ma

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English[edit]

Etymology 1[edit]

Noun[edit]

ma (plural mas)

  1. (astronomy, usually in the plural) Abbreviation of milli-arcsecond.

Etymology 2[edit]

The sound, which parents interpret as a reference to themselves, is very commonly made by infants.

Pronunciation[edit]

  • (file)
  • Rhymes: -ɑː

Noun[edit]

ma (plural mas) (not generally used in the plural)

  1. (colloquial, and in direct address) mother, mama
Usage notes[edit]
  • Often capitalized when used to refer to a specific person.
Hey, Ma, I’d like you to meet my friend Jamie.
Synonyms[edit]
Translations[edit]

See also[edit]

Etymology 3[edit]

Abbreviation.

Noun[edit]

ma

  1. May
Usage notes[edit]
  • Usually capitalised as Ma.

Etymology 4[edit]

From my

Determiner[edit]

ma

  1. (dialectal, informal) Alternative spelling of my

Etymology 5[edit]

From Chinese (ma, “of course!”).[1]

Particle[edit]

ma (Singlish, Singapore, colloquial)

  1. Alternative form of mah
    • 1998 April 24, viken, “tcs shows”, in sg.rec.tv, Usenet:
      Singlish is acceptable in Singapore mah
    • 2015 April 17, Jalelah Abu Baker, “What's the difference between 'lah' and 'lor': Poet Gwee Li Sui's take on nuances of Singlish goes viral”, in The Straits Times[2]:
      I dun have mah.
    • 2017 April 30, Kim Hoh, Wong, “It Changed My Life: Migrant worker goes from painting condos to boss of own company”, in The Straits Times[3]:
      "I was already 32, so must get married mah," he says, using the Singlish word often used to express something which is obvious.

References[edit]

  1. ^ Lee, Jack Tsen-Ta (2004) A Dictionary of Singlish and Singaporean English[1]

Anagrams[edit]


'Are'are[edit]

Conjunction[edit]

ma

  1. and

References[edit]


Acehnese[edit]

Noun[edit]

ma

  1. mother

References[edit]


Afrikaans[edit]

Noun[edit]

ma (plural ma's)

  1. mom, mother

Synonyms[edit]

Antonyms[edit]

Derived terms[edit]


Ajië[edit]

Conjunction[edit]

ma

  1. and

References[edit]


Alemannic German[edit]

Alternative forms[edit]

Etymology[edit]

From Middle High German man, from Old High German man, from Proto-Germanic *mann-. Cognate with German Mann, Dutch man, English man, Icelandic maður, Swedish man, Gothic 𐌼𐌰𐌽𐌽𐌰 (manna).

Noun[edit]

ma m (Gressoney, Issime)

  1. man
  2. husband

References[edit]

  • “ma” in Patuzzi, Umberto, ed., (2013) Ünsarne Börtar [Our Words], Luserna, Italy: Comitato unitario delle linguistiche storiche germaniche in Italia / Einheitskomitee der historischen deutschen Sprachinseln in Italien

Anaang[edit]

Verb[edit]

  1. to love

Further reading[edit]

  • Cristiane Benjamin Santos, Aspectos morfossintáticos dos pronomes pessoais em Anaan (2007)
  • Bruce Connell, Lower Cross Wordlist

Aromanian[edit]

Etymology 1[edit]

From Latin magis. Compare Romanian mai.

Adverb[edit]

ma

  1. more

Etymology 2[edit]

From Italian ma.

Conjunction[edit]

ma

  1. but, yet

Asturian[edit]

Alternative forms[edit]

Noun[edit]

ma f (plural mas)

  1. mother
    Synonym: madre

Bambara[edit]

Pronunciation[edit]

Noun[edit]

ma

  1. sea cow

References[edit]


Breton[edit]

Pronoun[edit]

ma

  1. my

Interjection[edit]

ma

  1. good!

Conjunction[edit]

ma

  1. that
  2. if

Synonyms[edit]


Catalan[edit]

Etymology[edit]

From Vulgar Latin *mam, reduced form of Latin meam

Determiner[edit]

ma

  1. feminine singular of mon

Cimbrian[edit]

Etymology 1[edit]

From Middle High German māne, from Old High German māno, from Proto-West Germanic *mānō, from Proto-Germanic *mēnô (moon). Cognate with German Mond, English moon.

Noun[edit]

ma m

  1. (Thirteen Communities) moon
Alternative forms[edit]

References[edit]

  • “ma” in Patuzzi, Umberto, ed., (2013) Ünsarne Börtar [Our Words], Luserna, Italy: Comitato unitario delle linguistiche storiche germaniche in Italia / Einheitskomitee der historischen deutschen Sprachinseln in Italien

Etymology 2[edit]

An unstressed pronunciation of månn (man). Compare German man, Dutch men for a similar construct.

