Appendix:Russian pronunciation

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See Russian phonology at Wikipedia for a thorough look at the sounds of Russian. WORK IN PROGRESS

Consonants[edit]

Basic consonants as in the alphabet:

Transliterations and IPA (not in alphabetical order)
# 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21
Letter б п в ф г к д т ж ш з с й л м н р х ц ч щ
WT:RU TR b p v f g k d t ž š z s j l m n r x c č šč
IPA b p v f g k d t ʐ ʂ z s j l m n r x t͡s t͡ɕ ɕː

Palatalisation[edit]

Palatalised ("soft") consonants: bʲ, pʲ, vʲ, fʲ, gʲ, kʲ dʲ, tʲ, zʲ, sʲ, lʲ, mʲ, nʲ, rʲ, xʲ, (t͡sʲ). [j], [t͡ɕ] and [ɕː] are always palatalised ("soft"), [ʐ] and [ʂ] are almost always unpalatalised ("hard").

Palatalisation for other consonants typically occurs:

  1. In front of vowels: "е", "ё", "и", "ю", "я" and in front of "ь" ("soft sign"), see also note on "ь" as a "separation sign".
    E.g.: вре́мя [ˈvrʲemʲə], ребёнок [rʲɪˈbʲɵnək], пита́ние [pʲɪˈtanʲɪjə], колю́чка [kɐˈlʲʉt͡ɕkə], пря́ник [ˈprʲænʲɪk], день [dʲenʲ]
  2. "ц" is only palatalised (t͡sʲ) in some loanwords, only in front of "ё", "ю", "я" and "ь" to imitate some foreign sound. It's not palatalised in front of "е" and "и" - це=цэ, ци=цы.
  3. Many loanwords are NOT palatalised in front of "е" (=э), e.g. "тест" (=тэст) is pronounced [tɛst]. ("е" is then pronounced [ɛ] in stressed positions, [ɨ] in unstressed positions)

TO DO

Vowels[edit]

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See also[edit]