Wiktionary:About Russian

Definition from Wiktionary, the free dictionary
Jump to navigation Jump to search
link={{{imglink}}} This is a Wiktionary policy, guideline or common practices page. Specifically it is a policy think tank, working to develop a formal policy.
Policies: CFI - ELE - BLOCK - REDIR - BOTS - QUOTE - DELETE - NPOV - AXX

This page is trying to provide a comprehensive guideline for any issues that arise in connection with the Russian language, in particular Russian words, in Wiktionary. It is mainly an instruction on how to format articles on Russian words (more precisely, how to format the Russian section of an entry). It is also concerned with Russian translations of English words.

Formatting of pages on Russian words[edit]

You are advised to read Wiktionary:Entry layout explained first. It sets forth the general formatting rules for pages, as well as those specific to the English language.

The entry on the Russian word should be inserted into the article in alphabetical order. It begins with the level-two header

==Russian==

and ends with four dashes (----) in an otherwise empty line if another language follows. If the "Russian" header is not at the top of the page, i.e., there is at least one other level-two header somewhere above it, make sure it also has four dashes atop.

The headers allowed below the "Russian" header are the same as those used for English entries. They also have the same order and levels as for English words, and the format of their content will generally be identical as well, though certain differences between the two languages have to be taken into account, such as the "Declension" header.

Pronunciation[edit]

Each Russian section should start with

===Pronunciation===
* {{ru-IPA|word with stress marking|etc.}} * (repeat if word may be stressed or otherwise pronounced in more than one way)

(The stressed vowels may be copied from this list: Á á Ó ó É é У́ ý И́ и́ Ы́ ы́ Э́ э́ Ю́ ю́ Я́ я́)
Usually no extra parameters (|etc.) are necessary, as the Russian spelling with stress almost always results in an automatically generated correct IPA for the word; if this is not the case, see {{ru-IPA}} for how to specify the correct pronunciation.

This may be followed by

* {{audio|ru|Ru-word.ogg|Audio}}

if the corresponding file exists. word will normally be the word without stress marking, but in some cases a different convention may be followed.

Nouns[edit]

Headwords for Russian entries should be in the nominative singular (or nominative plural if there is no nominative singular, e.g. пери́ла (períla)).  It is not necessary to list declined forms or plural forms of the word because every entry includes a declension table, or paradigm.

Declensions[edit]

Russian nouns are declined (there are the occasional exceptions, e.g. Колорадо) for six cases (nominative, genitive, dative, accusative, instrumental, and prepositional) and two numbers (singular and plural).  The nominative singular of a noun is its "basic" form, on whose page we include the definitions and all further information.  It would be ideal to provide a complete declension table for each noun, including those which do not decline for all cases.  If the word is not used in either the singular or the plural, this should be noted, and the declension table should only include the number the word declines for.

See Wiktionary:Russian inflection templates for instructions on how to use the appropriate templates.

Verbs[edit]

  • Conjugations
  • Conjugation tables
    • All forms (command forms, participles, etc.)
  • Applicable templates
  • Appendix

Adjectives[edit]

Adverbial participles[edit]

Examples:

Impersonal verbs[edit]

Examples:

Possessive adjectives[edit]

Examples:

Predicate adjectives[edit]

Examples:

Predicatives[edit]

Examples:

Idioms[edit]

Examples:

Verb forms[edit]

Entries for most inflected verb forms (apart from participles) start

Verb[edit]

{{head|ru|verb form|head=inflected form}}
blank line

followed by a list of the forms thus inflected in the form

# {{inflection of|ru|infinitive||person|number|tense|voice|aspect}}

and optional usage examples in the form

#: {{ux|ru|example|English translation}}

Examples:


Uninflected participles[edit]

Entries for uninflected (long masculine singular) forms of participles have the form

===Participle===
{{head|ru|participle|head=participle>}} blank line # {{ru-participle of|infinitive||tense|voice|aspect}} blank line ====Declension==== {{ru-decl-adj|participle|declension}}

Examples:

Inflected participles[edit]

