Template:ru-conj

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This documentation is for Module:ru-verb and for all the templates that use this module ({{ru-conj}}, {{ru-generate-verb-forms}}).

Parameters[edit]

All templates that use this module require the first and second parameter to be specified. The first parameter is the verb class, e.g. 1a for verb class 1a. It can also support variant codes (see below), e.g. 7b/b for class 7b with past-tense stress pattern b, or 4c(4) for class 4c with variant code (4) (which indicates a different stress pattern in the present active participle). Note that for classes with a ° sign in them, a o (lowercase O) can be used instead, e.g. for class 3°a the verb class code 3oa can also be used in addition to 3°a; the latter is preferred.

The second parameter indicates the type of verb:

  • impf - imperfective, transitive
  • pf - perfective, transitive
  • impf-intr - imperfective, intransitive
  • pf-intr - perfective, intransitive
  • impf-refl - imperfective, reflexive
  • pf-refl - perfective, reflexive
  • impf-impers - imperfective, transitive, impersonal
  • pf-impers - perfective, transitive, impersonal
  • impf-intr-impers - imperfective, intransitive, impersonal
  • pf-intr-impers - perfective, intransitive, impersonal
  • impf-refl-impers - imperfective, reflexive, impersonal
  • pf-refl-impers - perfective, reflexive, impersonal

The verb types impf-impers-refl and pf-impers-refl are currently supported for compatibility but will disappear soon.

All verb classes have additional numbered parameters, some of which are required and some optional, and some verb classes have optional named parameters. This is documented below. In all cases, a blank parameter is equivalent to a missing parameter.

In addition, there are many named parameters used to override particular forms or supply alternative forms. These are documented below in #Overrides and alternative forms. As above, a blank parameter is equivalent to a missing parameter. If you need to specifically specify that a form doesn't exist, when it would normally be created, set its value to -.

The most commonly seen named parameter is the override parameter past_pasv_part= or its alias ppp=, which specifies the past passive participle form. Note that all verbs that have this participle need to explicitly specify it in one form or another; but it is now preferred to use variant codes, usually just +p, in place of explicitly specifying its value using an override.

Additional named parameters:

  • Parameters for footnote symbols; see below.
  • Parameters to suppress parts of the conjugation and specify iterative verbs; see below.
  • reflex_stress=ся́: Used for reflexive verbs that have a past masculine singular in stressed -ся́. Normally, unstressed -ся or -сь is automatically added to all forms for verbs indicated as reflexive (using parameter 1=). If reflex_stress=ся́ is given, then stressed -ся́ will instead be added to any past masculine singular form that lacks an accent.

Suppressing parts of the conjugation and specifying iterative verbs[edit]

Some verbs are defective, i.e. they lack parts of the conjugation. You can specify that a particular form doesn't exist by setting its value to -, e.g. futr_1sg=- in a number of verbs. However, when an entire tense is missing, it can be more convenient to use one of the following parameters:

A special class of defective verbs are iterative verbs (also called frequentative), used to express the concept of doing an action repeatedly. These verbs are always imperfective and are found only in the infinitive and the past (i.e. they are missing the present, future and imperative). This can be specified using iter=1 (e.g. пи́сывать ‎(písyvatʹ), ха́живать ‎(xáživatʹ), бира́ть ‎(birátʹ)). In addition to disabling the missing forms, it places the verb into Category:Russian iterative verbs.

Footnote symbols[edit]

A system is in place for inserting usage notes into conjugation tables, in the form of footnotes. Footnote symbols attached to the end of a manual override are recognized automatically; they are automatically superscripted and do not interfere with linking. Examples of such symbols are *, @, ~ and various other ASCII symbols; numbers; _, which is automatically converted to a space; and most Unicode symbols (§, ¤, , , , etc.). You can also attach these symbols using parameters such as |pltail=. The usage note itself is inserted using |notes=.

|notes=, |notes2=, |notes3=, ...
Usage note(s) to insert into the table. Footnote symbols at the beginning of the note are automatically superscripted.
|pasttail=
Specify text to append directly to the end of past-tense entries with more than one form (except those with explicit overrides). Normally used to add a footnote symbol to those entries, to add a usage note to alternate past-tense forms.
|prestail=
Same but for present-tense entries.
|futrtail=
Same but for future-tense entries.
|imprtail=
Same but for imperative entries.
|pasttailall=
Like |pasttail= but appends to all past-tense entries (except those with explicit overrides). Normally used to add a footnote symbol, in order to add a usage note about the past-tense forms.
|prestailall=
Same but for present-tense entries.
|futrtailall=
Same but for future-tense entries.
|imprtailall=
Same but for imperative entries.
|MAINFORM_tail=
Append a footnote symbol to the last entry for a particular form. Note that this differs from |pasttail=, |prestail=, and |futrtail= in that it will be appended even if there's only one form. The possible values of MAINFORM are the same as for overrides, except that only main forms are recognized (e.g. use |pres_1sg_tail=, not |pres_1sg2_tail=).
|MAINFORM_tailall=
Same but append to all entries.
|FORM_sym=
Append a footnote symbol to the specified form. This differs from |MAINFORM_tail= in that FORM can be any value for which an override exists, including e.g. |pres_1sg2_sym=.

Participle aliases[edit]

The override parameters for participles are rather long, and shorter aliases are provided to make it easier to enter them:

Short form Equivalent long form Meaning
prap pres_actv_part Present active participle
prpp pres_pasv_part Present passive participle
pap past_actv_part Past active participle
ppp past_pasv_part Past passive participle
pradp pres_adv_part Present adverbial participle
padp past_adv_part Past adverbial participle
padp_short past_adv_part_short Short past adverbial participle

The alternative parameters have similar short aliases, e.g. ppp2= is the same as past_pasv_part2=.

Similar aliases are provided for the footnote parameters ending in tail and tailall:

  • ppptail= is the same as past_pasv_part_tail=.
  • ppptailall= is the same as past_pasv_part_tailall=.
  • praptail= is the same as pres_actv_part_tail=.
  • praptailall= is the same as pres_actv_part_tailall=.
  • etc.

Verb classes[edit]

Note that verb classes come in 3 stress patterns:

  • Pattern a: accent in the present/future is consistently on the stem
  • Pattern b: accent in the present/future is consistently on the endings
  • Pattern c: accent in the present/future is on the ending in the first singular, and otherwise on the stem

Verbs also come in two conjugations:

  • Conjugation I has third-person plural in -ут or -ют, and 2sg/3sg/1pl/2pl usually in -е- or -ё-.
  • Conjugation II has third-person plural in -ят, and 2sg/3sg/1pl/2pl in -и-.