Pronoun[edit]

ma

  1. (Luserna) one, you (indefinite pronoun)

References[edit]


Dorze[edit]

Noun[edit]

ma

  1. bee (insect)

Dutch[edit]

Pronunciation[edit]

Noun[edit]

ma f (plural ma's, diminutive maatje n)

  1. (informal) mother

Synonyms[edit]

See also[edit]


Efik[edit]

Verb[edit]

  1. love, like

Further reading[edit]


Estonian[edit]

Pronoun[edit]

ma (genitive mu, partitive mind)

  1. I; short form of mina

Finnish[edit]

Etymology 1[edit]

From maanantai.

Noun[edit]

ma

  1. Abbreviation of maanantai (Monday).

Etymology 2[edit]

Pronunciation[edit]

  • IPA(key): /ˈmɑ/, [ˈmɑ]
  • Rhymes:
  • Syllabification: ma

Pronoun[edit]

ma

  1. (personal, archaic, poetic) I
Synonyms[edit]

French[edit]

Etymology[edit]

From Old French ma, from Latin mea.

Pronunciation[edit]

Determiner[edit]

ma f

  1. feminine singular of mon

Related terms[edit]

Possessee
Singular Plural
Masculine Feminine
Possessor Singular First person mon1 ma mes
Second person ton1 ta tes
Third person son1 sa ses
Plural First person notre nos
Second person votre2 vos2
Third person leur leurs
1 Also used before feminine adjectives and nouns beginning with a vowel or mute h.
2 Also used as the polite singular form.

Further reading[edit]


Friulian[edit]

Etymology[edit]

From Latin magis.

Conjunction[edit]

ma

  1. but

Havasupai-Walapai-Yavapai[edit]

Pronoun[edit]

ma

  1. 2nd-person singular pronoun: you
  2. 2nd-person plural pronoun: you
  3. 2nd-person singular possessive pronoun: your
  4. 2nd-person plural possessive pronoun: your

See also[edit]


Hawaiian[edit]

Preposition[edit]

ma

  1. in, at

Hungarian[edit]

Etymology[edit]

Probably related to más.[1]

Pronunciation[edit]

Adverb[edit]

ma

  1. today
    • 1975, Imre Kertész, Tim Wilkinson, transl., Sorstalanság, Budapest: Magvető Könyvkiadó (2016), →ISBN, page 5:
      Ma nem mentem iskolába. Azaz mentem, de csak, hogy hazakéredzkedjem az osztályfőnökömtől.
      I didn't go to school today. Or rather, I did go, but only to ask my class teacher's permission to take the day off.

Noun[edit]

ma (plural mák)

  1. today
  2. (attributively, before any time of day) this …… (morning etc.), to-…… (as in “tonight”)

Declension[edit]

Inflection (stem in long/high vowel, back harmony)
singular plural
nominative ma mák
accusative mát mákat
dative mának máknak
instrumental mával mákkal
causal-final máért mákért
translative mává mákká
terminative máig mákig
essive-formal maként mákként
essive-modal
inessive mában mákban
superessive mán mákon
adessive mánál máknál
illative mába mákba
sublative mára mákra
allative mához mákhoz
elative mából mákból
delative máról mákról
ablative mától máktól
non-attributive
possessive - singular
máé máké
non-attributive
possessive - plural
máéi mákéi
Possessive forms of ma
possessor single possession multiple possessions
1st person sing. mám máim
2nd person sing. mád máid
3rd person sing. mája mái
1st person plural mánk máink
2nd person plural mátok máitok
3rd person plural májuk máik

Derived terms[edit]

Related terms[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ Zaicz, Gábor. Etimológiai szótár: Magyar szavak és toldalékok eredete (’Dictionary of Etymology: The origin of Hungarian words and affixes’). Budapest: Tinta Könyvkiadó, 2006, →ISBN

Ido[edit]

Etymology[edit]

Borrowed from French mais, Italian ma, Spanish mas from Latin magis, from Proto-Indo-European *méǵh₂s.

Pronunciation[edit]

Conjunction[edit]

ma

  1. but

Synonyms[edit]


Interlingua[edit]

Etymology[edit]

From Italian ma. Compare Spanish mas.

Conjunction[edit]

ma

  1. but

Interlingue[edit]

Conjunction[edit]

ma

  1. but

Istriot[edit]

Etymology[edit]

From Latin magis.

Conjunction[edit]

ma

  1. but
    • 1877, Antonio Ive, Canti popolari istriani: raccolti a Rovigno, volume 5, Ermanno Loescher, page 68:
      Ma sulo i tuoi bai uoci, anema meîa,
      But only your beautiful eyes, oh soul of mine

Italian[edit]

Etymology[edit]

From Latin magis.[1]

Pronunciation[edit]

  • Rhymes: -a

Conjunction[edit]

ma

  1. but

See also[edit]

Noun[edit]

ma f

  1. Abbreviation of mamma.

Interjection[edit]

ma

  1. (informal, emphatic) Indicates emotion or emphasis.
    Ma che carino! - Oh, how cute!
  2. (informal) Used to introduce a new topic or a question.
    Ma...tu sei di Roma? - So...you're from Rome?

