na

Definition from Wiktionary, the free dictionary
Jump to navigation Jump to search

Translingual[edit]

Symbol[edit]

na

  1. (international standards) ISO 639-1 language code for Nauruan.

English[edit]

Pronunciation[edit]

Etymology 1[edit]

From Middle English na, from Old English , from Old English ne (“not”) + ā (“ever”). More at no.

Adverb[edit]

na (not comparable)

  1. (obsolete) Not.
  2. (obsolete) No.

Etymology 2[edit]

Development of Etymology 1, above; compare nah.

Interjection[edit]

na

  1. (Tyneside or Scotland) No.
    "Na, yor wrang."
    "Na, ye cannet watch telly."
    "Divn’t yee like milk?" "Na."

References[edit]

  • Frank Graham (1987) The New Geordie Dictionary, →ISBN
  • A Dictionary of North East Dialect, Bill Griffiths, 2005, Northumbria University Press, →ISBN

Etymology 3[edit]

Abbreviations.

Noun[edit]

na

  1. (linguistics) Abbreviation of noun animate.

Etymology 4[edit]

Borrowed from Tagalog na.

Adverb[edit]

na (not comparable)

  1. (Philippines, slang) Now.
    You need to sleep na.

Etymology 5[edit]

Borrowed from Hindi ना ().

Adverb[edit]

na (not comparable)

  1. (North India, slang) isn't it?.
    It is far na?.

See also[edit]

Anagrams[edit]


'Are'are[edit]

Article[edit]

na

  1. the

References[edit]


Acehnese[edit]

Verb[edit]

na

  1. to be (exist)

Derived terms[edit]


Albanian[edit]

Etymology[edit]

From Proto-Indo-European *nō̆s (we).

Pronoun[edit]

na

  1. (Gheg) we

Alternative forms[edit]


Asturian[edit]

Etymology[edit]

From a contraction of the preposition en (“in”) + feminine singular article la (“the”).

Contraction[edit]

na f (masculine nel, neuter no, masculine plural nos, feminine plural nes)

  1. in the

Bambara[edit]

Etymology 1[edit]

Pronunciation[edit]

Noun[edit]

na

  1. stew

Etymology 2[edit]

Particle[edit]

na (tone )

  1. auxiliary marker for future tense
    sini, i bɛ na taa sugu jɔ
    You will go to the market tomorrow

References[edit]


Bikol Central[edit]

Adverb[edit]

na

  1. already

Particle[edit]

na

  1. connects consonant ending noun or adjective to a noun or adjective that it modifies.

Blagar[edit]

Etymology[edit]

From Proto-Trans-New Guinea *na. Cognate to Zia na.

Pronunciation[edit]

Pronoun[edit]

na

  1. I

Noun[edit]

na

  1. thing

References[edit]


Cameroon Pidgin[edit]

Pronunciation[edit]

Predicative[edit]

na

  1. copula for nouns and adjectives
    • 2019 November 19, Kimzy K-Buoy (lyrics and music), “Flex”‎[1], 0:57–0:59:
      MUSIC NA THE KEY SO I NODI PLAY
      Music is the key so I am not engaging in play.
  2. a topic marker introducing a clause to lay focus on a subject
    • 2019 November 19, Kimzy K-Buoy (lyrics and music), “Flex”‎[2], 1:39–1:42:
      I go make you number one for ma list because
      Na you be the hardest
      I will make you the number one of my list by reason that, behold, you are the hardest.

Catalan[edit]

Etymology[edit]

From the final syllable of Latin domina (“Lady”).

Pronunciation[edit]

Article[edit]

na f sg (elided n', masculine en)

  1. (Eastern Catalan) Personal article used before feminine given names instead of the definite article la.
    En Pau i na Maria arribaran demà.
    Pau and Maria will be arriving tomorrow.

Usage notes[edit]

  • While this article (and its masculine counterpart en) is standard in Balearic Catalan, in other Eastern Catalan dialects its use is waning, and the elided of the definite article, l', is used before names beginning with vowels. There is no plural personal article, so the plural definite article les is used in all dialects.

Related terms[edit]


Cavineña[edit]

Noun[edit]

na

  1. root of ena

References[edit]

  • Antoine Guillaume, A Grammar of Cavineña (2008, →ISBN

Central Huasteca Nahuatl[edit]

Pronoun[edit]

na

  1. I

Czech[edit]

Etymology[edit]

From Old Czech na, from Proto-Slavic *na.

Pronunciation[edit]

  • IPA(key): /na/
  • (file)

Preposition[edit]

na

  1. on, onto (direction, + accusative case)
    Dej skleničku na stůl.Put the glass on the table.
  2. on (location, + locative case)
    Sklenička je na stole.The glass is on the table.
  3. to, (direction, + accusative case, used only with certain places (do + genitive is more common))
    Jdeme na poštu.We're going to the post office.
  4. at, in (location, + locative case, used only with certain places (v is more common))
    Jsme na poště.We're at the post office.
  5. for (purpose, + accusative case)
    Ty nůžky nejsou na hraní.The scissors are not for playing with.
  6. at (in the direction of, + accusative case)
    Nekřič na mě!Don't yell at me!

Further reading[edit]

  • na in Příruční slovník jazyka českého, 1935–1957
  • na in Slovník spisovného jazyka českého, 1960–1971, 1989

Dalmatian[edit]

Etymology[edit]

From Latin nōn.

Adverb[edit]

na

  1. no
  2. not

Related terms[edit]


Domari[edit]

Etymology[edit]

From Sanskrit नव (nava).

Numeral[edit]

na

  1. (Aleppo, cardinal) nine

References[edit]


Drung[edit]

Etymology[edit]

From Proto-Sino-Tibetan *na-ŋ.

Pronoun[edit]

na

  1. you (sg.)

References[edit]

  • Ross Perlin (2019) A Grammar of Trung[4], Santa Barbara: University of California

Dutch[edit]

Pronunciation[edit]

Etymology 1[edit]

From Old Dutch *nāh, *nā, from Proto-Germanic *nēhw.