Verbs come in 16 classes, plus some irregular variations. The 16 classes are as follows:

Class Infinitive Pres 1sg Pres 3sg
1 -ать
-ять
-еть
-аю
-яю
-ею
-ает
-яет
-еет
2 -овать
-евать
-евать
-ую
-ую
-юю
-ует
-ует
-юет
3 -нуть -ну -нет
4 -ить -ю/-у -ит
5 -ать
-ять
-еть
-ю/-у -ит
6 -ать
-ять
-ю/-у -ет
7 -зти/-зть -зу -зет
-сти/-сть -су
-ду
-ту
-сту
-бу
-сет
-дет
-тет
-стет
-бет
8 -чь -гу
-ку
-жет
-чет
9 -ереть -ру -рет
10 -олоть
-ороть
-олю
-орю
-олет
-орет
11 -ить -ью -ьет
12 -ыть
-уть
-ить
-ою
-ую
-ию
-оет
-ует
-иет
13 -авать -аю -ает
14 -ать/-ять -ну
-му
-иму
-нет
-мет
-имет
15 -ть -ну -нет
16 -ть -ву -вет

Class 1a[edit]

  • verbs in -ать/-ять (some in -еть), conjugation I, stress pattern a:
    • -ать (-аю, -ает)
    • -ять (-яю, -яет)
    • -еть (-ею, -еет)

Parameters:

  • 3 (required): The stem, including the last vowel; needs to have the stress indicated with an acute accent, e.g. де́ла or вставля́

Allowed variants (param 1) are the past-passive-participle codes +p, (7), [(7)] and ё.

Examples:

Note that specifying |ppp=- to indicate a missing past passive participle isn't necessary for imperfective verbs but is done in жале́ть ‎(žalétʹ) for clarity, since transitive imperfective verbs that were not formed by suffixing a perfective verb normally do have a past passive participle.

Class 2a[edit]

  • verbs in -овать/-евать, conjugation I, stress pattern a:
    • -овать (-ую, -ует/-уёт)
    • -евать (-юю, -юет/-юёт), (-ую, -ует/-уёт) (after ш, щ, ж, ч, ц)

Parameters:

  • 3 (required): The stem, including the last vowel; needs to have the stress indicated with an acute accent, e.g. рисова́ or транслитери́рова

Allowed variants (param 1) are the past-passive-participle codes +p, (7) and [(7)]. Note that ё is not allowed but is automatic in verbs ending in -ева́ть, with participles in -ёванный, and is indicated in the title line of the declension table (verbs in -цева́ть have participles -цо́ванный and have the indication -о- in the title line).

Examples:

Class 2b[edit]

  • verbs in -овать/-евать, conjugation I, stress pattern b:

Identical to class 2a except for the stress pattern.

Allowed variants (param 1) are the past-passive-participle codes +p, (7) and [(7)]. Note that ё is not allowed but is automatic in verbs ending in -ева́ть, with participles in -ёванный, and is indicated in the title line of the declension table (verbs in -цевать have participles -цо́ванный and have the indication -о- in the title line).

Class 3a[edit]

  • verbs in -нуть, conjugation I, stress pattern a, long past-tense forms (including -ну-).

Parameters:

  • 3 (required): the stem without ; needs to have the stress indicated

Allowed variants (param 1) are imperative-ending codes, as well as the past-passive-participle codes +p, (7), [(7)] and ё.

Examples:

Class 3°a[edit]

  • verbs in -нуть, conjugation I, stress pattern a, short past-tense forms (lacking -ну-, except perhaps in the masculine singular).

Note that these verbs can use both 3°a and 3oa as the code.

Parameters:

  • 3 (required): the stem without ; needs to have the stress indicated

Allowed variants (param 1) are (5) or [(5)], (6) or [(6)], an imperative-ending code, as well as the past-passive-participle codes +p, (7), [(7)] and ё; [(5)(6)] can be written and is equivalent to [(5)][(6)].

Examples:

Class 3b[edit]

  • verbs in -ну́ть, conjugation I, stress pattern b.

Parameters:

  • 3 (required): the stem with , no stress

Allowed variants (param 1) are the past-passive-participle codes +p, (7), [(7)] and ё.

Examples:

Class 3c[edit]

  • verbs in -ну́ть, conjugation I, stress pattern c.

Parameters:

  • 3 (required): the stem with , with stress

Allowed variants (param 1) are the past-passive-participle codes +p, (7), [(7)] and ё.

Examples:

Class 4a[edit]

  • verbs in -ить, conjugation II, stress pattern a.

Parameters:

  • 3 (required): the infinitive minus -ить; needs to have the stress indicated

Allowed variants (param 1) are past stress codes, щ, an imperative-ending code, and the past-passive-participle codes +p, (7), [(7)] and жд.

Examples:

Class 4b[edit]

  • verbs in -и́ть, conjugation II, stress pattern b.

Parameters:

  • 3 (required): the infinitive minus -и́ть; should not have stress

Allowed variants (param 1) are past stress codes, щ and the past-passive-participle codes +p, (8), [(8)] and жд.

Examples:

Class 4c[edit]

  • verbs in -и́ть, conjugation II, stress pattern c.

Parameters:

  • 3 (required): the infinitive minus -и́ть; needs to have the present-tense stress indicated

Allowed variants (param 1) are past stress codes, щ, the present-active-participle codes (4) and [(4)], and the past-passive-participle codes +p, (7), [(7)] and жд.

Examples:

Class 4a//1a[edit]

Verbs of this class can have forms of either 4a or 1a, and use the code 4a1a. All verbs of this type are derivatives of either ме́рить ‎(méritʹ) or му́чить ‎(múčitʹ), and have alternative class-1a present and imperative forms (as well as perfective future forms) derived as if from ме́рять or му́чать. (These verbs actually exist and are colloquial alternatives, especially in the past and infinitive.) See verbal section 16 of A.A. Zaliznyak's book Грамматический Словарь Русского Языка, described on page 142 of the 1980 edition. The infinitive and past forms are identical for both classes.

Parameters:

  • 3 (required): The stem, including the last vowel; needs to have the stress indicated

The allowed variants are the same as for class 4a.

Examples:

Class 5a[edit]

  • verbs in -еть (-ять after vowels, -ать after ш/щ/ч/ж), conjugation II, stress pattern a.

