должен

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Macedonian[edit]

Etymology[edit]

From Proto-Slavic *dъlžьnъ. Cognate with Bulgarian длъ́жен (dlǎ́žen) and Russian до́лжен (dólžen).

Pronunciation[edit]

Adjective[edit]

должен (dolžen) (no comparative, abstract noun должност)

  1. obligated
  2. indebted

Declension[edit]


Russian[edit]

Alternative forms[edit]

Etymology[edit]

Inherited from Old East Slavic дължьнъ (dŭlžĭnŭ, obligated), from Proto-Slavic *dъlžьnъ. Compare with долг (dolg), and cognate with Bulgarian длъ́жен (dlǎ́žen) and Macedonian до́лжен (dólžen).

Pronunciation[edit]

  • IPA(key): [ˈdoɫʐɨn]
  • (file)

Predicative[edit]

до́лжен (dólžen)

  1. obligated
    Synonym: обя́зан (objázan)
    я до́лжен плати́тьja dólžen platítʹI have to/should pay (literally, “I am obligated to pay”)
    он до́лжен мне пять ты́сяч рубле́йon dólžen mne pjatʹ týsjač rubléjhe owes me five thousand rubles (literally, “he is obligated to me for five thousand rubles”)

Declension[edit]

Usage notes[edit]

  • Grammatically, this term is an adjective that has only short forms, but it is best translated as a verb, either ought to/must/have (has) to if followed by an infinitive, or owe(s) if followed by a direct and indirect object.
  • In modern Russian, the full infinitive form долженствова́ть (dolženstvovátʹ, literally to be required to/to be obliged to) is seldom used.

Related terms[edit]

Derived terms[edit]