Preposition[edit]

na

  1. after
  2. (op ... na, with a cardinal number) bar, except Used to form ordinal numbers in relation to a superlative quality. The number that is used is 1 lower than in the English translation.
    Brazilië is met zijn 8,5 miljoen vierkante kilometer het grootste land van Zuid-Amerika en het op vier na grootste ter wereld.
    With its 8.5 million square kilometers, Brazil is the largest country in South America and the fifth largest in the world.
    Naast dat de toonladder een kenmerkend gegeven is, zijn er ook bepaalde tonen, die een speciale rol hebben, zoals de vadi en de samvadi, respectievelijk: de belangrijkste en de op een na belangrijkste toon.
    Next to [the fact] that the musical scale is a characteristic datum, there are also certain tones that have a special role, such as the vadi and the samvadi: respectively the most important and second most important tones.
Inflection[edit]
Derived terms[edit]

-verbs:

Descendants[edit]
  • Negerhollands: na, a
    • Virgin Islands Creole: na

Etymology 2[edit]

From Old Dutch *nāh, *nā, from Proto-Germanic *nēhwaz.

Adjective[edit]

na (comparative nader, superlative naast)

  1. close
Inflection[edit]

The forms of the positive are obsolescent, particularly the inflected one. The comparative and superlative forms are functioning as independent adjectives to an increasing extent.

Inflection of na
uninflected na
inflected naë
comparative nader
positive comparative superlative
predicative/adverbial nader het naast
het naaste
indefinite m./f. sing. naë nadere naaste
n. sing. na nader naaste
plural naë nadere naaste
definite naë nadere naaste
partitive na's naders
Derived terms[edit]

Etymology 3[edit]

Preposition[edit]

na

  1. (dialectal) Archaic form of naar.

Eastern Huasteca Nahuatl[edit]

Pronoun[edit]

na

  1. first person; I

See also[edit]


Esperanto[edit]

Esperanto Wikipedia has an article on:
Wikipedia eo

Etymology[edit]

Presumably from Russian на (na) and Polish na; alternatively, from the accusative suffix -n (possibly a blend with the article la or with the suffix -a).

Pronunciation[edit]

Preposition[edit]

na

  1. (neologism, rare) Preposition introducing an accusative phrase.
    Mi legis na Gerda Malaperis.
    I read Gerda Disappeared.

Usage notes[edit]

Unofficial; it is recognized by some Esperantists on the Internet, but disapproved of by most high-level speakers. Proponents recommended using it only where the accusative suffix isn't possible: with numerals (unu (“one”)), particles (iom (“some”), kies (“whose”)), letters (J), titles of books, and quotations, etc. More standard options are to use the general preposition je, to omit the accusative ending, or to rephrase the sentence to avoid the issue.


Galician[edit]

Etymology 1[edit]

From contraction of preposition en (“in”) + feminine article a (“the”)

Pronunciation[edit]

Contraction[edit]

na f (masculine no, masculine plural nos, feminine plural nas)

  1. in the

Etymology 2[edit]

From a mutation of a.

Pronoun[edit]

na f (accusative)

  1. Alternative form of a (her)
Usage notes[edit]

The n- forms of accusative third-person pronouns are used when the preceding word ends in -u or a diphthong, and are suffixed to the preceding word.

Related terms[edit]

German[edit]

Pronunciation[edit]

Etymology 1[edit]

Perhaps from an unstressed form of nu.

Interjection[edit]

na

  1. well!, so!; used to introduce a statement
    Na, dann fangen wir mal an!
    So, let’s get started!
  2. oh, hm, huh, och, nu; expressing a (usually mild) degree of surprise, doubt, or frustration
    Na, das ist ja nett, dass ihr vorbeikommt!
    Oh, that’s nice of you to come by!
    Na? Ob das so stimmt...
    Huh? Not sure if that’s correct...
    Na! Warum will das denn jetzt wieder nicht?
    Och! Why does this thing not work yet again?
    Na toll! Kein Empfang.
    Oh great! No signal.
  3. (regional, chiefly northern and central Germany) huh?; used as a question marker, often implying that the speaker knows the answer
    Was ist zwei plus drei? Na?
    What’s two plus three? Huh?
  4. (regional, chiefly northern and central Germany) hey!, hi!; used as a greeting, but with an interrogative intonation, as if saying “So? You see me there?”, or “So? How is everything?”
    Na! Lang nicht gesehen!
    Hey! Long time no see!
    Na! Wie geht’s?
    Hi! How are you?
Derived terms[edit]

Etymology 2[edit]

A variant of nein.

Interjection[edit]

na

  1. (regional, chiefly southern Germany and Austria) Alternative form of nein (no)
    Na. Das geht net.
    No. That doesn’t work.

Anagrams[edit]


Guinea-Bissau Creole[edit]

Etymology[edit]

From Portuguese na. Cognate with Kabuverdianu na.

Preposition[edit]

na

  1. at
  2. in
  3. on

Hawaiian[edit]

Etymology[edit]

(This etymology is missing or incomplete. Please add to it, or discuss it at the Etymology scriptorium.)

Preposition[edit]

na

  1. for, belonging to, by

Usage notes[edit]

  • Used for acquired possessions, while no is used for possessions that are inherited, out of personal control, and for things that can be got into (houses, clothes, cars).

Hungarian[edit]

Pronunciation[edit]

Interjection[edit]

na

  1. well, so, hey
    Na, nem baj.Well, no problem.
    Itt van Péter. – Na és?“Peter is here.” “So what?”
    Na, gyerünk!Alright, let's go!
    Na, ne mondj ilyet!Hey, don't say that!
    Na, ez fáj!Hey, that hurts!

Derived terms[edit]

Compound words

Further reading[edit]

  • na in Bárczi, Géza and László Országh. A magyar nyelv értelmező szótára (’The Explanatory Dictionary of the Hungarian Language’). Budapest: Akadémiai Kiadó, 1959–1962. Fifth ed., 1992: →ISBN

Irish[edit]

Pronunciation[edit]

Article[edit]

na (definite article)

  1. genitive singular feminine of an (triggers h-prothesis)
    na háiteof the place
  2. nominative/dative plural of an (triggers h-prothesis)
    na héinthe birds
    ó na cailínífrom the girls
  3. genitive plural of an (triggers eclipsis)
    na bpáistíof the children

Contraction[edit]

na

  1. Nonstandard form of ina

Mutation[edit]

Irish mutation
Radical Lenition Eclipsis
na not applicable not applicable
Note: Some of these forms may be hypothetical. Not every possible mutated form of every word actually occurs.

Further reading[edit]

  • "na" in Foclóir Gaeilge–Béarla, An Gúm, 1977, by Niall Ó Dónaill.
  • Entries containing “na” in English-Irish Dictionary, An Gúm, 1959, by Tomás de Bhaldraithe.
  • Entries containing “na” in New English-Irish Dictionary by Foras na Gaeilge.

