, from Proto-Italic *sowos, from Proto-Indo-European *sewos, from *swé (self).

Determiner[edit]

son m (singular)

  1. (possessive) His, her, its (used to qualify masculine nouns and before a vowel).
    Elle a perdu son chapeau.
    She lost her hat.
    Il a perdu son chapeau.
    He lost his hat.
    J'aime son amie.
    I like her/his girlfriend.
    La décision a été prise pendant son absence.
    The decision was taken in his absence.
Derived terms[edit]
Related terms[edit]
Possessee
Singular Plural
Masculine Feminine
Possessor Singular First person mon1 ma mes
Second person ton1 ta tes
Third person son1 sa ses
Plural First person notre nos
Second person votre2 vos2
Third person leur leurs
1 Also used before feminine adjectives and nouns beginning with a vowel or mute h.
2 Also used as the polite singular form.

Etymology 3[edit]

From Latin secundus (presumably through an earlier Old French form *seon; cf. an attested Medieval Latin seonno, seonnum). Cognate with Catalan segó, Old Occitan segon. The meaning derives from the fact that bran results from a second sifting of flour. Doublet of second, a borrowing.

Noun[edit]

son m (plural sons)

  1. bran
    Ceci est du pain de son.
    This bread is done with bran.

Anagrams[edit]

Further reading[edit]


Galician[edit]

Etymology 1[edit]

From Old Galician and Old Portuguese sõo, son (13th century, Cantigas de Santa Maria, probably influenced by or possibly borrowed from Old Occitan son), from Latin sonus. Alternatively, regressively derived from the verb soar. Compare Portuguese som, Spanish son.

Pronunciation[edit]

Noun[edit]

son m (plural sons)

  1. sound
    • 1370, R. Lorenzo (ed.), Crónica troiana. A Coruña: Fundación Barrié, page 561:
      Et começou o torneo a creçer tãto, et a seer o acapelamento tã grande, et a uolta et os braados et os alaridos et os sõos dos cornos et das tronpas tã grandes et tã esquiuos que ome nõ se podía oýr
      And the tournament began to grow so much, and the carnage was so large, and the din and the roars and the yells and the sounds of the horns and of the trumpets so big and harsh that a man couldn't heard himself
    • 1409, J. L. Pensado Tomé (ed.), Tratado de Albeitaria. Santiago de Compostela: Centro Ramón Piñeiro, page 69:
      Et pasando porllos ditos, hu ha gran roido et gran soon se se o Cauallo espantar no no deuen ferir con açorregos, nen con vara, nen con espora, mais deuen no trager mansamente, con hũa cana afaagandoo et lleuandoo porllos ditos llugares a miude
      And passing by the mentioned places, where there is big noise and big sound, if the horse frightens, they should not wound him with whips nor with a stick, nor with spoor, rather they should bring him meekly, fondling him with a twig and taking him through this places often
Related terms[edit]

Etymology 2[edit]

Pronunciation[edit]

Verb[edit]

son

  1. inflection of ser:
    1. first-person singular present indicative
    2. third-person plural present indicative
    Son parvoI'm stupid
    Son parvosThey're stupid

References[edit]

  • son” in Dicionario de Dicionarios do galego medieval, SLI - ILGA 2006-2012.
  • soon” in Xavier Varela Barreiro & Xavier Gómez Guinovart: Corpus Xelmírez - Corpus lingüístico da Galicia medieval. SLI / Grupo TALG / ILG, 2006-2016.
  • son” in Dicionario de Dicionarios da lingua galega, SLI - ILGA 2006-2013.
  • son” in Tesouro informatizado da lingua galega. Santiago: ILG.
  • son” in Álvarez, Rosario (coord.): Tesouro do léxico patrimonial galego e portugués, Santiago de Compostela: Instituto da Lingua Galega.