Parameters:

  • 3 (required): the present stem (usually the infinitive minus -еть/-ять/-ать); needs to have the stress indicated
  • 4: the past and infinitive stem, including the final vowel; defaults to present stem + е; required for verbs in -ять and -ать; needs to have the stress indicated

Allowed variants (param 1) are past-stress codes, an imperative-ending code, and the past-passive-participle codes +p, (7), [(7)] and ё.

Examples:

  • оби́деть ‎(obídetʹ): {{ru-conj|5a+p|pf|оби́д|оби́де}}
  • вы́стоять ‎(výstojatʹ): {{ru-conj|5a+p|pf|вы́сто|вы́стоя}}
  • вы́гнать ‎(výgnatʹ): {{ru-conj|5a+p|pf|вы́гон|вы́гна}}
  • ви́деть ‎(vídetʹ): {{ru-conj|5a|impf|ви́д|ви́де|ppp=ви́денный|noimpr=1}}
  • слы́шаться ‎(slýšatʹsja): {{ru-conj|5a|impf-refl|слы́ш|слы́ша|noimpr=1}} or (impersonal) {{ru-conj|5a|impf-refl-impers|слы́ш|слы́ша|noimpr=1}}

Class 5b[edit]

  • verbs in -е́ть (-я́ть after vowels, -а́ть after ш/щ/ч/ж), conjugation II, stress pattern b.

Parameters:

  • 3 (required): the present stem (usually the infinitive minus -е́ть/-я́ть/-а́ть); should not have stress
  • 4 (required): the past and infinitive stem, including the final vowel; needs to have the stress indicated

Allowed variants (param 1) are past-stress codes, an imperative-ending code, and the past-passive-participle codes +p, (7), [(7)] and ё.

Examples:

Class 5c[edit]

  • verbs in -е́ть (-я́ть after vowels, -а́ть after ш/щ/ч/ж, гнать exceptionally), conjugation II, stress pattern c.

Parameters:

  • 3 (required): the present stem (usually the infinitive minus -е́ть/-я́ть/-а́ть); needs to have the stress indicated
  • 4 (required): the past and infinitive stem, including the final vowel; needs to have the stress indicated

Allowed variants (param 1) are past-stress codes, an imperative-ending code, the present-active-participle codes (4) and [(4)], and the past-passive-participle codes +p, (7), [(7)] and ё.

Examples:

  • рассмотре́ть ‎(rassmotrétʹ): {{ru-conj|5c+p|pf|рассмо́тр|рассмотре́}}
  • терпе́ть ‎(terpétʹ): {{ru-conj|5c(4)|impf|те́рп|терпе́|ppp=-}}
  • гнать ‎(gnatʹ): {{ru-conj|5c/c|impf|го́н|гна́|ppp=-}}
  • погна́ться ‎(pognátʹsja): {{ru-conj|5c/c''|pf-refl|пого́н|погна́}}

Note that specifying |ppp=- to indicate a missing past passive participle isn't necessary for imperfective verbs but is done in терпе́ть ‎(terpétʹ) and гнать ‎(gnatʹ) for clarity, since transitive imperfective verbs that were not formed by suffixing a perfective verb normally do have a past passive participle.

Class 6a[edit]

  • verbs in -ать (-ять after vowels), iotated present tense without -а, conjugation I, stress pattern a.

Parameters:

  • 3 (required): the infinitive stem (the infinitive minus -ать/-ять); needs to have the stress indicated
  • 4: override the past and infinitive stem, up to the last vowel; used e.g. for колеба́ться ‎(kolebátʹsja) and колыха́ться ‎(kolyxátʹsja)
  • 5: override the imperative singular; also used to construct the imperative plural
  • pres_stem: Overrides the present stem, up to the last consonant (used for the present tense, imperative, present participles); needs to have the stress indicated

Allowed variants (param 1) are past-stress codes, an imperative-ending code, and the past-passive-participle codes +p, (7), [(7)] and ё.

Examples:

Class 6°a[edit]

  • verbs in -ать, non-iotated present tense without -а, conjugation I, stress pattern a.

Parameters are identical to class 6a. This class can be notated as 6oa.

Examples:

  • вы́рвать ‎(výrvatʹ): {{ru-conj|6°a+p|pf|вы́рв}}
  • вы́брать ‎(výbratʹ): {{ru-conj|6°a+p|pf|вы́бр|pres_stem=вы́бер}}
  • жа́ждать ‎(žáždatʹ): {{ru-conj|6°a|impf-intr|жа́жд|pradp=жа́ждая}}

Class 6b[edit]

  • verbs in -а́ть (-я́ть after vowels), iotated present tense without -а, conjugation I, stress pattern b.

Parameters:

  • 3 (required): the infinitive stem (the infinitive minus -а́ть/-я́ть); should not have stress
  • 4: the present stem, defaulting to the infinitive stem; used e.g. for звать ‎(zvatʹ), present 1sg зову́ ‎(zovú), and драть ‎(dratʹ), present 1sg деру́ ‎(derú)

Allowed variants (param 1) are past stress and the past-passive-participle codes +p, (7), [(7)] and ё.

Examples:

Class 6°b[edit]

  • verbs in -а́ть, non-iotated present tense without -а, conjugation I, stress pattern b.

This class can be notated as 6ob.

Parameters:

  • 3 (required): the infinitive stem (the infinitive minus -а́ть/-я́ть); should not have stress
  • 4: the present stem, defaulting to the infinitive stem; used e.g. for звать ‎(zvatʹ), present 1sg зову́ ‎(zovú), and драть ‎(dratʹ), present 1sg деру́ ‎(derú)

Allowed variants (param 1) are past stress and the past-passive-participle codes +p, (7), [(7)] and ё.

Examples:

Class 6c[edit]

  • verbs in -а́ть (-я́ть after vowels), iotated present tense without -а, conjugation I, stress pattern c.

Parameters:

  • 3 (required): the infinitive minus -а́ть/-я́ть; needs to have the stress indicated

Allowed variants (param 1) are щ, past stress, and the past-passive-participle codes +p, (7), [(7)] and ё.

Examples:

Class 6°c[edit]

  • verbs in -ать, non-iotated present tense without -а, conjugation I, stress pattern c.

Parameters are identical to class 6c. This class can be notated as 6oc.

All verbs in this class are derivatives of стона́ть ‎(stonátʹ).