Japanese[edit]

Romanization[edit]

na

  1. Rōmaji transcription of
  2. Rōmaji transcription of

Kabuverdianu[edit]

Etymology[edit]

From Portuguese na.

Preposition[edit]

na

  1. at
  2. in
  3. on

Karaim[edit]

Alternative forms[edit]

Etymology[edit]

From Proto-Slavic *na.

Interjection[edit]

na

  1. here you are! take it!

Kasem[edit]

Noun[edit]

na

  1. water

References[edit]


Kikuyu[edit]

Particle[edit]

na

  1. (instrumental) with[1]
    Gũtema na kanua ti gũtema na rũhiũ.
    To cut with a mouth is not to cut with a knife.
  2. (comitative) and, with[1]
    Ikinya na thĩ itiaganaga.
    The foot and the earth cannot help meeting.
  3. (source) from[1]
    Wega uumaga na mũciĩ.
    Goodness comes from home.
    Synonym: kuuma
  4. but[1]
    Kanua njero, na mũciĩ ndũkomeka nĩ heho.
    The mouth is sweet, but the house is too cold to lie at.

References[edit]

  1. 1.0 1.1 1.2 1.3 “na” in Benson, T.G. (1964). Kikuyu-English dictionary, p. 277. Oxford: Clarendon Press.

Kilivila[edit]

Noun[edit]

na

  1. (in compounds) woman

References[edit]

  • Gunter Senft (1986), Kilivila: the Language of the Trobriand Islanders. Berlin • New York • Amsterdam: Mouton de Gruyter, p. 372, 591. →ISBN

Ladin[edit]

Article[edit]

na f

  1. an, a

Synonyms[edit]

See also[edit]


Ladino[edit]

Interjection[edit]

na (Latin spelling, Hebrew spelling נה‎)

  1. here! behold!

Lakota[edit]

Conjunction[edit]

na

  1. and

Latin[edit]

Pronunciation[edit]

Verb[edit]

  1. imperative singular of , swim!

References[edit]


Lingala[edit]

Etymology[edit]

Of native Bobangi origin (compare Swahili na), but its functional broadening to "in, at" may be under the influence of West African languages; compare Igbo na, Krio na.

Preposition[edit]

na

  1. with, and
  2. in, at
  3. of (form of ya before personal pronouns)

Lower Sorbian[edit]

Etymology[edit]

From Proto-Slavic *na.

Pronunciation[edit]

Preposition[edit]

na

  1. (with locative) on, in
  2. (with accusative) on, onto

Further reading[edit]

  • Muka, Arnošt (1921, 1928), “na_2”, in Słownik dolnoserbskeje rěcy a jeje narěcow (in German), St. Petersburg, Prague: ОРЯС РАН, ČAVU; Reprinted Bautzen: Domowina-Verlag, 2008
  • Starosta, Manfred (1999), “na”, in Dolnoserbsko-nimski słownik / Niedersorbisch-deutsches Wörterbuch (in German), Bautzen: Domowina-Verlag

Luganda[edit]

Conjunction[edit]

na

  1. and (only used if the overall statement is grammatically negative)

See also[edit]

References[edit]

The Essentials of Luganda, J. D. Chesswas, 4th edition. Oxford University Press: Nairobi. 1967, p. 94.


Mandarin[edit]

Pronunciation[edit]

Romanization[edit]

na (Zhuyin ˙ㄋㄚ)

  1. Hanyu Pinyin transcription of ,
  2. Hanyu Pinyin transcription of

na

  1. Nonstandard spelling of .
  2. Nonstandard spelling of .
  3. Nonstandard spelling of .
  4. Nonstandard spelling of .

Usage notes[edit]

  • English transcriptions of Mandarin speech often fail to distinguish between the critical tonal differences employed in the Mandarin language, using words such as this one without the appropriate indication of tone.

Middle Dutch[edit]

Pronunciation[edit]

Etymology 1[edit]

From Old Dutch nāh, from Proto-Germanic *nēhw.

Preposition[edit]

na

  1. towards
  2. behind
  3. after, following, later than
  4. in accordance with, based on

Adverb[edit]

na

  1. afterwards, later
  2. close, near
Descendants[edit]
  • Dutch: na
  • Limburgish: nao

Etymology 2[edit]

From Old Dutch *nāh, from Proto-Germanic *nēhwaz.

Adjective[edit]

  1. close
Inflection[edit]

This adjective needs an inflection-table template.

Further reading[edit]


Neapolitan[edit]

Feminine form of nu, from Latin ūnus.

Alternative forms[edit]

  • n' (before words starting with a vowel)

Etymology[edit]

From Latin ūna.

Article[edit]

na f sg

  1. a, an

Northern Kurdish[edit]

Etymology[edit]

From Proto-Iranian *ná, from Proto-Indo-Iranian *ná, from Proto-Indo-European *ne. Related to ne.

Pronunciation[edit]

Interjection[edit]

na

  1. no

Northern Ndebele[edit]

Etymology[edit]

From Proto-Bantu *-nɪ̀a.

Verb[edit]

-na

  1. to rain

Inflection[edit]

This verb needs an inflection-table template.


Northern Sami[edit]

Etymology[edit]

(This etymology is missing or incomplete. Please add to it, or discuss it at the Etymology scriptorium.)

Pronunciation[edit]

Adverb[edit]

na

  1. This term needs a translation to English. Please help out and add a translation, then remove the text {{rfdef}}.

Further reading[edit]

  • Koponen, Eino; Ruppel, Klaas; Aapala, Kirsti, editors (2002-2008) Álgu database: Etymological database of the Saami languages[5], Helsinki: Research Institute for the Languages of Finland

Northern Sotho[edit]

Etymology[edit]

From Proto-Bantu *-nɪ̀a.

Verb[edit]

na

  1. to rain

Norwegian[edit]

Etymology[edit]

From Old Norse hana, the accusative form of hon (“she”). Confer with Swedish na. The correct term in Norwegian Bokmål would be henne, and either ho or henne in Norwegian Nynorsk.

Pronoun[edit]

na

  1. (dialectal, colloquial) her; object form of ho

Usage notes[edit]

  • It is almost without exceptions used as a clitic, and is always unstressed.

