Appendix:Russian verbs

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Verbs on Wiktionary are classified according to the system devised by Russian linguist Andrey Zaliznyak (Russian: Андре́й Зализня́к (Andréj Zaliznják)). This system, devised in 1980, is somewhat intricate but detailed, and divides verbs based on their properties such as stem shape, stress patterns and other features. Each individual type of verb is described in this system by a combination of numbers, letters and other symbols, which identify all of the verb's properties.

  • Note: not all Zaliznyak's conventions have been implemented in the templates. Irregular past tense stress patterns and exceptions are handled by passing additional parameters. Variants are also available for all forms.

Verb classes (types)[edit]

There are 16 numbered verb classes, which are split up based on the final consonants of the stem, as well as certain alternations that take place in the stem.

  1. type, examples: де́лать (délatʹ)
    -ать (-аю, -ает)
    -ять (-яю, -яет)
    -еть (-ею, -еет)
    See Category:Russian class 1 verbs
    Templates: {{ru-conj|1a}}
  2. type, examples: рисова́ть (risovátʹ) (a), блева́ть (blevátʹ) (b)
    -овать (-ую, -ует/-уёт)
    -евать (-юю, -юет/-юёт), (-ую, -ует/-уёт) (after ш, щ, ж, ч, ц)
    See Category:Russian class 2 verbs
    Templates: {{ru-conj|2a}}, {{ru-conj|2b}}
  3. type, examples: ги́бнуть (gíbnutʹ) (a), рискну́ть (risknútʹ) (b), взгляну́ть (vzgljanútʹ) (c)
    -нуть (-ну, -нет/-нёт) (marked with ° loses -ну- засо́хнуть - засо́х)
    See Category:Russian class 3 verbs
    Templates: {{ru-conj|3a}}, {{ru-conj|3°a}}, {{ru-conj|3b}}, {{ru-conj|3c}}
  4. type, examples: жа́лить (žálitʹ) (a), щади́ть (ščadítʹ) (b), люби́ть (ljubítʹ) (c)
    -ить (-ю, -ит), (-у, -ит), (-у, -ит) (after ш, щ, ж, ч, ц)*
    See Category:Russian class 4 verbs
    Templates: {{ru-conj|4a}}, {{ru-conj|4b}}, {{ru-conj|4c}}
  5. type, examples: ви́деть (vídetʹ) (a), веле́ть (velétʹ) (b), смотре́ть (smotrétʹ) (c)
    -ать, -ять, -еть (-ю, -ит), (-у, -ит) (after ш, щ, ж, ч, ц)*
    See Category:Russian class 5 verbs
    Templates: {{ru-conj|5a}}, {{ru-conj|5b}}, {{ru-conj|5c}}
  6. type, examples: вре́зать (vrézatʹ) (a), заржа́ть (zaržátʹ) (b), иска́ть (iskátʹ) (c)
    -ать, -ять (-ю, -ет/-ёт), (-у, -ет/-ёт) (after ш, щ, ж, ч, ц) (marked with ° have no standard consonant interchange, e.g. соса́ть - сосу́)
    See Category:Russian class 6 verbs
    Templates: {{ru-conj|6a}}, {{ru-conj|6b}}, {{ru-conj|6c}}
  7. type
    -зти/-зть (-зу, -зет/-зёт)
    -сти/-сть (-су, -сет/-сёт; -ду, -дет/-дёт, -ту, -тет/-тёт; -сту, -стет/-стёт; -бу, -бет/-бёт)**
    See Category:Russian class 7 verbs
    Templates: {{ru-conj|7a}}, {{ru-conj|7b}}
  8. type
    -чь (-гу, -жет/-жёт; -ку, -чет/-чёт) (marked "г" and "к")
    See Category:Russian class 8 verbs
    Templates: {{ru-conj|8a}}, {{ru-conj|8b}}
  9. type
    -ереть (-ру, -рет/-рёт)
    See Category:Russian class 9 verbs
    Templates: {{ru-conj|9a}}, {{ru-conj|9b}}
  10. type
    -олоть, -ороть (-олю, олет, -орю/-орет)
    See Category:Russian class 10 verbs
    Templates: {{ru-conj|10a}}, {{ru-conj|10c}}
  11. type
    -ить (-ью, -ет/-ёт)
    See Category:Russian class 11 verbs
    Templates: {{ru-conj|11a}}, {{ru-conj|11b}}
  12. type
    -ыть (-ою, -оет)
    -уть (-ую, -ует)
    -ить (-ию, -иет) (also includes греть, петь, брить)
    See Category:Russian class 12 verbs
    Templates: {{ru-conj|12a}}, {{ru-conj|12b}}
  13. type
    -авать (-аю, -ает)
    See Category:Russian class 13 verbs
    Templates: {{ru-conj|13b}}
  14. type
    -ать/-ять (-ну, -нет/-нёт)
    -ать/-ять (-му, -мет/-мёт)
    -ать/-ять (-иму, -имет/-имёт) (marked with letters н, м, им or have special stems: занять - займ, принять - прим, взять - возьм)
    See Category:Russian class 14 verbs
    Templates: {{ru-conj|14a}}, {{ru-conj|14b}}, {{ru-conj|14c}}
  15. type
    -ть (-ну, -нет)
    See Category:Russian class 15 verbs
    Templates: {{ru-conj|15a}}
  16. type
    -ть (-ву, -вет/-вёт)
    See Category:Russian class 16 verbs
    Templates: {{ru-conj|16a}}, {{ru-conj|16b}}

Stress patterns[edit]

Russian verbs have three different stress patterns. These are indicated with Latin letters:

  • a - the stress is always on the stem.
  • b - the stress is always on the ending, except when there is no vowel in the ending.
  • c - the ending is stressed for the 1st person sg present/future and imperatives, all other are forms are stressed on the stem.