Examples:

Class 6a//1a and 6c//1a, §13[edit]

Verbs of this class can have forms of either 6a/6c or 1a, and use the codes 6a1as13 (because there is another 6a//1a variant) and 6c1a.

Section 13 refers to a notation in A.A. Zaliznyak's book Грамматический Словарь Русского Языка, described on page 141 of the 1980 edition. The infinitive and past forms are identical for both classes. In the finite present (or perfective future) tense and the present active participle, the class 6 forms are preferred and the class 1a forms are considered colloquial. In the remaining present participles and the imperative, forms of both classes are equally preferred.

Parameters are as in class 6a or 6c.

Examples:

  • ты́кать ‎(týkatʹ, to jab, to prod): {{ru-conj|6a1as13+p|impf|ты́к}}
  • щипа́ть ‎(ščipátʹ, to pinch, to pluck): {{ru-conj|6c1a+p|impf|щи́п}}

Class 6a//1a and 1a//6a, §14[edit]

Verbs of this class can have forms of either 6a or 1a, and use the codes 6a1as14 (because there is another 6a//1a variant) and 1a6a.

Section 14 refers to a notation in A.A. Zaliznyak's book Грамматический Словарь Русского Языка, described on page 141 of the 1980 edition. The infinitive and past forms are identical for both classes. In the present adverbial participle and imperative, the class 1 forms are preferred and the class 6 forms are dated. In the remaininder of the present (and perfective future), forms of one class or the other are slightly preferred: class 6 for 6a//1a, class 1 for 1a//6a.

Parameters are as in class 6a.

Examples:

  • колыха́ться ‎(kolyxátʹsja, to heave, to flutter, to flicker): {{ru-conj|6a1as14|impf-refl|колы́х|колыха́}}
  • ка́пать ‎(kápatʹ, to drip): {{ru-conj|1a6a|impf-intr|ка́п}}

Class 7a[edit]

  • verbs in -сти/сть, -зти/-зть, present tense stem ending in various consonants, conjugation I, stress pattern a.

Parameters:

  • 3 (required): the full infinitive; needs to have the stress indicated
  • 4 (required): the present stem (up to the final consonant); needs to have the stress indicated
  • 5: the past participle stem; needs to have the stress indicated; normally should be omitted, and defaults to the present stem
  • 6: the past tense stem; needs to have the stress indicated; normally should be omitted, and defaults to the past participle stem minus final д and т

Allowed variants (param 1) are past stress codes, imperative-ending codes, (9) and the past-passive-participle code +p.

Examples:

  • вы́вести ‎(vývesti): {{ru-conj|7a(9)+p|pf|вы́вести|вы́вед}}
  • сесть ‎(sestʹ): {{ru-conj|7a|pf-intr|се́сть|ся́д|се́}}
  • вылезть ‎(vyleztʹ): {{ru-conj|7a[(3)]|pf-intr|вы́лезть|вы́лез}}

Class 7b[edit]

  • verbs in -сти́/сть, -зти́/-зть, present tense stem ending in various consonants, conjugation I, stress pattern b.

Parameters:

  • 3 (required): the full infinitive; needs to have the stress indicated
  • 4 (required): the present stem (up to the final consonant); should have stress if param 5 is omitted, else should not have stress; should have ё in it if the past participles have ё in them
  • 5: the past participle stem; needs to have the stress indicated; normally should be omitted, and defaults to the present stem (minus final д and т if the past stress isn't b)
  • 6: the past tense stem; needs to have the stress indicated; normally should be omitted, and defaults to the past participle stem minus final д and т and with final-syllable е converted to ё

Allowed variants (param 1) are past stress codes, (9) and the past-passive-participle code +p.

Examples:

  • вести́ ‎(vestí): {{ru-conj|7b/b+p|impf|вести́|ве́д|prpp=ведо́мый*|notes=* Dated.}}
  • везти́ ‎(veztí): {{ru-conj|7b/b+p|impf|везти́|вёз}}
  • пронести́ ‎(pronestí): {{ru-conj|7b/b(9)+p|pf|пронести́|пронёс}}
  • спасть ‎(spastʹ): {{ru-conj|7b|pf-intr|спа́сть|спа́д}}
  • счесть ‎(sčestʹ): {{ru-conj|7b/b(9)+p|pf|сче́сть|сочт|счёт|со́ч|past_m=счёл|pap=-|padp=сочтя́}}

Class 8a[edit]

  • verbs in -чь, present tense in -г-/-к- (iotated to -ж-/-ч- in the 2sg/3sg/1pl/2pl), conjugation I, stress pattern a.

Parameters:

  • 3 (required): the present stem (up to the final consonant, in non-iotated form); needs to have the stress indicated
  • 4 (required): the full infinitive; needs to have the stress indicated
  • 5: the stressed past stem, used for the masculine singular past and as the stem of past participles; needs to have the stress indicated, defaults to the present stem (arg 3)

The default for the present passive participle, present adverbial participle, and short past adverbial participle are blank, and will need to be specified with overrides if they exist.

Examples:

  • вы́течь ‎(výtečʹ): {{ru-conj|8a|pf-intr|вы́тек|вы́течь}}
  • вы́жечь ‎(výžečʹ): {{ru-conj|8a+p|pf|вы́жг|вы́жечь|вы́жег}}

Class 8b[edit]

  • verbs in -чь, present tense in -г-/-к- (iotated to -ж-/-ч- in the 2sg/3sg/1pl/2pl), conjugation I, stress pattern b.
  • 3 (required): the present stem (up to the final consonant, in non-iotated form); needs to have the stress indicated
  • 4 (required): the full infinitive; needs to have the stress indicated
  • 5: the stressed past stem, used for the masculine singular past and as the stem of past participles; needs to have the stress indicated, defaults to the present stem (arg 3)

The default for the present passive participle, present adverbial participle, and short past adverbial participle are blank, and will need to be specified with overrides if they exist.

Allowed variants (param 1) are past stress codes and the past-passive-participle code +p. Note that the default past stress is b.