See also[edit]


Ojibwe[edit]

Particle[edit]

na

  1. Question marker for yes/no questions. It is always placed after the first word in the sentence. If the first word ends in a vowel, use the particle na; if it ends in a consonant, use ina.

Synonyms[edit]


Old Czech[edit]

Etymology[edit]

From Proto-Slavic *na.

Preposition[edit]

na

  1. on, onto (direction, + accusative case)
    I přivedli oslici a oslátko s ní, i položichu na ně rúcha svá.(please add an English translation of this usage example)
  2. on (location, + locative case)
  3. for (purpose, + accusative case)
  4. at (in the direction of, + accusative case)

Descendants[edit]

Further reading[edit]


Old English[edit]

Alternative forms[edit]

Etymology[edit]

Originally meaning "never." From a contraction of ne (“not”) and ā (“ever”).

Pronunciation[edit]

Adverb[edit]

  1. not, no
    Nis þæt rēad, ac is grēne.
    That's not red, it's green.
    Þæt iċ cwæþ for þon āne þe iċ bet nysse.
    I only said that because I didn't know any better (literally "no better").
    • Anglo-Saxon Chronicle, Version B, year 897
      Þȳ ilcan sumora forwearþ lǣs þonne twēntiġ sċipa be þǣm sūðriman.
      That same summer, no less than twenty ships perished on the south coast.
    • c. 990, Wessex Gospels, Matthew 22:17
      Is hit ālīefed þæt man Cāsere gafol selle, þe ?
      Is it lawful to give tribute to Caesar, or not?
    • c. 992, Ælfric, "The Fifth Sunday in Lent"
      Dryhten nis ōðrum mannum tō wiþmetenne.
      The Lord is not comparable to other people.
  2. (poetic) never

Conjunction[edit]

  1. not
    • c. 992, Ælfric, "Midlent"
      Māre wundor is þæt God Ælmihtiġ ǣlce dæġe fētt ealne middanġeard þonne þæt wundor wǣre þæt hē þā ġefylde fīf þūsende manna mid fīf hlāfum—ac þæs wundrodon menn for þȳ þæt hit māre wundor wǣre, ac for þȳ þæt hit wæs unġewunelīċ.
      It's more of a miracle that God Almighty feeds the whole world every day than that he fed five thousand people with five loaves of bread—but that amazed people not because it was more miraculous, but because it was unusual.

Synonyms[edit]

Derived terms[edit]

Descendants[edit]

See also[edit]


Old Frisian[edit]

Etymology 1[edit]

Blend of ne (not) +‎ ā (ever). Akin to Old English .

Pronunciation[edit]

Adverb[edit]

  1. never
Descendants[edit]
  • West Frisian: nea

Particle[edit]

  1. no
Descendants[edit]
  • Saterland Frisian: noa

Etymology 2[edit]

See the etymology of the corresponding lemma form.

Pronunciation[edit]

Preposition[edit]

(+ dative)

  1. Alternative form of nēi

References[edit]

  • Bremmer, Rolf H. (2009) An Introduction to Old Frisian: History, Grammar, Reader, Glossary, Amsterdam: John Benjamins Publishing Company, →ISBN

Old Irish[edit]

Etymology 1[edit]

Pronunciation[edit]

Article[edit]

na (triggers /h/-prothesis in the feminine genitive singular, in the feminine and neuter nominative plural, and in the accusative plural; triggers eclipsis in the genitive plural)

  1. Aphetic form of inna (the (various inflected forms))

Etymology 2[edit]

Pronunciation[edit]

Determiner[edit]

na (‘his’ and ‘its’ trigger lenition, ‘her’ triggers /h/-prothesis, ‘their’ triggers eclipsis)

  1. Aphetic form of inna (in his/her/its/their)

Etymology 3[edit]

Pronunciation[edit]

Determiner[edit]

na

  1. neuter nominative/accusative singular of nach (any)

Etymology 4[edit]

Pronunciation[edit]

Particle[edit]

na

  1. Alternative spelling of (don’t)

Pali[edit]

Alternative forms[edit]

Etymology 1[edit]

Inherited from Sanskrit (na).

Particle[edit]

na

  1. no, not

Etymology 2[edit]

(This etymology is missing or incomplete. Please add to it, or discuss it at the Etymology scriptorium.)

Adjective[edit]

na

  1. (demonstrative) that
Declension[edit]
Derived terms[edit]
  • ena (this)
  • (her)
Synonyms[edit]

Pronoun[edit]

na m or n

  1. (demonstrative) that
  2. him, it
  3. (in the plural) them
    • 2006, The Fifth Book in the Suttanta-Pitaka: Majjhimanikāya (II)[6], page 558:
      පුන ච පරං භන‍්තෙ, ඉමෙ ඉසිදත‍්තපුරාණා ථපතයො මමභත‍්තා
      මමයානා අහං නෙසං ජීවිතස‍්ස පදාතා යසස‍්ස ආහත‍්තා අථ ච පන
      නො තථා මයි නිපච‍්චාකාරං කරොන‍්ති යථා භගවති.
      Puna ca paraṃ bhante, ime isidattapurāṇā thapatayo mamabhattā
      mamayānā ahaṃ nesaṃ jīvitassa padātā yasassa āhattā atha ca pana
      no tathā mayi nipaccākāraṃ karonti yathā bhagavati.
      Furthermore, sir, these chamberlains Isidatta and Purāṇa share my meals and my carriages. I give them a livelihood and bring them renown. And yet they don’t show me the same level of devotion that they show to the Buddha.
Declension[edit]
Usage notes[edit]

Note that this is not used to reference, explicitly or implicitly, a neuter noun in the plural.

Synonyms[edit]

References[edit]

Pali Text Society (1921-1925), “na”, in Pali-English Dictionary‎, London: Chipstead


Papiamentu[edit]

Etymology 1[edit]

From Portuguese na and Kabuverdianu na.

Preposition[edit]

na

  1. at
  2. in
  3. inside
  4. on

Etymology 2[edit]

From Dutch naar.

Preposition[edit]

na

  1. to
  2. towards

Phalura[edit]

Etymology 1[edit]

From Sanskrit (na, not).

Pronunciation[edit]

Particle[edit]

na (negating, Perso-Arabic spelling نہ)

  1. not
  2. don't

References[edit]

  • Liljegren, Henrik; Haider, Naseem (2011) Palula Vocabulary (FLI Language and Culture Series; 7)‎[7], Islamabad, Pakistan: Forum for Language Initiatives, →ISBN
  • Turner, Ralph Lilley (1969–1985), “na”, in A Comparative Dictionary of the Indo-Aryan Languages, London: Oxford University Press

Etymology 2[edit]

(This etymology is missing or incomplete. Please add to it, or discuss it at the Etymology scriptorium.)