References[edit]

  1. ^ Angelo Prati, "Vocabolario Etimologico Italiano", Torino, 1951

Japanese[edit]

Romanization[edit]

ma

  1. Rōmaji transcription of
  2. Rōmaji transcription of

Kavalan[edit]

Adverb[edit]

ma

  1. only

Noun[edit]

ma

  1. daddy; father (term of address)

Keoru-Ahia[edit]

Noun[edit]

ma

  1. water

References[edit]


Kikuyu[edit]

Etymology 1[edit]

Pronunciation[edit]

As for Tonal Class, Benson (1964) classifies this term into Class 3 with a monosyllabic stem, together with rũkũ, and so on.

Noun[edit]

ma

  1. truth[2]

Adverb[edit]

ma

  1. truly[2]

Etymology 2[edit]

Particle[edit]

ma

  1. (for class 6) of
    maguta ma mbarĩki
    castor oil
    (literally, “oil of castor bean(s)”)

References[edit]

  1. ^ Yukawa, Yasutoshi (1981). "A Tentative Tonal Analysis of Kikuyu Nouns: A Study of Limuru Dialect." In Journal of Asian and African Studies, No. 22, 75–123.
  2. 2.0 2.1 “ma” in Benson, T.G. (1964). Kikuyu-English dictionary. Oxford: Clarendon Press.

Ladino[edit]

Etymology[edit]

From Old Spanish mas, from Latin magis.

Conjunction[edit]

ma (Latin spelling)

  1. but
    • 1979 July, Moshe Shaul, “Istoria i Dezvelopamiento del Djudeo-Espaniol”, in Aki Yerushalayim[4], page 11:
      La primera de eyas es ke el djudeo-espaniol kontiene un grande numero de arkaizmos o sea, palavras ke eran empleadas en Espania asta el siglo XV ma ke dezparesieron dezde entonses de su vokabulario, mientres ke en el djudeo-espaniol kontinuan a existir asta oy.
      The first of them is that Judeo-Spanish contains a large number of archaisms, or rather, words that were used in Spain until the 15th century but which disappeared after then from its vocabulary, while in Judeo-Spanish they continue to be used to this day.
    • 2020 January 29, Metin Delevi, “El 27 de Enero es el dia de memoria de las viktimas del Nazismo, del Olokosto…”, in Şalom[5]:
      Devemos de saver ke el antisemitizmo es una de las formas ekstremas del rasizmo ma ay otras formas de rasizmo i devemos de luchar kon todo modo forma del rasizmo.
      We must know that antisemitism is one of the extreme forms of racism, but there are other forms of racism and we must fight every form of racism.
    Synonym: ama
  2. why

Livonian[edit]

Alternative forms[edit]

Etymology[edit]

See etymology at Finnish me.

Pronoun[edit]

ma

  1. I; first person pronoun, referring to the speaker

Declension[edit]

See also[edit]

References[edit]

Renāte Blumberga, Tapio Mäkeläinen, Karl Pajusalu (2013), Lībieši: vēsture, valoda un kultūra, Rīga: Līvõ Kultūr sidām, →ISBN


Lower Sorbian[edit]

Pronunciation[edit]

Verb[edit]

ma

  1. third-person singular present of měś

Maltese[edit]

Pronunciation[edit]

  • IPA(key): /maː/
  • Usually unstressed and then automatically shortened to /ma/.
  • Homophone: ma'

Etymology 1[edit]

From Arabic مَا(, not).

Adverb[edit]

ma

  1. not; used to negate verbs and pronominal adverbs
    Illum ma nixrobx.
    I do not drink today.
    Qatt ma nixrob.
    I never drink. / I do not ever drink.
Usage notes[edit]
  • Generally used together with the negative ending -x attached to the verb or pronominal adverb. This ending is absent, however, when another negative word is used, such as qatt (never), ebda (no, none), ħadd (nobody), xejn (nothing).

Etymology 2[edit]

From Arabic مَا(, what).

Pronoun[edit]

ma

  1. (relative) Alternative form of li (who, which, that), used in some fossiled expressions
    L-ewwel ma tiekol, l-għajn.
    You eat with your eyes first.
    (literally, “The first that eats is the eye.”)
Derived terms[edit]

Mandarin[edit]

Romanization[edit]

ma (Zhuyin ˙ㄇㄚ)

  1. Pinyin transcription of
  2. Pinyin transcription of ,
  3. Pinyin transcription of
  4. Pinyin transcription of

ma

  1. Nonstandard spelling of .
  2. Nonstandard spelling of .
  3. Nonstandard spelling of .
  4. Nonstandard spelling of .

