на

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Bulgarian[edit]

Pronunciation 1[edit]

  • (stressed) IPA(key): /na/
  • (unstressed) IPA(key): /nə/, /nɐ/

Preposition[edit]

на ‎(na)

  1. used to express possession, of, 's
    София е столицата на България.‎ ― Sofija e stolicata na Bǎlgarija. ― Sofia is the capital of Bulgaria.
    къщата на баща ми‎ ― kǎštata na bašta mi ― my father's house
  2. used to indicate the indirect object, to (or it's not translated)
    Дай го на Петър.‎ ― Daj go na Petǎr. ― Give it to Peter.
    Дай на Петър една книга.‎ ― Daj na Petǎr edna kniga. ― Give Peter a book.
  3. used with nouns formed from intransitive verbs to indicate the subject of the action, of
    пристигането на гостите‎ ― pristiganeto na gostite ― the arrival of the guests
    избухването на войната‎ ― izbuhvaneto na vojnata ― the outbreak of the war
  4. used with nouns formed from transitive verbs to indicate the direct object of the action, of
    четенето на книгата‎ ― četeneto na knigata ― the reading of the book
    изобретяването на компютъра‎ ― izobretjavaneto na kompjutǎra ― the invention of the computer
  5. used with some verbs such as уча, мириша, etc. to give a description of the action
    Дъхът му миришеше на чесън.‎ ― Dǎhǎt mu mirišeše na česǎn. ― His breath smelt of garlic.
    Опитът ни на бежанци ни научи на много ценни уроци.‎ ― Opitǎt ni na bežanci ni nauči na mnogo cenni uroci. ― Our experience as refugees taught us many valuable lessons.
  6. positioned at the upper surface of, within the limits of, on, on, at, in
    Книгата е на масата.‎ ― Knigata e na masata. ― The book is on the table.
    на двора‎ ― na dvora ― in the yard
    на море‎ ― na more ― at the seaside
    на планина‎ ― na planina ― in the mountain
    на сватба‎ ― na svatba ― at a wedding
    на север‎ ― na sever ― in the north
    на улицата‎ ― na ulicata ― in the street
    на училище съм‎ ― na učilište sǎm ― to be at school
    седя на масата‎ ― sedja na masata ― to sit at the table
  7. used to show direction, to, on
    Отивам на плажа.‎ ― Otivam na plaža. ― I'm going to the beach.
    на ляво/дясно‎ ― na ljavo/djasno ― on the left/right
  8. used to indicate destination, in the direction of, and arriving at, on, to, for
    отивам на училище‎ ― otivam na učilište ― to go to school
    отивам на работа‎ ― otivam na rabota ― to go to work
    отивам на почивка‎ ― otivam na počivka ― to go on a holiday
    отивам на разходка‎ ― otivam na razhodka ― to go for a walk
    ходя на лов/риба/ски/покупки‎ ― hodja na lov/riba/ski/pokupki ― to go hunting/fishing/skiing/shopping
  9. used to introduce a noun phrase that describes the verb, or if it is a linking verb, to describe the subject of the verb
    Времето е на дъжд.‎ ― Vremeto e na dǎžd. ― It looks like rain.
    Вятърът духа на пролет.‎ ― Vjatǎrǎt duha na prolet. ― The wind is blowing in a way that suggests that spring is coming.
    да обичаш на инат‎ ― da običaš na inat ― to love stubbornly
  10. used to show a reason or cause, for
    Събрахме се на вечеря.‎ ― Sǎbrahme se na večerja. ― We gathered for dinner.
    Занесох колелото си на поправка.‎ ― Zanesoh koleloto si na popravka. ― I took my bike in for repair.
  11. used with certain time expressions to show when something happens, on, at, in (or it is not translated)
    Роден на 4 юли.‎ ― Roden na 4 juli. ― Born on the 4th of July.
    На следващия ден имах изпит.‎ ― Na sledvaštija den imah izpit. ― I had an exam (on) the following day.
    На сутринта имах ужасен махмурлук.‎ ― Na sutrinta imah užasen mahmurluk. ― I had a terrible hangover in the morning.
    на залез слънце‎ ― na zalez slǎnce ― at sunset
    на часа‎ ― na časa ― immediately/at once
  12. used to introduce a verbal noun and to indicate that the action described by the verbal noun happens at the same time as another action, while, when
    На тръгване го погледна още веднъж.‎ ― Na trǎgvane go pogledna ošte vednǎž. ― When/While he/she was leaving, he/she looked at him once more.
    На връщане минахме по по-кратък път.‎ ― Na vrǎštane minahme po po-kratǎk pǎt. ― When we were coming back we took a shortcut.