Pronunciation[edit]

Interjection[edit]

na (Perso-Arabic spelling نہ)

  1. no!

References[edit]

  • Liljegren, Henrik; Haider, Naseem (2011) Palula Vocabulary (FLI Language and Culture Series; 7)‎[8], Islamabad, Pakistan: Forum for Language Initiatives, →ISBN

Phuthi[edit]

Etymology[edit]

From Proto-Bantu *-nɪ̀a.

Verb[edit]

-na

  1. to rain

Inflection[edit]

This entry needs an inflection-table template.


Polish[edit]

Etymology[edit]

Inherited from Proto-Slavic *na.

Pronunciation[edit]

Preposition[edit]

na

  1. (+ locative) on
    Siedzę na koniu.I'm on a horse.
  2. (+ locative) in, at
    Mieszkam na wsi.I live in the countryside.
  3. (+ accusative) onto, on
    Uważaj, zaraz to na mnie spadnie!Watch out, it's going to fall on me!
  4. (+ accusative) to
    Muszę iść na pocztę.I have to go to the post office.
  5. (+ accusative) for, by (a time, date etc.)
    Sprawozdanie ma być gotowe na piątą.The report should be ready by five o'clock.
  6. (+ accusative) for, to deal with
    lek na grypęflu medication
    na zdrowiefor [your] health; cheers; bless you.
  7. (+ accusative) per
    pięć metrów na sekundęfive meters per second
  8. (+ accusative or adverb) in a particular manner
    pasażer na gapęstowaway
    deser na kwaśnosour dessert
  9. (+ accusative, mathematics) onto (surjective)

Adjective[edit]

na (not comparable)

  1. (mathematics) onto; surjective

Usage notes[edit]

  • When used as an adjective, this word is indeclinable, postpositive (when used attributively), and usually placed inside quotation marks, e.g. funkcja „na”.

Further reading[edit]

  • na in Wielki słownik języka polskiego, Instytut Języka Polskiego PAN
  • na in Polish dictionaries at PWN

Portuguese[edit]

Pronunciation[edit]

  • Hyphenation: na

Etymology 1[edit]

From Old Portuguese na, clipping of ena, from en (“in”) + a (“the”).

Contraction[edit]

na f (masculine no, masculine plural nos, feminine plural nas)

  1. Contraction of em a (in the).
Quotations[edit]

For quotations using this term, see Citations:no.

Preposition[edit]

na

  1. at
  2. in

Etymology 2[edit]

Pronoun[edit]

na

  1. Alternative form of a (third-person feminine singular objective pronoun) used as an enclitic following a verb form ending in a nasal vowel or diphthong
Quotations[edit]

For quotations using this term, see Citations:no.


Riantana[edit]

Etymology[edit]

From Proto-Trans-New Guinea *na. Cognate to Blagar na.

Pronoun[edit]

na

  1. I

Romani[edit]

Etymology[edit]

From Sanskrit (na, no).

Adverb[edit]

na

  1. not

Interjection[edit]

na

  1. right?; tag question

Particle[edit]

na

  1. no

References[edit]

  • Dieter W. Halwachs (accessed September 19, 2021), “Morphology”, in Romani Projekt Graz[9]
  • Yūsuke Sumi (2018), “na”, in ニューエクスプレスプラス ロマ(ジプシー)語 [New Express Plus Romani (Gypsy)] (in Japanese), Tokyo: Hakusuisha, published 2021, →ISBN, OCLC 1267332830, page 152

Samoan[edit]

Pronoun[edit]

na

  1. he / she

See also[edit]


Scottish Gaelic[edit]

Pronunciation[edit]

  • IPA(key): (stressed) /na/, (unstressed) /nə/

Etymology 1[edit]

Univerbation of an (in) +‎ a (his/her).

Preposition[edit]

na (+ dative)

  1. (triggers lenition) in his; in its
  2. (triggers H-prothesis) in her; in its
Inflection[edit]

Etymology 2[edit]

See the etymology of the corresponding lemma form.

Article[edit]

na (triggers H-prothesis)

  1. inflection of an (the):
    1. genitive singular feminine
    2. nominative or dative plural
Declension[edit]
Variation of na (definite article)
Masculine Feminine Plural
nom. dat. gen. nom. dat. gen. nom. dat. gen.
+ f- am anL anL na na nam
+ m-, p- or b- am a'L a'L na na nam
+ c- or g- an anL anL na na nan
+ sV-, sl-, sn- or sr- an anT anT na na nan
+ other consonant an an an na na nan
+ vowel anT an an naH naH nan
L Triggers lenition; H Triggers H-prothesis; T Triggers T-prothesis

Etymology 3[edit]

From Old Irish a (that which)

Pronoun[edit]

na

  1. all that, that which, whatever

Etymology 4[edit]

From Old Irish , .

Conjunction[edit]

na

  1. or

Etymology 5[edit]

From Old Irish indás (than (it) is).

Conjunction[edit]

na

  1. than

Etymology 6[edit]

Univerbation of an (interrogative particle) +‎ do (past tense particle)

Particle[edit]

na

  1. marks an interrogative in the past tense
    Na rinn thu sin?Did you do that?

Etymology 7[edit]

From Old Irish .

Particle[edit]

na

  1. don’t (particle used to introduce a negative imperative; triggers h-prothesis of a following vowel)
    Na bruidhinn!
    Do not speak!

Serbo-Croatian[edit]

Etymology[edit]

From Proto-Slavic *na.