Examples:

  • печь ‎(pečʹ): {{ru-conj|8b+p|impf|пёк|пе́чь}}
  • жечь ‎(žečʹ): {{ru-conj|8b+p|impf|жг|же́чь|жёг}}
  • стричь ‎(stričʹ): {{ru-conj|8b/a+p|impf|стри́г|стри́чь}}
  • отвле́чься ‎(otvléčʹsja): {{ru-conj|8b|pf-refl|отвлёк|отвле́чь}}
  • приволо́чь ‎(privolóčʹ): {{ru-conj|8b|pf|приволо́к|приволо́чь|ppp=приволо́ченный|ppp2=приволочённый}}
  • засе́чь ‎(zaséčʹ, to notch, to locate, to plot on a map): {{ru-conj|8b+p|pf|засёк|засе́чь|past_m2=засе́к*|notes=* Dated.|pap2=засе́кший**|padp2=засе́кши**|notes2=** Rare or dated.|ppp2=засе́ченный}}
  • засе́чь ‎(zaséčʹ, to whip to death): {{ru-conj|8b+p|pf|засёк|засе́чь|past_m2=засе́к*|past_f2=засе́кла*|past_n2=засе́кло*|past_pl2=засе́кли*|notes=* Dated.|pap2=засе́кший**|padp2=засе́кши**|notes2=** Rare or dated.}}

Class 9a[edit]

  • verbs in -ереть, present tense in -р- (no root vowel), conjugation I, stress pattern a.

Parameters:

  • 3 (required): the infinitive stem (up to the final consonant); needs to have the stress indicated
  • 4 (required): the present stem (up to the final consonant); needs to have the stress indicated

Allowed variants (param 1) are past stress codes and the past-passive-participle code +p.

These verbs only occur in the perfective.

Examples:

Class 9b[edit]

  • verbs in -ере́ть, present tense in -р- (no root vowel), conjugation I, stress pattern b.
  • 3 (required): the infinitive stem (up to the final consonant); needs to have the stress indicated, will contain -ё-
  • 4 (required): the present stem (up to the final consonant); needs to have the stress indicated
  • 5: the past participle stem, minus -ши(й); needs to have the stress indicated; used for the past active and adverbial participles, defaults to the value of past_m; multiple stems can be specified, separated by commas

Allowed variants (param 1) are past stress codes and the past-passive-participle code +p.

The default for the present passive participle, present adverbial participle, and (in the imperfect) the short past adverbial participle are blank, and will need to be specified with overrides if they exist.

Examples:

  • тере́ть ‎(terétʹ): {{ru-conj|9b+p|impf|тёр|тр}}
  • стере́ть ‎(sterétʹ): {{ru-conj|9b+p|pf|стёр|сотр}}
  • запере́ть ‎(zaperétʹ): {{ru-conj|9b/c+p|pf|за́пер|запр}}
  • замере́ть ‎(zamerétʹ): {{ru-conj|9b/c(1)|pf-intr|за́мер|замр|заме́р,за́мер}}
  • опере́ться ‎(operétʹsja): {{ru-conj|9b/c'',a|pf-refl|опёр|обопр|padp2=оперши́}}

Class 10a[edit]

  • verbs in -олоть or -ороть, conjugation I, stress pattern a.

Parameters:

  • 3 (required): the infinitive stem (up to the final consonant); needs to have the stress indicated

Allowed variants (param 1) are the past-passive-participle codes +p, (7) and [(7)].

These verbs only occur in the perfective.

Examples:

Class 10c[edit]

  • verbs mostly in -оло́ть or -оро́ть, conjugation I, stress pattern c.
  • 3 (required): the infinitive stem (up to the final vowel, i.e. including the stressed -о́-); needs to have the stress indicated
  • 4 (required): the present stem (up to the final consonant); needs to have the stress indicated; used for моло́ть ‎(molótʹ) and derivatives

Allowed variants (param 1) are the past-passive-participle codes +p, (7) and [(7)].

The default for the present passive participle is blank, and will need to be specified with an override if it exists.

Examples:

Class 11a[edit]

  • verbs in -ить, present tense in -ью/-ьет, conjugation I, stress pattern a.

Parameters:

  • 3 (required): the infinitive stem (up to the final consonant); needs to have the stress indicated

Allowed variants (param 1) are past stress codes and the past-passive-participle code +p.

These verbs only occur in the perfective.

Examples:

Class 11b[edit]

  • verbs in -и́ть, present tense in -ью́/-ьёт, conjugation I, stress pattern b.
  • 3 (required): the infinitive stem (up to the final consonant); should not have stress
  • 4 (required): the present stem (up to the final consonant); should not have stress

Allowed variants (param 1) are past stress codes and the past-passive-participle code +p.

The default for the present passive participle is blank, and will need to be specified with an override if it exists.

Examples:

  • би́ться ‎(bítʹsja): {{ru-conj|11b|impf-refl|б|б}}
  • разви́ть ‎(razvítʹ): {{ru-conj|11b/c|pf|разв|разов|past_pasv_part=ра́звитый|past_pasv_part2=разви́тый}}
  • пить ‎(pitʹ): {{ru-conj|11b/c+p|impf|п|п}}

Class 12a[edit]

  • verbs in a single-syllable root ending in a vowel, usually infinitive -ыть (present tense -о́ю) or -уть (present tense -у́ю), conjugation I, stress pattern a.

Parameters:

  • 3 (required): the infinitive stem (up to the final vowel); needs to have the stress indicated
  • 4 (required): the present stem (up to the final vowel); needs to have the stress indicated

Allowed variants (param 1) are past stress codes and the past-passive-participle code +p.

Examples:

  • крыть ‎(krytʹ): {{ru-conj|12a+p|impf|кры́|кро́}}
  • согре́ть ‎(sogrétʹ): {{ru-conj|12a+p|pf|согре́|согре́}}

Class 12b[edit]

  • петь ‎(petʹ) (пою́, поёт), гнить ‎(gnitʹ) (гнию́, гниёт) and derivatives, conjugation I, stress pattern b.

Parameters:

  • 3 (required): the infinitive stem (up to the final vowel); needs to have the stress indicated
  • 4 (required): the present stem (up to the final vowel); should not have stress

Allowed variants (param 1) are past stress codes and the past-passive-participle code +p.

The default for the present passive participle is blank, and will need to be specified with an override if it exists.

Examples:

  • петь ‎(petʹ): {{ru-conj|12b+p|impf|пе́|по}}
  • сгнить ‎(sgnitʹ): {{ru-conj|12b/c|pf-intr|сгни́|сгни}}

Class 13b[edit]

  • verbs in -ава́ть (present tense -аю́, -аёт), conjugation I, stress pattern b.

Parameters:

  • 3 (required): the infinitive stem (up to the final vowel, i.e. -а́-); needs to have the stress indicated
  • 4 (required): the present stem (up to the final consonant); should not have stress

Allowed variants (param 1) are the past-passive-participle code +p.