  13. used with от to indicate the period over which something happens, to
    от време на време‎ ― ot vreme na vreme ― from time to time
    от ден на ден‎ ― ot den na den ― from day to day
  14. used to show the circumstances under which something happens, with, in
    спя на запалена лампа‎ ― spja na zapalena lampa ― to sleep with the light turned on
    стоя на студено/топло‎ ― stoja na studeno/toplo ― to stay in a cold/warm place
  15. used to show age, at
    Тя е на 12 години.‎ ― Tja e na 12 godini. ― She is 12 years old.
    Той се ожени на 28.‎ ― Toj se oženi na 28. ― He got married at 28.
    на 20-годишна възраст‎ ― na 20-godišna vǎzrast ― at the age of 20
  16. used to indicate the distance away from something, at (or it is not translated)
    на една ръка разстояние‎ ― na edna rǎka razstojanie ― at arm's length
    Той стоеше на няколко метра от мен.‎ ― Toj stoeše na njakolko metra ot men. ― He was standing a few metres away from me.
  17. used to indicate the quantity used for buying, selling or measuring something, by
    продавам на метър/литър‎ ― prodavam na metǎr/litǎr ― to sell by the metre/litre
    работя на парче‎ ― rabotja na parče ― to work by the piece
  18. used to separate dimensions when describing the size of something, by
    Лесно е да обърнеш 2 на 2 матрица.‎ ― Lesno e da obǎrneš 2 na 2 matrica. ― It is easy to invert a 2 by 2 matrix.
    Стаята беше около 4 на 6 фута.‎ ― Stajata beše okolo 4 na 6 futa. ― The room was about 4 foot by 6 foot.
    Използвахме 10 на 20 на 30 сантиметрови тухли, за да построим станата.‎ ― Izpolzvahme 10 na 20 na 30 santimetrovi tuhli, za da postroim stanata. ― We used 10 by 20 by 30 cm bricks to build the wall.
  19. used to indicate the rate at which something happens, per, by, a
    два пъти на ден/месец/година‎ ― dva pǎti na den/mesec/godina ― twice a day/mouth/year
    на глава‎ ― na glava ― per capita/head
    Плащат им на час.‎ ― Plaštat im na čas. ― They are paid by the hour.
    по пет лева на човек‎ ― po pet leva na čovek ― five levs each/five levs apiece/five levs per head
  20. used to indicate the parts into which something is divided, in, into, by
    разделям на две‎ ― razdeljam na dve ― to divide in two
    режа на парчета‎ ― reža na parčeta ― to cut in/into pieces
    6 делено на 2 прави 3.‎ ― 6 deleno na 2 pravi 3. ― 6 divided by 2 equals 3.
  21. used to show how or in what way something is done, by, in
    Учениците пристигнаха на малки групи.‎ ― Učenicite pristignaha na malki grupi. ― The students arrived in small groups.
    на голо‎ ― na golo ― on/over one's bare skin/next to the skin
    на дело‎ ― na delo ― in practice
    на теория‎ ― na teorija ― in theory
    на ръка‎ ― na rǎka ― by hand
    на дребно‎ ― na drebno ― retail
    на едро‎ ― na edro ― wholesale
    на кръст‎ ― na krǎst ― crosswise
    на шега‎ ― na šega ― for fun
  22. used to indicate a change in state, to, into
    ставам на прах‎ ― stavam na prah ― to turn in/into dust
    счупвам се на парчета‎ ― sčupvam se na parčeta ― to break in/into pieces
    преструвам се на някого‎ ― prestruvam se na njakogo ― to pretend to be someone/to impersonate someone
    правя се на болен‎ ― pravja se na bolen ― to feign illness
  23. used to indicate an instrument
    работя на машина‎ ― rabotja na mašina ― to run/operate a machine
    свиря на пиано‎ ― svirja na piano ― to play the piano
    гледам на карти‎ ― gledam na karti ― to fortune tell using a deck of cards
    гледам на кафе‎ ― gledam na kafe ― to fortune tell using coffee
    броя на пръсти‎ ― broja na prǎsti ― to count along one's fingers
  24. used to indicate a game
    играя на шах‎ ― igraja na šah ― to play chess
  25. near, close to
    Суматранските тигри са на изчезване.‎ ― Sumatranskite tigri sa na izčezvane. ― Sumatran tigers are near extinction.
    Припасите ни са на свършване.‎ ― Pripasite ni sa na svǎršvane. ― Our supplies are running low.
  26. used to indicate a language, a way of speaking, etc., in
    Кажи го на английски.‎ ― Kaži go na anglijski. ― Say it in English.
    Той говореше на висок глас.‎ ― Toj govoreše na visok glas. ― He spoke in a loud voice.