Usage notes[edit]

  • English transcriptions of Mandarin speech often fail to distinguish between the critical tonal differences employed in the Mandarin language, using words such as this one without the appropriate indication of tone.

Maricopa[edit]

Noun[edit]

ma

  1. milk

Middle English[edit]

Pronoun[edit]

ma

  1. Alternative form of man

References[edit]


Neapolitan[edit]

Etymology[edit]

From Latin magis. Compare Italian ma, French mais.

Conjunction[edit]

ma

  1. but

Nigerian Pidgin[edit]

Etymology[edit]

From English my.

Determiner[edit]

ma

  1. my

North Frisian[edit]

Preposition[edit]

ma

  1. (Mooring Dialect) with

Northern Ndebele[edit]

Etymology[edit]

From Proto-Nguni *-ímá, from Proto-Bantu *-jɪ́ma.

Noun[edit]

-má

  1. to stand

Inflection[edit]

This verb needs an inflection-table template.


Novial[edit]

Conjunction[edit]

ma

  1. but

Old English[edit]

Etymology[edit]

From Proto-Germanic *maiz. Cognate with Old Frisian , Old Saxon mēr, Old Dutch mēr, Old High German mēr, Old Norse meir, Gothic 𐌼𐌰𐌹𐍃 (mais).

Pronunciation[edit]

Adverb[edit]

  1. more

Adjective[edit]

(indeclinable)

  1. more (often + genitive)
    • The Life of Saint Margaret
      Sēo hāliġe fǣmne him andswarode and cwæþ, "Nis mē ālīefed þæt iċ þē tō seċġe, for þon þū neart nā wierðe mīne stefne tō ġehīerenne. Godes bebodu iċ wille ġehīeran and ġecȳðan. And þū, dēofol, ādumba nū, for þon þe iċ nylle nān word of þīnum mūðe ġehīeran."
      The holy virgin answered him and said, "I’m not allowed to tell you, because you don't deserve to hear my voice. God's commandments are what I want to hear and impart. And you, demon, be quiet now, because I don't want to hear one more word out of your mouth."

Noun[edit]

 ?

  1. more

Old French[edit]

Etymology[edit]

From Latin mea.

Determiner[edit]

ma f (masculine mon, plural mes)

  1. my (first-person singular possessive)

Descendants[edit]

  • French: ma

Old Frisian[edit]

Pronoun[edit]

ma

  1. one

Old Irish[edit]

Conjunction[edit]

ma

  1. Alternative spelling of

Opao[edit]

Noun[edit]

ma

  1. water

References[edit]


Orokolo[edit]

Noun[edit]

ma

  1. water

References[edit]


Pipil[edit]

Pronunciation[edit]

Particle[edit]

  1. Subjunctive marker
    Nechilwijket ma nikinkwepili musta
    They told me to return it to them tomorrow
    Tikajkawat ma seseya pal tikwat
    We leave it to cool down so we can eat it
  2. Clipping of maka. (Negative imperative marker)
    Ma shina kiuni!
    Don't say that!

Usage notes[edit]

  • The particle ma helps disambiguating many of the subjunctive forms from the present indicative or imperative forms.

Verb[edit]

-má

  1. Clipping of -maka.

Pitjantjatjara[edit]

Adverb[edit]

ma

  1. away

Pohnpeian[edit]

Conjunction[edit]

ma

  1. if

Polish[edit]

Pronunciation[edit]

Verb[edit]

ma

  1. third-person singular present indicative of mieć
    Andrzej ma 18 lat.Andrzej is 18 years old.

Pronoun[edit]

ma

  1. Alternative form of moja.

Further reading[edit]

  • ma in Polish dictionaries at PWN

Samoan[edit]

Conjunction[edit]

ma

  1. and
  2. because

Preposition[edit]

ma

  1. with

Scots[edit]

Pronunciation[edit]

Etymology[edit]

From Middle English mi, my, apocopated form of min, myn, from Old English mīn (my, mine), from Proto-Germanic *mīnaz (my, mine, pron.) (genitive of *ek (I)), from Proto-Indo-European *méynos (my; mine).

Determiner[edit]

ma

  1. my
    Synonym: wir

Scottish Gaelic[edit]

Etymology[edit]

From Old Irish , from Proto-Celtic *mā, *ma (compare Cornish and Breton mar), from Proto-Indo-European *meh₂.