Pronunciation[edit]

Preposition[edit]

na (Cyrillic spelling на)

  1. (+ locative case) on, at, in (with certain nouns, expressing location without a change of position, answering the question gdjȅ/gdȅ; see usage notes below)
    knjiga je na stoluthe book is on the table
    biti na koncertuto be at the concert
    biti na ulicito be in the street
    zv(ij)ezde na nebustars in the sky
  2. (+ locative case) on (indicating medium)
    čuti nešto na radijuto hear something on the radio
  3. (+ accusative case) to, on, onto (with certain nouns, expressing the goal of motion, answering questions kùda (Bosnian, Serbian) or kȁmo (Croatian); see usage notes below)
    staviti knjigu na sto(l)to put a book on the table
    ići na koncertto go to a concert
  4. (+ accusative case) for (with verbs of motion and certain other verbs, to express something which will last for a limited period; after that a reverse action is implied)
    otići nekuda/nekamo na dva danato go somewhere for two days
  5. (+ accusative case) in (used with seasons)
    na l(j)etoin summer, next summer, the following summer
  6. (+ accusative case) noun attribute for permanent properties, such as sources of power or energy, but not including purpose
    krevet na katbunk bed (literally, “bed on story, level”)
    podmornica na atomski pogonnuclear-powered submarine (literally, “submarine (run) on the nuclear power”)
    jaje na okosunny-side up egg (literally, “egg on the eye”)
    ljubav na daljinulong-distance relationship (literally, “love on distance”)
    r(ij)eči na awords ending in a (literally, “words on a”)
  7. (+ accusative case) by, on, through (adverbial phrase of manner)
    ući na prednja vratato enter through the front door (literally, “to enter on the front door”)
    plaćena na satpaid by the hour (literally, “paid on an hour”)
    na brzinuhastily (literally, “on speed”)
    na vr(ij)emeon time
  8. (+ accusative case) indirect object of certain verbs
    vikati na ljudeto yell at people
    pods(j)ećati na nekogto remind of someone
  9. (+ accusative case) a part of certain set expressions, which can be spelled also as one word in Croatian
    na srećuluckily
    na prim(j)erfor example

Usage notes[edit]

na is used to indicate the location (with locative) or the goal of motion (with accusative), with:

  • surfaces, either horizontal (table) or vertical (wall), including open spaces such as playgrounds, mountains, islands, most neighborhoods, pictures, the sky
  • activities, such as ručak lunch, odmor vacation, posao work, predavanje lecture, sastanak meeting
  • exposure to the sun, fresh air, wind, rain and snow (na suncu ― in the sun)
  • limits: rub, ivica edge, početak beginning, kraj end, vrh top, dno bottom
  • languages (na engleskom ― in English)
  • with more sea, to express at/to the seaside; with selo village, to express in/to the countryside
  • the noun fakultet

Interjection[edit]

na! (Cyrillic spelling на!)

  1. Here you are! Take it!
  2. Help yourself!

Shona[edit]

Shona cardinal numbers
 <  3 4 5  > 
    Cardinal : na
    Ordinal : china

Etymology[edit]

From Proto-Bantu *-nàì.

Adjective[edit]

-na

  1. four

Inflection[edit]


Sicilian[edit]

Article[edit]

na f sg

  1. (indefinite) a, an

See also[edit]

Sicilian articles
Masculine Feminine
indefinite singular un, nu na
definite singular lu, û la, â
definite plural li, î li, î

Slovak[edit]

Etymology[edit]

From Proto-Slavic *na.

Pronunciation[edit]

Preposition[edit]

na (followed by locative šiesty pád)

  1. on (location)

na (followed by accusative štvrtý pád)

  1. for (purpose)

Further reading[edit]

  • na in Slovak dictionaries at slovnik.juls.savba.sk

Slovene[edit]

Etymology[edit]

From Proto-Slavic *na.

Pronunciation[edit]

Preposition[edit]

na

  1. (with locative) on (stationary)
  2. (with accusative) onto (motion towards)
  3. (with accusative) at, on (a moment in time)

Further reading[edit]

  • na”, in Slovarji Inštituta za slovenski jezik Frana Ramovša ZRC SAZU, portal Fran

Somali[edit]

Adverb[edit]

na

  1. moreover

Southern Ndebele[edit]

Etymology[edit]

From Proto-Bantu *-nɪ̀a.

Verb[edit]

-na

  1. to rain

Inflection[edit]

This entry needs an inflection-table template.


Spanish[edit]

Etymology 1[edit]

From enna.

Contraction[edit]

na

  1. (obsolete) en la

Etymology 2[edit]

Representing accents where intervocalic /d/ is lost after a stressed syllable.

Alternative forms[edit]

Pronoun[edit]

na

  1. Pronunciation spelling of nada.
Derived terms[edit]

Further reading[edit]


Sranan Tongo[edit]

Etymology[edit]

Borrowed from Dutch naar.

Pronunciation[edit]

Preposition[edit]

na

  1. to

Sumerian[edit]

Romanization[edit]

na

  1. Romanization of 𒈾 (na)

Swahili[edit]

Etymology[edit]

Akin to Lingala na, Luganda na. From Proto-Bantu [Term?]. (This etymology is missing or incomplete. Please add to it, or discuss it at the Etymology scriptorium. Particularly: “Find Bantu cognates and Proto-Bantu etymon”)

Pronunciation[edit]

Conjunction[edit]

na

  1. and
  2. with
  3. by

Usage notes[edit]

Older or more conservative Swahili writings only use na to connect two nouns, never to connect two adjectives; the second adjective is changed into an abstract noun instead. However, in modern colloquial Swahili, this is not always the case.

na can be suffixed with special suffixes (for human pronominals) or any -o of reference (for other objects) to inflect it with an object (for example, nayo = "with it"):

Inflection[edit]

Object-inflected forms of na:

Pronominals 1s 2s 3s 1p 2p 3p
Object-inflected form nami nawe naye nasi nanyi nao
Classes c1 c2/c3/c11/c14 c4/c6/c9 c5 c7 c8 c10 c15 c16 c17
Object-inflected form naye nao nayo nalo nacho navyo nazo nako napo namo

Swazi[edit]

Particle[edit]

  1. Interrogative particle; indicates a yes-no question. Placed at the end of the sentence.

Swedish[edit]

Etymology[edit]

From Old Swedish hana, accusative form of hon. In standard Swedish, the corresponding dative form (henne, in Old Norse: hænni) instead has taken its place.[1]

Pronoun[edit]

na

  1. (dialectal, strongly colloquial) her; accusative/dative of hon
    Jo, ja' gav'na brevet.
    Yes, I gave her the letter.

Usage notes[edit]

Often merged with previous word. Rarely in written form unless supposed to imitate (dialectal) speech.