Pronunciation 2[edit]

Particle[edit]

на ‎(na)

  1. (informal) used when giving something to someone, here you are, take it
    На ти парите!‎ ― Na ti parite! ― Take the money!
    На ти!‎ ― Na ti! ― Take that!
  2. (informal) used to express unexpectedness
    Говорим за Мария и на — тя насреща.‎ ― Govorim za Marija i na — tja nasrešta. ― Speaking of Maria and here she is.

Macedonian[edit]

Preposition[edit]

на ‎(na)

  1. on (surface)
    Парите се на масата.‎ ― Parite se na masata. ― The money is on the table.
  2. on, at (attending something)
    На концерт сум.‎ ― Na koncert sum. ― I'm at a concert.
  3. of
    Скопје е главен град на Македонија.‎ ― Skopje e glaven grad na Makedonija. ― Skopje is the capital of Macedonia.
    Изгоре куќата на сестра ми.‎ ― Izgore kuḱata na sestra mi. ― My sister's house burnt down.
  4. to (indirect object)
    Дај му го писмово на син ти.‎ ― Daj mu go pismovo na sin ti. ― Give this letter to your son.

Particle[edit]

на ‎(na)

  1. (rude) here you are (handing someone something)

Old Church Slavonic[edit]

Etymology[edit]

From Proto-Slavic *na, from Proto-Indo-European *h₂en-. Cognates Ancient Greek ἀνά ‎(aná, on, up).

Preposition[edit]

на ‎(na)

  1. onto, on
  2. into, in

Descendants[edit]

  • Bulgarian: на ‎(na)
  • Czech: na
  • Polish: na
  • Russian: на ‎(na)
  • Serbo-Croatian:
    Cyrillic: на
    Roman: na
  • Slovak: na
  • Slovene: na

Russian[edit]

Etymology[edit]

From Proto-Slavic *na, from Proto-Indo-European *h₂neh₃.

Pronunciation[edit]

Preposition[edit]

на ‎(na)

accusative case (movement towards):

  1. onto, on
    на стол‎ ― na stol ― onto the table
  2. to, toward
    на по́чту‎ ― na póčtu ― to the post office
  3. into, in
  4. (duration, value, purpose) for
    на что?‎ ― na što? ― what for?
  5. about, for
    он объяви́л программу на сле́дующий день‎ ― on obʺjavíl programmu na slédujuščij denʹ ― He announced a program for the next day

accusative case (temporal meaning):

  1. (indicating the duration of an action following the verb; must have perfective aspect and past finite form)
    Он прочита́л то́лстую кни́гу на день.‎ ― On pročitál tólstuju knígu na denʹ. ― He read a thick book for a day.

prepositional case (position on):

  1. on, upon
    на столе́‎ ― na stolé ― on the table
  2. in, at
    на по́чте‎ ― na póčte ― at the post office
  3. with, for

Particle[edit]

на (na)

  1. here! (said when giving someone something, i.e., "take it!")

Serbo-Croatian[edit]

Etymology[edit]

From Proto-Slavic *na, from Proto-Indo-European *h₂no(H). Compare на̏д.

Pronunciation[edit]

Preposition[edit]

на (Latin spelling na)

  1. (with accusative) to, on, onto (with change of position, answering the question kùda)
    ићи на концерт‎ ― to go to a concert
    ставити књигу на сто(л)‎ ― to put a book on the table
  2. (with locative) on, at, in (without change of position, answering the question gdjȅ/gdȅ)
    књига је на столу‎ ― the book is on the table
    бити на концерту‎ ― to be at the concert
    бити на улици‎ ― to be in the street
  3. (with accusative) by, for, at (in expressions with time)
    отићи некуда на пар дана‎ ― to go somewhere for a couple of days
    на љето/лето‎ ― next summer, the following summer
    на вр(иј)еме‎ ― on time
    бити плаћен на сат‎ ― to be paid by the hour
  4. (with accusative) to indicate a source of power or energy
    подморница на атомски погон‎ ― nuclear-powered submarine

Interjection[edit]

на! (Latin spelling na!)

  1. Here you are! Take it!
  2. Help yourself!

Tajik[edit]

Adverb[edit]

Dari نه
Iranian Persian نه
Tajik на ‎(na)

на ‎(na)

  1. not
  2. (informal) no

See also[edit]