Conjunction[edit]

ma

  1. if
    Ma tha thu ’g iarrraidh sin…If you want that…

Usage notes[edit]


Serbo-Croatian[edit]

Pronunciation[edit]

  • IPA(key): /ma/
  • Hyphenation: m‧a

Interjection[edit]

  1. bah, whatever
  1. Placed at the beginning of a sentence to add intensity and surprise
    Ma kako?!How?!
    Ma gdje?Where in the world...?
    Ma da?Really?
    Ma to je on!That's definitely him!
  1. Placed at the beginning of a sentence to express dismissal and indignation
    Ma ne.No way.
    Ma daj.Oh come on.
    Ma kakvi.Impossible.
  1. Used to emphasise sarcasm
    Ma da!/Ma svakako!/Ma naravno!Yeah, sure.
    Ma nemoj.Oh you don't say?
    Ma nikad niste vi krivi.Of course it can never be your fault.

Situ[edit]

Etymology[edit]

Proto-Sino-Tibetan *ma.

Particle[edit]

ma

  1. not, no; negative particle

Further reading[edit]

  • M. Prins, A Grammar of rGyalrong, Jiǎomùzú (Kyom-kyo) Dialects: A Web of Relations (2016) (and earlier A Web of Relations: A Grammar of rGyalrong, Jiǎomùzú (Kyom-kyo) Dialects, 2011)

Slovak[edit]

Alternative forms[edit]

Pronunciation[edit]

Pronoun[edit]

ma

  1. genitive/accusative of ja

Suri[edit]

Noun[edit]

  1. water

References[edit]

  • 1999, Michael Bryant, Aspects of Tirmaga Grammar (in notes, as ma)
  • Michael Bryant, A Brief Grammar of the Suri Language (2011) (as )

Swazi[edit]

Etymology[edit]

From Proto-Nguni *-ímá, from Proto-Bantu *-jɪ́ma.

Verb[edit]

-ma

  1. to stand
  2. to stop, to wait

Inflection[edit]

This verb needs an inflection-table template.


Tahitian[edit]

Conjunction[edit]

ma

  1. and

Preposition[edit]

ma

  1. with

Tairuma[edit]

Noun[edit]

ma

  1. Alternative form of ma'a

References[edit]


Toaripi[edit]

Noun[edit]

ma

  1. (Toaripi, Kaipi, Sepoe) water

References[edit]


Tz'utujil[edit]

Adverb[edit]

ma

  1. not

Veps[edit]

Etymology[edit]

From Proto-Finnic *maa, from Proto-Uralic *mëxe.

Noun[edit]

ma

  1. earth
  2. ground
  3. soil
  4. land, country, region
  5. state

Inflection[edit]

Inflection of ma
nominative sing. ma
genitive sing. man
partitive sing. mad
partitive plur. maid
singular plural
nominative ma mad
accusative man mad
genitive man maiden
partitive mad maid
essive-instructive man main
translative maks maikš
inessive mas maiš
elative maspäi maišpäi
illative ? maihe
adessive mal mail
ablative malpäi mailpäi
allative male maile
abessive mata maita
comitative manke maidenke
prolative madme maidme
approximative I manno maidenno
approximative II mannoks maidennoks
egressive mannopäi maidennopäi
terminative I ? maihesai
terminative II malesai mailesai
terminative III massai
additive I ? maihepäi
additive II malepäi mailepäi

Derived terms[edit]

References[edit]


Vietnamese[edit]

Vietnamese Wikipedia has an article on:
Wikipedia vi

Pronunciation[edit]

Etymology 1[edit]

From Proto-Vietic *-maː (genie; phantom; ghost; spirit)

Noun[edit]

(classifier con) ma

  1. ghost (spirit appearing after death)
Derived terms[edit]
Derived terms

Etymology 2[edit]

Sino-Vietnamese word from .

Noun[edit]

(classifier con) ma

  1. (archaic) a demon
  2. (archaic) magic
Synonyms[edit]
Derived terms[edit]
Derived terms

Vilamovian[edit]

Pronoun[edit]

ma

  1. (indefinite) one, they (indefinite third-person singular pronoun)

Vilela[edit]

Noun[edit]

ma

  1. water

References[edit]

  • Bernard Comrie, ‎Lucía Golluscio, Language Contact and Documentation (2015, →ISBN
  • Bartolomé Tavera-Acosta, En el sur: (Dialectos indígenas de Venezuela) (1907)

Warao[edit]

Alternative forms[edit]

Pronoun[edit]

ma

  1. my
    Ma rahe hakaya.
    My brother runs.
    Natu ma tatutuma iji minajara? [1]
    Granny, have you not seen my wives?
  2. me, accusative of iné
    Ma hube abuae.
    A snake bit me.
    Ihi ma isiko naonahara? [2]
    Don't you come with me?

References[edit]

  1. ^ Vaquero 1965.274, 278
  2. ^ Romero-Figueroa 1985a.109

Wolof[edit]

Pronoun[edit]

ma

  1. me (first-person singular object pronoun)

See also[edit]


Xhosa[edit]

Etymology[edit]

From Proto-Nguni *-ímá, from Proto-Bantu *-jɪ́ma.