German[edit]

Pronunciation[edit]

Pronoun[edit]

son

  1. Alternative form of so'n
    • 1857, Der Glücksstern. Novelle von Julie Burow (Frau Pfannenschmidt), Bromberg, page 95:
      „[...] Macht Platz Leute! en Wagen wär' so übel nicht in soner Hitze.“

Further reading[edit]

  • son in Duden online

Icelandic[edit]

Noun[edit]

son

  1. indefinite accusative singular of sonur

Irish[edit]

Noun[edit]

son

  1. Only used in ar son

Istriot[edit]

Verb[edit]

son

  1. first-person singular present indicative of ièsi
  2. second-person singular present indicative of ièsi
    • 1877, Antonio Ive, Canti popolari istriani: raccolti a Rovigno, volume 5, Ermanno Loescher, page 29:
      Ti son la manduleîna inzucherada.
      You are the sugared almond.

Japanese[edit]

Romanization[edit]

son

  1. Rōmaji transcription of そん

Ladin[edit]

Etymology 1[edit]

Alternative forms[edit]

Verb[edit]

son

  1. first-person singular present indicative of ester

Etymology 2[edit]

Alternative forms[edit]

Verb[edit]

son

  1. third-person singular present indicative of ester

Lower Sorbian[edit]

Pronunciation[edit]

Noun[edit]

son m

  1. (archaic) swan (waterfowl of genus Cygnus)

Declension[edit]

Synonyms[edit]


Manx[edit]

Alternative forms[edit]

Preposition[edit]

son

  1. for
    Cur booise da Jee son dty hlaynt.
    Thank God for your health.
    Eeckee oo son shen.
    You'll pay for that.
    C're vees ain son jinnair?
    What shall we have for dinner?
  2. by
    Dy cadjin ta mee ec y thie son queig er y chlag.
    I'm usually home by five o'clock.
  3. (used with verbal noun) want
    Cha nel ee son credjal yn irriney.
    She doesn't want to believe the truth.
    Cha nel eh son poosey.
    He's not the marrying kind.
    As myr shen, bee oo son gee?
    You'll be wanting to eat, then?

Usage notes[edit]

Not used with pronouns. See er son for inflected forms.

Derived terms[edit]


Middle English[edit]

Etymology 1[edit]

From Old English sunne.

Noun[edit]

son

  1. Alternative form of sonne
References[edit]

Etymology 2[edit]

From Old English sunu.

Noun[edit]

son

  1. Alternative form of sone (son)

Middle French[edit]

Etymology[edit]

From Old French son.

Noun[edit]

son m (plural sons)

  1. sound

Descendants[edit]

  • French: son

Northern Sami[edit]

Etymology[edit]

From Proto-Samic *sonë.

Pronunciation[edit]

Phonetik.svg This entry needs pronunciation information. If you are familiar with the IPA then please add some!

Pronoun[edit]

son

  1. he, she, it

Inflection[edit]

Inflection of son (irregular)
Nominative son
Genitive
Nominative son
Genitive
Accusative
Illative sutnje
Locative sūs
Comitative suinna
Essive sūnin

See also[edit]

Personal pronouns
singular dual plural
1st person mun moai mii
2nd person don doai dii
3rd person son soai sii

Further reading[edit]

  • Koponen, Eino; Ruppel, Klaas; Aapala, Kirsti, editors (2002-2008) Álgu database: Etymological database of the Saami languages[1], Helsinki: Research Institute for the Languages of Finland

Norwegian Nynorsk[edit]

Etymology[edit]

From Old Norse sonr, from Proto-Germanic *sunuz, from Proto-Indo-European *suHnús.

Noun[edit]

son m (definite singular sonen, indefinite plural søner, definite plural sønene)

  1. a son
    Han hadde to søner.
    He had two sons.

Derived terms[edit]

References[edit]


Occitan[edit]

Etymology 1[edit]

Determiner[edit]

son m sg (feminine singular sa, masculine plural sos, feminine plural sas)

  1. his; her; its
    Synonyms: seu, sieu

Etymology 2[edit]

Verb[edit]

son

  1. third-person plural present indicative of èsser

Old English[edit]

Etymology[edit]

From Latin sonus.