In addition, an X indicates the stress pattern is shifted compared to other members of the same type (минова́ть, шлифова́ть) (???).

Verbs may have a different stress pattern in the present (for imperfective verbs) or future (for perfective verbs) than they do in the past tense and infinitive. This is indicated with /. Thus, a/b means present/future forms are always stressed on the stem, the past tense is stressed on the ending. The anomalous verb хоте́ть (xotétʹ) is marked as c' (full type: 5c'^) because it has an irregular stress pattern: хочу́, хо́чешь, хо́чет, хоти́м, хоти́те, хотя́т, imperative: хоти́, хотите́.

Notes and legend[edit]

* Types 4 and 5. If infinitive ends in a consonant before -ить (4) / -ать, -ять, -еть (5) of the first level of interchange, in 1st person present/future the consonant is replaced with the consonant of the 2nd level. 1When verbs are marked with -щ-, т is replaced with щ, not ч: похи́тить - похи́щу.

** Verbs are marked с, д, т, ст, and б for the correct choice of stems.

*** A star "*" means that verbs with prefixes во/в, предо/пред, обо/об, надо/над, lose "о" in present/future forms. разобра́ть - разберу́ (6°b/c)

*** Verbs marked with letter "ш" (шипящий звук) change ending as per spelling rules for vowels after hushing sounds ш, щ, ж and ч. (ю - у, я - а, etc.)

*** Verbs marked with letter "сс" (согласный (?)) have two consonants in the end of the stem (imperative ends not in ь but и)

*** ^ - special cases.


Conjugation I and Conjugation II

Conjugation II (-у/-ю/-у́/-ю́, -ит/-и́т) includes most verbs that end in "-ить", except for брить, жить, пить, лить, стелить, зиждиться. It includes some verbs ending in -еть: видеть, зависеть, ненавидеть, обидеть, смотреть and three verbs ending in -ать: держать, слышать, дышать.

Conjugation I (-у/-ю/-у́/-ю́, -ет/-ёт) includes all other verbs that don't belong to Conjugation II

Irregular verbs: мочь, дать, есть, взять, брать, закрыть, класть, ждать, жить, ехать, идти, писать, хотеть and their derivatives.

Present tense[edit]

Letter "е" in endings, e.g. -ет or similar becomes -ёт when stressed.

Stress patterns used: a, b, c, c’

For present tense and imperatives the letters mean the following:

a - The stem is always stressed (multisyllabic stems can be stressed anywhere but the stress doesn't move in the conjugation).

b - The ending is always stressed.

c - The stressed alternates. In the first person singular and in the imperative the ending is stressed, in other forms the stem is stressed.

c’ - Irregular stress pattern.

Conjugation I

  • a/:
    -у/-ю*, -ешь, -ет, -ем, -ете, -ут/-ют*
  • b:
    -у́/-ю́*, -ёшь, -ёт, -ём, -ёте, -у́т/-ю́т*
  • c/:
    -у́/-ю́*, -ешь, -ет, -ем, -ете, -ут/-ют*

Conjugation II

  • a/:
    -у/-ю*, -ишь, -ит, -им, -ите, -ат/-ят*
  • b/:
    -у́/-ю́*, -и́шь, -и́т, -и́м, -и́те, -а́т/-я́т*
  • c/:
    -у́/-ю́*, -ишь, -ит, -им, -ите, -ат/-ят*

* ю changes to у and я changes to а after letter ш, щ, ж and ч

Note: reflexive ending "-ся" is never stressed in the present tense.
Note: the verb "хотеть" and derivatives has an irregular stress pattern (c’): хочу́, хо́чешь, хо́чет, хоти́м, хоти́те, хотя́т

Past tense[edit]

Stress patterns used: /a, /b, /c, /c’’ (see notes)


the stem is always stressed
-л, -ла, ло, -ли
-лся, -лась, -лось, -лись


the ending is always stressed, except for 0-ending:
-л/(0)*, -ла́, ло́, -ли́
-лся/(0)*ся, -ла́сь, ло́сь, -ли́сь


only the feminine form is stressed:
-л/(0)*, -ла́, ло, -ли (this pattern is not used with reflexive verbs)

for reflexive verbs only:


-лся/лся́**, -лась/-ла́сь, -лось/-ло́сь, -лись/-ли́сь

* Suffix "-л" is not added to masculine forms after consonants.
** Stressing -лся́ in the masculine of reflexive verbs is becoming out-of-date

  • Note: Non-standard (i.e. /b and /c) past tense stress patterns are handled by additional parameters. Letters "a", "b" and "c" are only used for present tense subtypes by the verb module.
  • Note: the verbs "дать" and "взять" have special stress patterns: дал, дала́, да́ло/дало́, да́ли; взял, взяла́, взя́ло/взяло́, взяли

Present participle[edit]

To form 3rd person plural present tense form is taken, "-т" is dropped, "-щий" is added:

де́лают -> де́лающий (делать); ве́рят -> ве́рящий (верить)

Stress: conjugation I - 3rd person singular, conjugation II - 1st person singular (when stresses are different).

Slavic iotation[edit]

The following alternation of consonants occurs as a result of Proto-Slavic iotation, which was triggered by a -j- following the consonant. Certain forms of some verbs may be affected by this.

Normal б п в ф м м з с д т ст г к х ск
Iotation бл пл вл фл мл м ж ш ж ч, (щ)1 щ ж ч ш щ

* 1Some verbs (marked with -щ- by A. Zaliznyak), т is replaced with щ, not ч: похи́тить - похи́щу, защити́ть - защищу́.