Verb[edit]

-̂ma

  1. (intransitive) to halt
  2. (intransitive) to stop

Inflection[edit]

This verb needs an inflection-table template.

Derived terms[edit]


Zazaki[edit]

Pronunciation[edit]

Pronoun[edit]

ma

  1. we; us (first-person plural personal pronoun)

Zhuang[edit]

Pronunciation[edit]

Etymology 1[edit]

From Proto-Tai *ʰmaːᴬ (dog). Cognate with Thai หมา (mǎa), Northern Thai ᩉ᩠ᨾᩣ, Lao ໝາ (), ᦖᦱ (ṁaa), Tai Dam ꪢꪱ, Shan မႃ (mǎa), Tai Nüa ᥛᥣᥴ (máa), Aiton မႃ, Ahom 𑜉𑜠 (ma), Saek หม่า.

Noun[edit]

ma (old orthography ma, Sawndip forms 𬌫, , 𬍄, , , , 𭸱)

  1. dog

Etymology 2[edit]

From Proto-Tai *ʰmaːᴬ (to come). Cognate with Thai มา (maa), Northern Thai ᨾᩣ (ma), Lao ມາ (), ᦙᦱ (maa), Tai Nüa ᥛᥣᥰ (mäa), Shan မႃး (máa), Aiton မႃ, Ahom 𑜉𑜠 (ma) or 𑜉𑜡 (maa) or 𑜉𑜡𑜠 (maaa).

Verb[edit]

ma (old orthography ma, Sawndip forms , , , 𮜃, 𫹞, )

  1. to come back; to return
See also[edit]

Zulu[edit]

Etymology[edit]

From Proto-Nguni *-ímá, from Proto-Bantu *-jɪ́ma.

Verb[edit]

-má

  1. (intransitive) to stand, to be standing
  2. (intransitive) to stand still, to not move
  3. (intransitive) to stop, to come to a standstill, to halt

Inflection[edit]