Pronunciation[edit]

Noun[edit]

sōn m

  1. a musical sound; vocal, instrumental

Derived terms[edit]

References[edit]

  • sōn in Joseph Bosworth and T. Northcote Toller (1898) An Anglo-Saxon Dictionary

Old French[edit]

Alternative forms[edit]

  • soun (Anglo-Norman)
  • sun (Anglo-Norman)

Etymology[edit]

From Vulgar Latin sum, a reduced/atonic variant of Latin suum.

Pronunciation[edit]

Determiner[edit]

son m (feminine sa, plural ses)

  1. his/hers/its (third-person singular possessive)

Descendants[edit]

  • Middle French: son

Old Irish[edit]

Etymology 1[edit]

Borrowed from Latin sonus.

Pronunciation[edit]

Noun[edit]

son m

  1. sound
Inflection[edit]
Masculine o-stem
Singular Dual Plural
Nominative son sonL suinL
Vocative suin sonL sunuH
Accusative sonN sonL sunuH
Genitive suinL son sonN
Dative sunL sonaib sonaib
Initial mutations of a following adjective:
  • H = triggers aspiration
  • L = triggers lenition
  • N = triggers nasalization

Etymology 2[edit]

Pronoun[edit]

son

  1. Alternative spelling of són

Mutation[edit]

Old Irish mutation
Radical Lenition Nasalization
son ṡon unchanged
Note: Some of these forms may be hypothetical. Not every
possible mutated form of every word actually occurs.

Further reading[edit]


Old Swedish[edit]

Alternative forms[edit]

Etymology[edit]

From Old Norse sonr, from Proto-Germanic *sunuz.

Noun[edit]

son m

  1. son

Declension[edit]

Descendants[edit]


Scots[edit]

Etymology[edit]

From Old English sunu (son), from Proto-Germanic *sunuz (son), from Proto-Indo-European *suHnús (son), from *sewH- (to bear, give birth).

Pronunciation[edit]

Noun[edit]

son (plural sons)

  1. son, male child

Derived terms[edit]


Scottish Gaelic[edit]

Noun[edit]

son m (indeclinable)

  1. sake, account
    Dèan seo air ar son.
    Do this for us/for our sake.
    Dèan seo air mo shon.
    Do this for me/for my sake.

Usage notes[edit]

Note that a grammaticalised unit meaning ‘for’ is formed by a prepositional phrase combining the preposition air / ar with a nominal or pronominal argument and son. (These structures are sometimes called ‘compound prepositions’.)

Derived terms[edit]


Skolt Sami[edit]

Etymology[edit]

From Proto-Samic *sonë.

Pronoun[edit]

son

  1. he, she, it

Inflection[edit]

Further reading[edit]

  • Koponen, Eino; Ruppel, Klaas; Aapala, Kirsti, editors (2002-2008) Álgu database: Etymological database of the Saami languages[2], Helsinki: Research Institute for the Languages of Finland

Spanish[edit]

Spanish Wikipedia has an article on:
Wikipedia es

Pronunciation[edit]

Etymology 1[edit]

From Latin sonus, probably through the intermediate of Old Occitan son (or influenced by it); alternatively, but less likely, regressively derived from the verb sonar (the more expected form would be *suen, and a sueno appeared in some Medieval texts)[1]. Compare English sound and Portuguese som.

Noun[edit]

son m (plural sones)

  1. A pleasant sound, tone
  2. An Afro-Cuban musical form.
  3. A musical composition in this form.

Derived terms[edit]

Related terms[edit]

Etymology 2[edit]

See the etymology of the main entry.

Verb[edit]

son

  1. Second-person plural (ustedes) present indicative form of ser.
  2. Third-person plural (ellos, ellas, also used with ustedes?) present indicative form of ser.

