must

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English[edit]

Pronunciation[edit]

Etymology 1[edit]

From Middle English moste (must, literally had to), from Old English mōste (had to), 1st & 3rd person singular past tense of mōtan (to be allowed, be able to, have the opportunity to, be compelled to, must, may). Cognate with Dutch moest (had to), German musste (had to), Swedish måste (must, have to, be obliged to). More at mote.

Verb[edit]

must

  1. (modal auxiliary, defective) to do with certainty; indicates that the speaker is certain that the subject will have executed the predicate
    If it has rained all day, it must be very wet outside.
    You picked one of two, and it wasn't the first: it must have been the second.
    Arise, and go into the city, and it shall be told thee what thou must do. (Bible, Acts 9:6)
  2. (modal auxiliary, defective) to do as a requirement; indicates that the sentence subject is required as an imperative or directive to execute the sentence predicate, with failure to do so resulting in a negative consequence
    You must arrive in class on time. — the requirement is an imperative
    This door handle must be rotated fully. — the requirement is a directive
    The children must be asleep by now.
Quotations[edit]
  • 1936, Alfred Edward Housman, More Poems, IX, lines 3-6
    Forth I wander, forth I must,
    And drink of life again.
    Forth I must by hedgerow bowers
    To look at the leaves uncurled
  • 1937 J.R.R. Tolkien, The Hobbit
    We must away ere break of day
    To seek the pale enchanted gold.
  • 1968 Fritz Leiber, Swords in the Mist
    Whereupon while one patched or napped, the other must stand guard against inquisitive two- and three-headed dragons and even an occasional monocephalic.
Usage notes[edit]
  • (auxiliary, to do with certainty): Compare with weaker auxiliary verb should, indicating a strong probability of the predicate's execution.
  • (auxiliary, to do as a requirement): Compare with weaker auxiliary verb should, indicating mere intent for the predicate's execution; and stronger auxiliary verb will, indicating that the negative consequence will be unusually severe.
  • The past tense of "must" is also "must"; however, this usage is almost always literary (see Fritz Leiber quotation above). The past sense is usually conveyed by had to. It is possible to use be bound to for the past also. For this reason, have to and be bound to are also used as alternatives to must in the present and future.
  • The principal verb, if easily supplied, may be omitted. In modern usage this is mainly literary (see Housman and Tolkien quotations above).
  • Must is unusual in its negation. Must not still expresses a definite certainty or requirement, with the predicate negated. Need, on the other hand, is negated in the usual manner. Compare:
You must not read that book. (It is necessary that you not read that book.)
You need not read that book. (It is not necessary that you read that book.)
  • The second person singular no longer adds "-est" (as it did in Old English).
See also[edit]
Translations[edit]

Noun[edit]

must (plural musts)

  1. Something that is mandatory or required
    If you'll be out all day, a map is a must.
Synonyms[edit]
Antonyms[edit]
Translations[edit]

Etymology 2[edit]

Old French must, most, from Latin mustum

Noun[edit]

must (plural musts)

  1. The property of being stale or musty
  2. Something that exhibits the property of being stale or musty
  3. Fruit juice that will ferment or has fermented, usually grapes
    • Longfellow
      No fermenting must fills [] the deep vats.
Translations[edit]

Verb[edit]

must (third-person singular simple present musts, present participle musting, simple past and past participle musted)

  1. (transitive) To make musty.
  2. (intransitive) To become musty.
External links[edit]

Etymology 3[edit]

Persian مست (mast, drunk, inebriated), from Middle Persian 𐭬𐭮𐭲 (mast).

Noun[edit]

must

  1. A time during which male elephants exhibit increased levels of sexual activity and aggressiveness (also musth)
    • 1936, George Orwell, Shooting an Elephant essay in magazine New Writing
      It was not, of course, a wild elephant, but a tame one which had gone ‘must’.

Statistics[edit]

Anagrams[edit]


Akkala Sami[edit]

Pronoun[edit]

muśtˑ

  1. in me (first-person singular pronoun, locative)

Estonian[edit]

Adjective[edit]

must (genitive musta, partitive musta)

  1. black (color)
  2. dirty, unclean

Declension[edit]

This adjective needs an inflection-table template.

Derived terms[edit]


Hungarian[edit]

Pronunciation[edit]

  • IPA(key): /ˈmuʃt/
  • Hyphenation: must

Noun[edit]

must (plural mustok)

  1. must (sweet fresh grape juice that has not fermented yet)

Declension[edit]


Romanian[edit]

Etymology[edit]

From Latin mustum.

Noun[edit]

must n (plural musturi)

  1. unfermented wine; grape or other fruit juice
  2. must (of grapes)

Declension[edit]

Related terms[edit]

See also[edit]


Swedish[edit]

Etymology[edit]

Old Norse muster, moster, from Latin mustum.

Pronunciation[edit]

Noun[edit]

must c (uncountable)

  1. A kind of soft drink, more commonly known as julmust
  2. Unfermented fruit juice

Declension[edit]

See also[edit]


Veps[edit]

Adjective[edit]

must

  1. black

Noun[edit]

must

  1. black

Volapük[edit]

Noun[edit]

must (plural musts)

  1. must (new wine; sweet cider)

Declension[edit]