Examples:

Class 14a[edit]

  • one verb вы́жать ‎(výžatʹ) (present tense вы́жму, вы́жмет), conjugation I, stress pattern a.

Parameters:

  • 3 (required): the infinitive stem (up to the final vowel); needs to have the stress indicated (i.e. вы́жа)
  • 4 (required): the present stem (up to the final consonant); needs to have the stress indicated (i.e. вы́жм)

Allowed variants (param 1) are past stress codes and the past-passive-participle code +p.

Example (only one):

  • вы́жать ‎(výžatʹ): {{ru-conj|14a+p|pf|вы́жа|вы́жм}}

Class 14b[edit]

  • verbs in a single-syllable root ending in infinitive -ать or -ять, present tense in -н- or -м- (no root vowel) or in -им-, conjugation I, stress pattern b.

Parameters:

  • 3 (required): the infinitive stem (up to the final vowel); needs to have the stress indicated
  • 4 (required): the present stem (up to the final consonant); should not have stress

Allowed variants (param 1) are past stress codes and the past-passive-participle code +p.

The default for the present passive participle is blank, and will need to be specified with an override if it exists.

Examples:

  • мять ‎(mjatʹ): {{ru-conj|14b+p|impf|мя́|мн}}
  • нажа́ть ‎(nažátʹ, to press): {{ru-conj|14b+p|pf|нажа́|нажм}}
  • взять ‎(vzjatʹ): {{ru-conj|14b/c'+p|pf|взя́|возьм}}
  • заня́ться ‎(zanjátʹsja): {{ru-conj|14b/b*,b|pf-refl|заня́}}

Class 14c[edit]

  • verbs in a single-syllable root ending in infinitive -ать or -ять, present tense in -н- or -м- (no root vowel) or in -им-, conjugation I, stress pattern c.

Parameters:

  • 3 (required): the infinitive stem (up to the final vowel); needs to have the stress indicated
  • 4 (required): the present stem (up to the final consonant); needs to have the stress indicated

Allowed variants (param 1) are past stress codes and the past-passive-participle code +p.

The default for the present passive participle is blank, and will need to be specified with an override if it exists.

Examples:

  • изъя́ть ‎(izʺjátʹ): {{ru-conj|14c+p|pf|изъя́|изы́м}}
  • обня́ться ‎(obnjátʹsja): {{ru-conj|14c/c''-bd|pf-refl|обня́|обни́м}}

Class 15a[edit]

  • verbs in a single-syllable root, present tense in full root plus -н-, conjugation I, stress pattern a. All verbs are derivatives of деть ‎(detʹ), стать ‎(statʹ), стыть ‎(stytʹ), or -стрять ‎(-strjatʹ).

Parameters:

  • 3 (required): the infinitive stem (up to the final vowel); needs to have the stress indicated

Allowed variants (param 1) are the past-passive-participle code +p.

The default for the present passive and present adverbial participle is blank, and will need to be specified with overrides if they exist.

Examples:

  • стыть ‎(stytʹ): {{ru-conj|15a|impf-intr|сты́}}
  • деть ‎(detʹ): {{ru-conj|15a+p|pf|де́}}
  • оста́ться ‎(ostátʹsja): {{ru-conj|15a|pf-refl|оста́}}

Class 16a[edit]

  • verbs in a single-syllable root, present tense in full root plus -в-, conjugation I, stress pattern a. All verbs begin with вы́- ‎(vý-) and are perfective.

Parameters:

  • 3 (required): the infinitive stem (up to the final vowel); needs to have the stress indicated

Allowed variants (param 1) are past stress codes and the past-passive-participle code +p.

Examples:

Class 16b[edit]

  • verbs in a single-syllable root, present tense in full root plus -в-, conjugation I, stress pattern b. All verbs are derivatives of жить ‎(žitʹ), плыть ‎(plytʹ), or слыть ‎(slytʹ).

Parameters:

  • 3 (required): the infinitive stem (up to the final vowel); needs to have the stress indicated

Allowed variants (param 1) are past stress codes and the past-passive-participle code +p.

The default for the present passive participle is blank, and will need to be specified with an override if it exists.

Examples:

  • плыть ‎(plytʹ): {{ru-conj|16b/c'|impf-intr|плы́}}
  • зажи́ть ‎(zažítʹ): {{ru-conj|16b/c(1),c|pf-intr|зажи́|pasttail=*|notes=* Colloquial.}}

Irregular classes[edit]

There are numerous irregular verbs that don't fit into the above classes. Each of them has its own template. The following is the full list:

  • {{ru-conj|irreg-бежать}}
  • {{ru-conj|irreg-хотеть}}
  • {{ru-conj|irreg-дать}}
  • {{ru-conj|irreg-есть}}
  • {{ru-conj|irreg-сыпать}}
  • {{ru-conj|irreg-лгать}}
  • {{ru-conj|irreg-мочь}}
  • {{ru-conj|irreg-слать}}
  • {{ru-conj|irreg-идти}}
  • {{ru-conj|irreg-ехать}}
  • {{ru-conj|irreg-минуть}}
  • {{ru-conj|irreg-живописать-миновать}}
  • {{ru-conj|irreg-лечь}}
  • {{ru-conj|irreg-зиждиться}}
  • {{ru-conj|irreg-клясть}}
  • {{ru-conj|irreg-слыхать-видать}}
  • {{ru-conj|irreg-стелить-стлать}}
  • {{ru-conj|irreg-быть}}
  • {{ru-conj|irreg-ссать-сцать}}
  • {{ru-conj|irreg-чтить}}
  • {{ru-conj|irreg-шибить}}
  • {{ru-conj|irreg-внимать}}
  • {{ru-conj|irreg-внять}}
  • {{ru-conj|irreg-обязывать}}

Irregular, дать, быть, клясть and derivatives[edit]

  • {{ru-conj|irreg-дать}} - дать ‎(datʹ) and derivatives.
  • {{ru-conj|irreg-быть}} - быть ‎(bytʹ) and derivatives.
  • {{ru-conj|irreg-клясть}} - клясть ‎(kljastʹ) and derivatives.

Parameters:

Allowed variants (param 1) are past stress; default for past stress is a(1) if the prefix is вы́-, otherwise c'' if the verb is reflexive, else c' for дать, c for быть and клясть.