Further reading[edit]

References[edit]


Sranan Tongo[edit]

Etymology[edit]

From English Sun (from Middle English sunne, from Old English sunne (sun; the Sun)) or Dutch zon (from Middle Dutch sonne (sun), from Old Dutch sunna), both from Proto-Germanic *sunnǭ, from Proto-Indo-European *sh₂un-, *sóh₂wl̥.

Noun[edit]

son

  1. Sun

Derived terms[edit]


Swedish[edit]

Etymology[edit]

From Old Swedish son, sun, from Old Norse sonr, sunr from Proto-Germanic *sunuz, from Proto-Indo-European *suHnús. Masculine in Late Modern Swedish.

Pronunciation[edit]

Noun[edit]

son c

  1. son; someone's male child
  2. definite singular of so

Declension[edit]

Declension of son 
Singular Plural
Indefinite Definite Indefinite Definite
Nominative son sonen söner sönerna
Genitive sons sonens söners sönernas

Antonyms[edit]

Related terms[edit]

References[edit]

Anagrams[edit]


Turkish[edit]

Etymology[edit]

From Ottoman Turkish صوك(soŋ, end, consequence), from Proto-Turkic *soŋ (back, end, after).

Adjective[edit]

son

  1. last, final
    Antonym: ilk

Noun[edit]

son (definite accusative sonu, plural sonlar)

  1. end, ending
    Mutlu sonum. (stress on the first syllable: sonum)I am the happy ending.
    Mutlu sonum (stress on the final syllable: sonum)My happy ending
  2. consequence, result, conclusion

Declension[edit]

Inflection
Nominative son
Definite accusative sonu
Singular Plural
Nominative son sonlar
Definite accusative sonu sonları
Dative sona sonlara
Locative sonda sonlarda
Ablative sondan sonlardan
Genitive sonun sonların
Possessive forms
Singular Plural
1st singular sonum sonlarım
2nd singular sonun sonların
3rd singular sonu sonları
1st plural sonumuz sonlarımız
2nd plural sonunuz sonlarınız
3rd plural sonları sonları
Predicative forms
Singular Plural
1st singular sonum sonlarım
2nd singular sonsun sonlarsın
3rd singular son
sondur
sonlar
sonlardır
1st plural sonuz sonlarız
2nd plural sonsunuz sonlarsınız
3rd plural sonlar sonlardır

Related terms[edit]


Uzbek[edit]

Etymology[edit]

(This etymology is missing or incomplete. Please add to it, or discuss it at the Etymology scriptorium.)

Noun[edit]

son (plural sonlar)

  1. thigh

Venetian[edit]

Verb[edit]

son

  1. first-person singular present indicative of èser

Vietnamese[edit]

Pronunciation[edit]

Adjective[edit]

son

  1. (literary) unshakable; firm
    Lòng son dạ sắt càng thêm
    Lòng đà trăng gió ai tìm thấy ai.

Derived terms[edit]

Noun[edit]

son

  1. lipstick

Derived terms[edit]


Volapük[edit]

Pronunciation[edit]

Noun[edit]

son (nominative plural sons)

  1. son

Declension[edit]

Synonyms[edit]

Hypernyms[edit]

Coordinate terms[edit]

Derived terms[edit]

See also[edit]


Zhuang[edit]

Etymology[edit]

From Proto-Tai *soːlᴬ (to teach). Cognate with Thai สอน (sɔ̌ɔn), Northern Thai ᩈᩬᩁ, Lao ສອນ (sǭn), ᦉᦸᧃ (ṡoan), Tai Dam ꪎꪮꪙ, Shan သွၼ် (sǒan), Tai Nüa ᥔᥩᥢᥴ (sóan), Ahom 𑜏𑜨𑜃𑜫 (son).

Pronunciation[edit]

Verb[edit]

son (old orthography son)

  1. to teach