Tone H, latent i
Infinitive ukuma
Positive Negative
Infinitive ukuma ukungemi
Imperative
Simple + object concord
Singular yima -me
Plural yimani -meni
Stative
Positive absolute Positive relative Positive participial Negative absolute Negative relative Negative participial
1st singular ngimi engimi ngimi angimi engingemi ngingemi
2nd singular umi omi umi awumi ongemi ungemi
1st plural simi esimi simi asimi esingemi singemi
2nd plural nimi enimi nimi animi eningemi ningemi
Class 1 umi omi emi akemi ongemi engemi
Class 2 bemi abemi bemi abemi abangemi bengemi
Class 3 umi omi umi awumi ongemi ongemi
Class 4 imi emi imi ayimi engemi ingemi
Class 5 limi elimi limi alimi elingemi lingemi
Class 6 emi emi emi awemi angemi engemi
Class 7 simi esimi simi asimi esingemi singemi
Class 8 zimi ezimi zimi azimi ezingemi zingemi
Class 9 imi emi imi ayimi engemi ingemi
Class 10 zimi ezimi zimi azimi ezingemi zingemi
Class 11 lumi olumi lumi alumi olungemi lungemi
Class 14 bumi obumi bumi abumi obungemi bungemi
Class 15 kumi okumi kumi akumi okungemi kungemi
Class 17 kumi okumi kumi akumi okungemi kungemi
Present
Positive absolute Positive relative Positive participial Negative absolute Negative relative Negative participial
1st singular ngiyema, ngima engimayo, engima ngima angimi engingemi ngingemi
2nd singular uyema, uma omayo, oma uma awumi ongemi ungemi
1st plural siyema, sima esimayo, esima sima asimi esingemi singemi
2nd plural niyema, nima enimayo, enima nima animi eningemi ningemi
Class 1 uyema, uma omayo, oma ema akemi ongemi engemi
Class 2 bayema, bema abemayo, abema bema abemi abangemi bengemi
Class 3 uyema, uma omayo, oma uma awumi ongemi ungemi
Class 4 iyema, ima emayo, ema ima ayimi engemi ingemi
Class 5 liyema, lima elimayo, elima lima alimi elingemi lingemi
Class 6 ayema, ema emayo, ema ema awemi angemi engemi
Class 7 siyema, sima esimayo, esima sima asimi esingemi singemi
Class 8 ziyema, zima ezimayo, ezima zima azimi ezingemi zingemi
Class 9 iyema, ima emayo, ema ima ayimi engemi ingemi
Class 10 ziyema, zima ezimayo, ezima zima azimi ezingemi zingemi
Class 11 luyema, luma olumayo, oluma luma alumi olungemi lungemi
Class 14 buyema, buma obumayo, obuma buma abumi obungemi bungemi
Class 15 kuyema, kuma okumayo, okuma kuma akumi okungemi kungemi
Class 17 kuyema, kuma okumayo, okuma kuma akumi okungemi kungemi
Recent past
Positive absolute Positive relative Positive participial Negative absolute Negative relative Negative participial
1st singular ngimile, ngimē engimile, engimē ngimile, ngimē angimanga engingemanga ngingemanga
2nd singular umile, umē omile, omē umile, umē awumanga ongemanga ungemanga
1st plural simile, simē esimile, esimē simile, simē asimanga esingemanga singemanga
2nd plural nimile, nimē enimile, enimē nimile, nimē animanga eningemanga ningemanga
Class 1 umile, umē omile, omē emile, emē akemanga ongemanga engemanga
Class 2 bemile, bemē abemile, abemē bemile, bemē abemanga abangemanga bengemanga
Class 3 umile, umē omile, omē umile, umē awumanga ongemanga ungemanga
Class 4 imile, imē emile, emē imile, imē ayimanga engemanga ingemanga
Class 5 limile, limē elimile, elimē limile, limē alimanga elingemanga lingemanga
Class 6 emile, emē emile, emē emile, emē awemanga angemanga engemanga
Class 7 simile, simē esimile, esimē simile, simē asimanga esingemanga singemanga
Class 8 zimile, zimē ezimile, ezimē zimile, zimē azimanga ezingemanga zingemanga
Class 9 imile, imē emile, emē imile, imē ayimanga engemanga ingemanga
Class 10 zimile, zimē ezimile, ezimē zimile, zimē azimanga ezingemanga zingemanga
Class 11 lumile, lumē olumile, olumē lumile, lumē alumanga olungemanga lungemanga
Class 14 bumile, bumē obumile, obumē bumile, bumē abumanga obungemanga bungemanga
Class 15 kumile, kumē okumile, okumē kumile, kumē akumanga okungemanga kungemanga
Class 17 kumile, kumē okumile, okumē kumile, kumē akumanga okungemanga kungemanga
Remote past
Positive absolute Positive relative Positive participial Negative absolute Negative relative Negative participial
1st singular ngāma engāma ngāma angimanga engingemanga ngingemanga
2nd singular wāma owāma wāma awumanga ongemanga ungemanga
1st plural sāma esāma sāma asimanga esingemanga singemanga
2nd plural nāma enāma nāma animanga eningemanga ningemanga
Class 1 wāma owāma āma akemanga ongemanga engemanga
Class 2 bāma abāma bāma abemanga abangemanga bengemanga
Class 3 wāma owāma wāma awumanga ongemanga ungemanga
Class 4 yāma eyāma yāma ayimanga engemanga ingemanga
Class 5 lāma elāma lāma alimanga elingemanga lingemanga
Class 6 āma āma āma awemanga angemanga engemanga
Class 7 sāma esāma sāma asimanga esingemanga singemanga
Class 8 zāma ezāma zāma azimanga ezingemanga zingemanga
Class 9 yāma eyāma yāma ayimanga engemanga ingemanga
Class 10 zāma ezāma zāma azimanga ezingemanga zingemanga
Class 11 lwāma olwāma lwāma alumanga olungemanga lungemanga
Class 14 bāma obāma bāma abumanga obungemanga bungemanga