Synonyms[edit]

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ han in Elof Hellquist, Svensk etymologisk ordbok (1st ed., 1922)

Anagrams[edit]


Tagalog[edit]

Pronunciation[edit]

Adverb[edit]

na

  1. already; now (expresses the event when following a verb)
    Tapos na.
    Finished already.
    Yari na tayo.
    We've now been made.
  2. already; now (declares the event of action when following a verb in the past tense)
    Natulog na.
    Slept already.
    Bumili na.
    Bought already.
  3. already; now (suggests immediate or quick action when following the infinitive form and future tense of the verb)
    Pumasok na tayo.
    Let's go in already.
    Ipinabibili ko na ang gamot.
    I'm having someone buy the medicine now.

Adjective[edit]

na

  1. already; now (expresses the event when following a noun)
    Bagsak na.
    Failure already.
    Abogado na siya.
    He/She is now a lawyer.
  2. now; already (expresses a shift or change in the performance of a task when following a personal pronoun)
    Ako na.
    My turn.
    (literally, “Me now.”)
    Ikaw na.
    Your turn.
    (literally, “You now.”)
    Siya na.
    His/her turn.
    (literally, “Him/her now.”)

Preposition[edit]

na

  1. Connects adjectives to nouns, if preceding word ends in a consonant, except if it ends with (n), where it becomes the (-g) suffix.
    Synonyms: -ng, -g, -m-
    May matinis na boses siya.
    He/she has a piercing voice.
    May matatangkad na mga laláki doon.
    There are tall men there.
  2. Connects adverbs to verbs, if preceding word ends in a consonant, except if it ends with (n), where it becomes the (-g) suffix.
    Synonyms: -ng, -g
    Siya ay mabilis na tumakbo.
    He/she ran fast.
    Sila ay matatahimik na nagbabasa.
    They are quietly reading.

Usage notes[edit]

  • It becomes the (-ng) suffix if the preceding word ends in a vowel.
    Magandang bulaklak
    Pretty flower
    Biglang nagsalita siya.
    He/She suddenly spoke.
  • It becomes the (-g) suffix if the preceding word ends with (n).
    Dayuhang turista
    Foreign tourist
    Siya ay dahan-dahang pumunta doon.
    He/She carefully went there.

See also[edit]


Tok Pisin[edit]

Etymology[edit]

From English and.

Conjunction[edit]

na

  1. and
    • 1995, John Verhaar, Toward a reference grammar of Tok Pisin: an experiment in corpus linguistics[10], →ISBN, page 433:
      Mekim olsem pinis, orait tupela i planim taro na banana, na kumu, painap, kon, tomato, na kaukau tu.
      (please add an English translation of this quote)
    • 1986, John Hunter, “Vocabulary”, in Papua New Guinea phrasebook[11], →ISBN, page 60:
      and - na
      (please add an English translation of this quote)

Derived terms[edit]


Turkish[edit]

Etymology[edit]

From Russian на (na) or Ukrainian на (na).

Interjection[edit]

na

  1. (dialect, Trabzon, Rize) here it is! take it!
    Synonym: işte!

Tzotzil[edit]

Pronunciation[edit]

Noun[edit]

na

  1. house

Inflection[edit]

Derived terms[edit]

(Nouns)

References[edit]


Unami[edit]

Pronunciation[edit]

Pronoun[edit]

na

  1. that (animate)

Venda[edit]

Conjunction[edit]

na

  1. and
  2. with

Venetian[edit]

Article[edit]

na f sg

  1. a, an

Vietnamese[edit]

Pronunciation[edit]

Noun[edit]

(classifier cây, trái, quả) na (𦰡)

  1. (Northern Vietnam) sugar apple (Annona squamosa)
    Synonym: mãng cầu

Anagrams[edit]


Welsh[edit]

Etymology 1[edit]

Cognate with Old Irish nach,[1] ultimately from Proto-Indo-European *ne (negative particle) + *-kʷe (and).

Pronunciation[edit]

Interjection[edit]

na

  1. no

Particle[edit]

na

  1. not (in answers and tag questions)
  2. don’t (in prohibitions)
Usage notes[edit]

Triggers mixed (aspirate or soft) mutation of a following consonant. When the following consonant is g, which disappears under soft mutation, the form na remains; it does not become nag, the form used before vowels. Thus na + gallan becomes na allan, not *nag allan.

Alternative forms[edit]
  • nag (used before a vowel)

Conjunction[edit]

na

  1. thatnot (introduces a negative noun clause)
    Mae e’n dweud na fydd e’n mynd.
    He says that he will not go.
Alternative forms[edit]
  • nad (used before a vowel, or where an element is fronted for emphasis)
See also[edit]
  • y (affirmative)

Etymology 2[edit]

Variant of no(g),[2] probably from rebracketing of the comparative “*-achn o” as “-ach no”.[3]

Pronunciation[edit]

Conjunction[edit]

na (triggers mixed mutation)

  1. than
  2. neither, nor
Alternative forms[edit]
  • nag (used before a vowel)

Etymology 3[edit]

Pronunciation[edit]

Verb[edit]

na

  1. Soft mutation of gna.

Verb[edit]

na (not mutable)

  1. (colloquial) first-person singular future of gwneud

Mutation[edit]

Welsh mutation
radical soft nasal aspirate
gna na ngna unchanged
Note: Some of these forms may be hypothetical. Not every possible mutated form of every word actually occurs.

Etymology 4[edit]

Adjective[edit]

na

  1. Nasal mutation of da.

Noun[edit]

na

  1. Nasal mutation of da.

Mutation[edit]

Welsh mutation
radical soft nasal aspirate
da dda na unchanged
Note: Some of these forms may be hypothetical. Not every possible mutated form of every word actually occurs.

References[edit]

  1. ^ R. J. Thomas, G. A. Bevan, P. J. Donovan, A. Hawke et al., editors (1950–present), “na”, in Geiriadur Prifysgol Cymru Online (in Welsh), University of Wales Centre for Advanced Welsh & Celtic Studies
  2. ^ R. J. Thomas, G. A. Bevan, P. J. Donovan, A. Hawke et al., editors (1950–present), “no”, in Geiriadur Prifysgol Cymru Online (in Welsh), University of Wales Centre for Advanced Welsh & Celtic Studies
  3. ^ Morris Jones, John (1913) A Welsh Grammar, Historical and Comparative, Oxford: Clarendon Press, §§ 113 i (1), 147 iv (3)

Westrobothnian[edit]

Etymology 1[edit]

From Old Norse nakkvart.

Pronunciation[edit]

Adverb[edit]

na

  1. somewhat
    rit nona högt ópp i värä tornä däna
    That tower rises fairly high up in the air.
Derived terms[edit]

Etymology 2[edit]

From Old Norse hana.