Examples:

  • да́ться ‎(dátʹsja): {{ru-conj|irreg-дать|pf-refl}}
  • разда́ть ‎(razdátʹ): {{ru-conj|irreg-дать/c(1),c|pf|раз|past_pasv_part=ро́зданный}}

Other irregular classes[edit]

Most templates take a single optional parameter, 3=, which is a prefix to add to the verb, for derivatives of these irregular verbs. If the prefix is stressed, it should have an accent (usually вы́). The remaining exceptions are:

  • {{ru-conj|irreg-минуть}} takes required parameter 3= which should be the stressed stem (ми́н).
  • {{ru-conj|irreg-живописать-миновать}} takes two parameters: required parameter 3= should be the stressed infinitive stem (up to the final -а), and required parameter 4= should be the stressed present stem (up to the final consonant).
  • {{ru-conj|irreg-слыхать-видать}} takes required parameter 3= which should be the stressed infinitive stem (up to the final -а).
  • {{ru-conj|irreg-стелить-стлать}} takes three parameters: required parameter 3= should be the stressed infinitive stem (up to the final -а), optional parameter 4= is the infinitive and past-tense prefix, and optional parameter 5= is the present-tense prefix (if omitted, defaults to the infinitive/past prefix). Two different prefixes are required for разостла́ть ‎(razostlátʹ) and разостла́ться ‎(razostlátʹsja), with present-tense prefix рас- ‎(ras-).
  • {{ru-conj|irreg-ссать-сцать}} takes three parameters: required parameter 3= should be the stressed infinitive stem (up to the final -а), required parameter 4= should be the stressed present stem (up to the final consonant, and may or may not be stressed) and optional parameter 5= is the prefix.

Past stress, imperative ending and other variant codes[edit]

Many verb classes take a variant-code parameter, which may control the stress in the past tense, the ending of the imperative and/or other things. The allowable codes differ from class to class and are specified in the documentation for the particular class, but are a subset of the following codes. When multiple codes need to be specified, just append them all together without spaces or other separators. Note that the particular form of the codes is chosen to be compatible with A. A. Zaliznyak's dictionaries.

Past stress variants[edit]

For the classes that allow the stress in the past tense to be specified, the following codes are allowed (using a prefixed derivative of дать ‎(datʹ) as an example):

  • a: -да́л, -да́ла, -да́ло, -да́ли
  • a(1): -́дал, -́дала, -́дало, -́дали (i.e. with stress on the prefix; used for вы́дать ‎(výdatʹ), вы́даться ‎(výdatʹsja))
  • b: -да́л, -дала́, -дало́, -дали́
  • b* (reflexive verbs): -дался́, -дала́сь, -дало́сь, -дали́сь
  • c: -да́л, -да́ла, -дало́, -да́ли
  • c(1): -́дал, -дала́, -́дало, -́дали (i.e. with stress on the prefix in most cases)
  • c': -да́л, -да́ла, -да́ло/-дало́, -да́ли
  • c'' (reflexive verbs): -да́лся/-дался́, -дала́сь, -дало́сь/-да́лось, -дали́сь/-да́лись (with a footnote indicating that -дался́ is dated)
  • c''-bd (reflexive verbs): Same as c'' but the footnote says "is becoming dated" instead of "is dated"
  • c''-nd (reflexive verbs): Same as c'' but without the "is dated" footnote
  • c''(1) (reflexive verbs): -дался́/-́дался, -дала́сь, -дало́сь/-́далось, -дали́сь/-́дались (i.e. with stress on the prefix in some cases)

The past stress variant should be separated from the verb class by a slash, e.g. 7b/b.

A comma-separated list of codes is also possible, e.g.

  • c(1),c: -́дал/-да́л, -дала́, -́дало/-да́ло, -́дали/-да́ли (i.e. with stress on the prefix in some cases)
  • c,c(1): -да́л/-́дал, -дала́, -да́ло/-́дало, -да́ли/-́дали (i.e. with stress on the prefix in some cases)
  • (etc.)

When multiple codes are specified, duplicate forms will not appear.

The default for the past stress is a for most classes. However:

  • It is b for class 8b.
  • For the irregular classes irreg-дать, irreg-быть and irreg-клясть, the default is a(1) if the prefix is вы́-, otherwise c'' if the verb is reflexive, else c' for дать, c for быть and клясть.

Note that some of the above patterns call for stress on the prefix. Normally the last syllable is stressed (e.g. припо́д-), but пере- is stressed as пе́ре-, and рас and раз are converted into ро́с- and ро́з-.

Imperative ending[edit]

The following codes are allowed in classes that allow the imperative ending to be specified.

  • и: Ending is -и in both singular and plural.
  • ь: If the stem ends in a consonant, ending is -ь in both singular and plural; else, -й in both singular and plural.
  • й: Same as ь.
  • (2): Same as ь, but only allowed for verbs in вы́-.
  • [(2)]: Ending is both -и and -ь/й in singular and plural.
  • (3): Ending is -и in singular but -ь/й in plural.
  • [(3)]: Ending is both -и and -ь/й in singular, but -ь/й only in plural.

For verbs that use imperative-ending codes, the default ending is as follows:

  • If the stem ends in a vowel: -и́ for classes 4b and 4c, -и for class 4a if the stem begins in вы́-, else й
  • If the stem ends in a consonant: -и́ for classes b and c in general, else -и if the stem begins in вы́- or ends in two consonants or -щ (e.g. мо́рщить ‎(mórščitʹ)), else -ь (e.g. бре́дить ‎(bréditʹ))

Past passive participle[edit]

The following codes are used both for specifying that a verb has a past passive participle (PPP), and specifying how it is to be formed. Note that each particular verb class allows only some of these codes to be specified; the codes that are allowed are specified in the class's documentation. If none of +p, (7), [(7)], (8) and [(8)] is given, no PPP will exist. If none of these codes is given, the remaining codes ё and жд cannot be given, and no codes can be given for intransitive and reflexive verbs, which do not have PPP's.