Class 15 kwāma okwāma kwāma akumanga okungemanga kungemanga
Class 17 kwāma okwāma kwāma akumanga okungemanga kungemanga
Potential
Positive absolute Positive relative Positive participial Negative absolute Negative relative Negative participial
1st singular ngingema ngingema ngingeme ngingeme
2nd singular ungema ungema ungeme ungeme
1st plural singema singema singeme singeme
2nd plural ningema ningema ningeme ningeme
Class 1 angema engema angeme engeme
Class 2 bangema bengema bangeme bengeme
Class 3 ungema ungema ungeme ungeme
Class 4 ingema ingema ingeme ingeme
Class 5 lingema lingema lingeme lingeme
Class 6 angema engema angeme engeme
Class 7 singema singema singeme singeme
Class 8 zingema zingema zingeme zingeme
Class 9 ingema ingema ingeme ingeme
Class 10 zingema zingema zingeme zingeme
Class 11 lungema lungema lungeme lungeme
Class 14 bungema bungema bungeme bungeme
Class 15 kungema kungema kungeme kungeme
Class 17 kungema kungema kungeme kungeme
Immediate future
Positive absolute Positive relative Positive participial Negative absolute Negative relative Negative participial
1st singular ngizokuma engizokuma ngizokuma angizukuma engingezukuma ngingezukuma
2nd singular uzokuma ozokuma uzokuma awuzukuma ongezukuma ungezukuma
1st plural sizokuma esizokuma sizokuma asizukuma esingezukuma singezukuma
2nd plural nizokuma enizokuma nizokuma anizukuma eningezukuma ningezukuma
Class 1 uzokuma ozokuma ezokuma akazukuma ongezukuma engezukuma
Class 2 bazokuma abazokuma bezokuma abazukuma abangezukuma bengezukuma
Class 3 uzokuma ozokuma uzokuma awuzukuma ongezukuma ungezukuma
Class 4 izokuma ezokuma izokuma ayizukuma engezukuma ingezukuma
Class 5 lizokuma elizokuma lizokuma alizukuma elingezukuma lingezukuma
Class 6 azokuma azokuma ezokuma awazukuma angezukuma engezukuma
Class 7 sizokuma esizokuma sizokuma asizukuma esingezukuma singezukuma
Class 8 zizokuma ezizokuma zizokuma azizukuma ezingezukuma zingezukuma
Class 9 izokuma ezokuma izokuma ayizukuma engezukuma ingezukuma
Class 10 zizokuma ezizokuma zizokuma azizukuma ezingezukuma zingezukuma
Class 11 luzokuma oluzokuma luzokuma aluzukuma olungezukuma lungezukuma
Class 14 buzokuma obuzokuma buzokuma abuzukuma obungezukuma bungezukuma
Class 15 kuzokuma okuzokuma kuzokuma akuzukuma okungezukuma kungezukuma
Class 17 kuzokuma okuzokuma kuzokuma akuzukuma okungezukuma kungezukuma
Remote future
Positive absolute Positive relative Positive participial Negative absolute Negative relative Negative participial
1st singular ngiyokuma engiyokuma ngiyokuma angiyukuma engingeyukuma ngingeyukuma
2nd singular uyokuma oyokuma uyokuma awuyukuma ongeyukuma ungeyukuma
1st plural siyokuma esiyokuma siyokuma asiyukuma esingeyukuma singeyukuma
2nd plural niyokuma eniyokuma niyokuma aniyukuma eningeyukuma ningeyukuma
Class 1 uyokuma oyokuma eyokuma akayukuma ongeyukuma engeyukuma
Class 2 bayokuma abayokuma beyokuma abayukuma abangeyukuma bengeyukuma
Class 3 uyokuma oyokuma uyokuma awuyukuma ongeyukuma ungeyukuma
Class 4 iyokuma eyokuma iyokuma ayiyukuma engeyukuma ingeyukuma
Class 5 liyokuma eliyokuma liyokuma aliyukuma elingeyukuma lingeyukuma
Class 6 ayokuma ayokuma eyokuma awayukuma angeyukuma engeyukuma
Class 7 siyokuma esiyokuma siyokuma asiyukuma esingeyukuma singeyukuma
Class 8 ziyokuma eziyokuma ziyokuma aziyukuma ezingeyukuma zingeyukuma
Class 9 iyokuma eyokuma iyokuma ayiyukuma engeyukuma ingeyukuma
Class 10 ziyokuma eziyokuma ziyokuma aziyukuma ezingeyukuma zingeyukuma
Class 11 luyokuma oluyokuma luyokuma aluyukuma olungeyukuma lungeyukuma
Class 14 buyokuma obuyokuma buyokuma abuyukuma obungeyukuma bungeyukuma
Class 15 kuyokuma okuyokuma kuyokuma akuyukuma okungeyukuma kungeyukuma
Class 17 kuyokuma okuyokuma kuyokuma akuyukuma okungeyukuma kungeyukuma
Present subjunctive
Positive Negative
1st singular ngime ngingemi
2nd singular ume ungemi
1st plural sime singemi
2nd plural nime ningemi
Class 1 eme angemi
Class 2 beme bangemi
Class 3 ume ungemi
Class 4 ime ingemi
Class 5 lime lingemi
Class 6 eme angemi
Class 7 sime singemi
Class 8 zime zingemi
Class 9 ime ingemi
Class 10 zime zingemi
Class 11 lume lungemi
Class 14 bume bungemi
Class 15 kume kungemi
Class 17 kume kungemi
Past subjunctive
Positive Negative
1st singular ngema ngangema, angema, angangema
2nd singular wema wangema, awema, awangema
1st plural sema sangema, asema, asangema
2nd plural nema nangema, anema, anangema
Class 1 wema wangema, akema, akangema
Class 2 bema bangema, abema, abangema
Class 3 wema wangema, awema, awangema
Class 4 yema yangema, ayema, ayangema
Class 5 lema langema, alema, alangema
Class 6 ema angema, awema, awangema
Class 7 sema sangema, asema, asangema
Class 8 zema zangema, azema, azangema
Class 9 yema yangema, ayema, ayangema
Class 10 zema zangema, azema, azangema
Class 11 lwema lwangema, alwema, alwangema
Class 14 bema bangema, abema, abangema
Class 15 kwema kwangema, akwema, akwangema
Class 17 kwema kwangema, akwema, akwangema

Derived terms[edit]

References[edit]