Entries for inflected forms of participles have the form

===Participle===
{{head|ru|participle form|head=inflected participle}}
blank line
# {{inflection of|ru|uninflected participle||form}} (optional, helpful): translation into English
(repeat as needed for all forms thus inflected)

Where

form is a sequence of parameters specifying the form thus inflected; this may be gender/number|case or short|gender/number.
gender/number may be m|s, f|s, n|s or p.
case may be nom, gen, dat, acc, ins or pre preceded if needed (accusative), by animacy|.
animacy may be an, inan or, where appropriate, free text such as “& mainly inanimate” (as in испо́льзуемое (ispólʹzujemoje)).
(these parameters may be in any order and need not be abbreviated, see {{inflection of}} for more details)

Sometimes a case such as the feminine singular instrumental of испо́льзуемый (ispólʹzujemyj) has two forms (here, испо́льзуемой (ispólʹzujemoj) & испо́льзуемою (ispólʹzujemoju)). In these cases, such entries should inform the user of this by including a subsection:

====Synonyms====
* {{l|ru|synonym}} (for relevant case)

thus in the above example, in испо́льзуемой (ispólʹzujemoj):

* {{l|ru|испо́льзуемою}} (for feminine singular instrumental case)

Examples:

Verb prefixes[edit]

Examples:

Spellings with ‘е’ instead of ‘ё’[edit]

Since Russian words spelt with ‘ё’ are usually printed with ‘е’ instead, it should be possible for a user to find such spellings, especially as this confuses many learners. The issue is under discussion in Wiktionary talk:About Russian § Category:Russian spellings with е instead of ё, but the following points seem fairly clear:

  • Hard redirects (with #REDIRECT [[spelling with ё]]) are definitely undesirable.
  • Soft redirects are definitely desirable when the form with ‘е’ is also a word (in any language).
    • Soft redirects should use the template family {{ru-part-of-speech-alt-ё|spelling with ё}} (based on {{ru-alt-ё}}, see there); see also трехэтажный (trexɛtažnyj) for an example.
    • A soft redirect page should probably start with {{also|spelling with ё}}.
    • Soft redirects when the form with ‘е’ is only the alternative form of a Russian word with ‘ё’ may or may not be desirable: this is under discussion.

Translations into Russian[edit]

All translations into Russian (in entries for words in other languages) are to be transliterated with word stresses and gender for nouns; for verbs one may optionally specify their aspect. Translations are specified with the usual templates {{t+}} and {{t}}, which automatically generate the transliteration (WT:RU TR), remove stress marks from the link and link to the Russian section of the page.

  • If the translation is a single word, use the template {{t+|ru|word with stress marking|etc.}}. This generates a superscript link to Russian Wiktionary.
    • For a noun, etc. should be m, f or n to specify the gender.
    • For a verb, etc. may be specified as impf (imperfective) or pf (perfective).
    • For other parts of speech, |etc. is not needed.
    • An inflected form can be linked to a different page (in both Wiktionaries) with the parameter |alt= as in {{t+|ru|target page|etc.|alt=inflected form}}.
  • If the translation consists of more than one word, use the template {{t+|ru|translation with stress markings}}.
    • In this case, code links in the translation as [[target with stress]] or [[target|inflected form with stress]].
Code Yields (only template expansions shown)
Noun with gender * Russian: {{t+|ru|мы́ло|n}} мы́ло (ru) n (mýlo)
Verbs with aspects * Russian: {{t+|ru|рисова́ть|impf}}, {{t+|ru|нарисова́ть|pf}} рисова́ть (ru) impf (risovátʹ), нарисова́ть (ru) pf (narisovátʹ)
Inflected form with alternate target * Russian: {{t+|ru|требовать|alt=тре́бующий}} тре́бующий (ru) (trébujuščij)
Multi-word translation * Russian: {{t|ru|[[требовать|тре́бующий]] [[мно́го]] [[время|вре́мени]]}} тре́бующий мно́го вре́мени (trébujuščij mnógo vrémeni)

Romanization[edit]

Russian transliterations (that is, romanizations) are not words. Russian entries are only permitted in the Cyrillic script. Please see Wiktionary:Russian transliteration for more complete information.

See also[edit]