  • +p: Allowed for all classes 1-16 (although not currently for any of the irregular classes). Specifies that a PPP is to be formed the "normal" way (which depends on the particular class).
  • (7): For certain classes: Specify that a PPP is to be formed with stress on the ending (-а́нный, -я́нный, -ённый, -у́тый, etc.) instead of on the preceding syllable, where it normally would be.
  • [(7)]: For certain classes: Specify that a PPP can be formed in two ways: the normal way with stress on the syllable preceding the ending, and also with stress on the ending, as in (7).
  • (8): For class 4b: Specify that a PPP is to be formed with stress on the syllable preceding the ending (-́енный) instead of on the ending (-ённый), where it normally would be.
  • [(8)]: For class 4b: Specify that a PPP can be formed in two ways: the normal way with stress on ending (-ённый), and also with stress on the syllable preceding the ending (-́енный), as in (8).
  • ё: For the classes that allow code (7): Specify that an -е- changes into -ё- when the stress moves onto it. This is useful when the stem normally has ending stress but the PPP rules call for the stress to be on the preceding syllable; e.g. 1a наверста́ть ‎(naverstátʹ), PPP навёрстанный ‎(navjórstannyj); 3b поверну́ть ‎(povernútʹ), PPP повёрнутый ‎(povjórnutyj); 5b облежа́ть ‎(obležátʹ), PPP облёжанный ‎(obljóžannyj). Not required or allowed in class 2 verbs in -ева́ть, which will automatically have -ёванный unless code (7) is used (note that verbs in -цева́ть will have -цо́ванный in the same circumstances).
  • жд: For class 4: Specify that a stem with final -д changes into -жд instead of iotating normally to -ж, e.g. 4b роди́ть ‎(rodítʹ), PPP рождённый ‎(roždjónnyj).

Other variants[edit]

  • (4): For class 4c and 5c: Present active participle ends in -́ящий (-́ащий for verbs ending in one of the hushing consonants ж ч ш щ), with stress on the final syllable of the stem, instead of the expected -я́щий/-а́щий with stress on the ending.
  • [(4)]: For class 4c and 5c: Present active participle ends in both -́ящий/-́ащий and -я́щий/-а́щий.
  • (5): For class 3°a: Only long masc sg. past (with -ну-).
  • [(5)]: For class 3°a: Both short and long masc. sg. past (with and without -ну-).
  • no (5) or [(5)]: For class 3°a: Only short masc sg. past (without -ну-).
  • (6): For class 3°a: Only long past active/adverbial participles (with -ну-).
  • [(6)]: For class 3°a: Both short and long past active/adverbial participles (with and without -ну-).
  • no (6) or [(6)]: For class 3°a: Only short past active/adverbial participles (without -ну-).
  • [(5)(6)]: For class 3°a: Equivalent to [(5)][(6)].
  • no (5) or [(5)]: For class 3°a: Only short masc sg. past (without -ну-).
  • (9): For class 7b: Past adverbial participle ends in -я́ (normally the present adverbial participle ending); the expected endings -(в)(ши) are dated.
  • щ: For class 4 and 6 whose stem ends in -т: Iotated version ends in -щ instead of -ч. Examples: class 4a похи́тить ‎(poxítitʹ), 1sg похи́щу ‎(poxíšču); class 4b защити́ть ‎(zaščitítʹ), 1sg защищу́ ‎(zaščiščú); class 4c поглоти́ть ‎(poglotítʹ), 1sg поглощу́ ‎(pogloščú); class 6c клевета́ть ‎(klevetátʹ), 1sg клевещу́ ‎(kleveščú).

Manual transliteration[edit]

Currently, explicit manual transliteration can be specified in classes 1a, 2a, 2b, 4a, 4b and 4c. Separate the Cyrillic and transliteration with a //.

Example:

  • семпли́ровать ‎(sɛmplírovatʹ): {{ru-conj|2a+p|impf|семпли́рова//sɛmplírova}}
  • зафре́ндить ‎(zafrɛ́nditʹ): {{ru-conj|4a[(2)]|pf|зафре́нд//zafrɛ́nd|ppp=зафре́нженный//zafrɛ́nžennyj|ppp2=зафре́ндженный//zafrɛ́ndžennyj|futr_1sg2=зафре́нджу//zafrɛ́ndžu|futr_1sg3=зафре́ндю//zafrɛ́ndju|padp2=зафре́ндя//zafrɛ́ndja}}

Note that manual transliteration is supported for all aspects of the classes that support it, including, among other things, manual overrides and automatic past passive participle generation, as shown by the examples.

Overrides and alternative forms[edit]

All forms can be overridden using override parameters. Each form except the infinitive has three alternatives that can be overridden, to specify up to four possibilities for each form. For example, the feminine singular past can be overridden using |past_f=, and the three alternatives can be overridden using |past_f2=, |past_f3= and |past_f4=. Overriding the alternative forms is useful, for example, to add an alternative to the existing form or forms that are generated by the module. There is no problem if e.g. |past_f3= has a value but |past_f2= does not.

The following is the full list of forms:

Form code Alias Form Notes
pres_1sg First-person singular present indicative Only for imperfective verbs
pres_2sg Second-person singular present indicative Only for imperfective verbs
pres_3sg Third-person singular present indicative Only for imperfective verbs
pres_1pl First-person plural present indicative Only for imperfective verbs
pres_2pl Second-person plural present indicative Only for imperfective verbs
pres_3pl Third-person plural present indicative Only for imperfective verbs
futr_1sg First-person singular future indicative Only for perfective verbs
futr_2sg Second-person singular future indicative Only for perfective verbs
futr_3sg Third-person singular future indicative Only for perfective verbs
futr_1pl First-person plural future indicative Only for perfective verbs
futr_2pl Second-person plural future indicative Only for perfective verbs
futr_3pl Third-person plural future indicative Only for perfective verbs
impr_sg Second-person singular imperative
impr_pl Second-person plural imperative
past_m Masculine singular past indicative
past_f Feminine singular past indicative
past_n Neuter singular past indicative
past_p Plural past indicative
past_m_short Short masculine singular past indicative Used for verbs in -нуть
past_f_short Short feminine singular past indicative Used for verbs in -нуть
past_n_short Short neuter singular past indicative Used for verbs in -нуть
past_p_short Short plural past indicative Used for verbs in -нуть
pres_actv_part prap Present active participle only for imperfective verbs
past_actv_part pap Past active participle
pres_pasv_part prpp Present passive participle only for imperfective verbs
past_pasv_part ppp Past passive participle
pres_adv_part pradp Present adverbial participle only for imperfective verbs
past_adv_part padp Past adverbial participle Form with -ши
past_adv_part_short padp_short Short past adverbial participle Form without -ши; not for reflexive verbs
infinitive Infinitive Does not have alternatives

Furthermore:

  • Intransitive verbs do not have passive participles.
  • Impersonal verbs have only the following forms:
    • Third-person singular present and future indicative
    • Neuter singular past indicative
    • Present and past passive participles
    • Infinitive