Pronunciation[edit]

Pronoun[edit]

na

  1. her

Xhosa[edit]

Etymology 1[edit]

Particle[edit]

  1. Interrogative particle; indicates a yes-no question. Placed at the end of the sentence.

Etymology 2[edit]

From Proto-Bantu *-nɪ̀a.

Verb[edit]

-na

  1. (intransitive) to rain
Inflection[edit]

This verb needs an inflection-table template.


Yola[edit]

Etymology 1[edit]

From Middle English na, from nan (“none”), from Old English nān. Cognates include English no and Scots nae.

Alternative forms[edit]

Determiner[edit]

na

  1. no

Particle[edit]

na

  1. no

Etymology 2[edit]

Interjection[edit]

na

  1. Alternative form of naay
    • 1867, “A YOLA ZONG”, in SONGS, ETC. IN THE DIALECT OF FORTH AND BARGY, number 9:
      Na, now or neveare!
      Nay, now or never!

Etymology 3[edit]

Borrowed from Irish na.

Article[edit]

na

  1. of the
    • 1867, CONGRATULATORY ADDRESS IN THE DIALECT OF FORTH AND BARGY, line 4:
      Dwellerès na Baronie Forthe.
      Inhabitants of the Barony of Forth.

References[edit]

  • Jacob Poole (1867), William Barnes, editor, A Glossary, With some Pieces of Verse, of the old Dialect of the English Colony in the Baronies of Forth and Bargy, County of Wexford, Ireland, London: J. Russell Smith, page 58, 88 & 114

Zaghawa[edit]

Pronunciation[edit]

Pronoun[edit]

na

  1. you (singular); thou
    Na dô neygini? : Are you tired?

References[edit]


Zhuang[edit]

Etymology[edit]

From Proto-Tai *ʰnaːᴬ (thick). Cognate with Thai หนา (nǎa), Lao ໜາ (), ᦐᦱ (ṅaa), Shan ၼႃ (nǎa), Ahom 𑜃𑜡 (), Bouyei nal.

Pronunciation[edit]

Adjective[edit]

na (Sawndip forms 𭆗 or or 𭡇 or 𦀨, old orthography na)

  1. thick (with opposite surfaces far apart)
    Antonym: mbang
  2. (of vegetation) dense; thick

Zia[edit]

Etymology[edit]

From Proto-Trans-New Guinea *na. Cognate to Blagar na.

Pronoun[edit]

na

  1. I (first person pronoun singular)

Zou[edit]

Etymology 1[edit]

From Proto-Kuki-Chin *naa, from Proto-Sino-Tibetan *na. Cognates include Tibetan (na) and Burmese နာ (na).

Pronunciation[edit]

Adjective[edit]

na

  1. ill

Etymology 2[edit]

From Proto-Kuki-Chin *hnaar, from Proto-Sino-Tibetan *s-na. Cognates include Tibetan སྣ (sna) and Burmese နှာ (hna).

Pronunciation[edit]

Noun[edit]

na

  1. nose

References[edit]

  • Lukram Himmat Singh (2013) A Descriptive Grammar of Zou, Canchipur: Manipur University, pages 40, 47

Zulu[edit]

Etymology 1[edit]

Possibly from na-.

Pronunciation[edit]

Particle[edit]

na

  1. Interrogative particle; indicates a yes-no question. Placed at the end of the sentence.

Etymology 2[edit]

From Proto-Bantu *-nɪ̀a.

Pronunciation[edit]

IPA(key): /na/

Verb[edit]

-na

  1. (intransitive) to rain
Inflection[edit]
Tone L
Infinitive ukuna
Positive Negative
Infinitive ukuna ukungani
Imperative
Simple + object concord
Singular yina -ne
Plural yinani -neni
Present
Positive absolute Positive relative Positive participial Negative absolute Negative relative Negative participial
1st singular ngiyana, ngina enginayo, engina ngina angini engingani ngingani
2nd singular uyana, una onayo, ona una awuni ongani ungani
1st plural siyana, sina esinayo, esina sina asini esingani singani
2nd plural niyana, nina eninayo, enina nina anini eningani ningani
Class 1 uyana, una onayo, ona ena akani ongani engani
Class 2 bayana, bana abanayo, abana bena abani abangani bengani
Class 3 uyana, una onayo, ona una awuni ongani ungani
Class 4 iyana, ina enayo, ena ina ayini engani ingani
Class 5 liyana, lina elinayo, elina lina alini elingani lingani
Class 6 ayana, ana anayo, ana ena awani angani engani
Class 7 siyana, sina esinayo, esina sina asini esingani singani
Class 8 ziyana, zina ezinayo, ezina zina azini ezingani zingani
Class 9 iyana, ina enayo, ena ina ayini engani ingani
Class 10 ziyana, zina ezinayo, ezina zina azini ezingani zingani
Class 11 luyana, luna olunayo, oluna luna aluni olungani lungani
Class 14 buyana, buna obunayo, obuna buna abuni obungani bungani
Class 15 kuyana, kuna okunayo, okuna kuna akuni okungani kungani
Class 17 kuyana, kuna okunayo, okuna kuna akuni okungani kungani
Recent past
Positive absolute Positive relative Positive participial Negative absolute Negative relative Negative participial
1st singular nginile, nginē enginile, enginē nginile, nginē anginanga engingananga ngingananga
2nd singular unile, unē onile, onē unile, unē awunanga ongananga ungananga
1st plural sinile, sinē esinile, esinē sinile, sinē asinanga esingananga singananga
2nd plural ninile, ninē eninile, eninē ninile, ninē aninanga eningananga ningananga
Class 1 unile, unē onile, onē enile, enē akananga ongananga engananga
Class 2 banile, banē abanile, abanē benile, benē abananga abangananga bengananga
Class 3 unile, unē onile, onē unile, unē awunanga ongananga ungananga
Class 4 inile, inē enile, enē inile, inē ayinanga engananga ingananga
Class 5 linile, linē elinile, elinē linile, linē alinanga elingananga lingananga
Class 6 anile, anē anile, anē enile, enē awananga angananga engananga
Class 7 sinile, sinē esinile, esinē sinile, sinē asinanga esingananga singananga
Class 8 zinile, zinē ezinile, ezinē zinile, zinē azinanga ezingananga zingananga
Class 9 inile, inē enile, enē inile, inē ayinanga engananga ingananga
Class 10 zinile, zinē ezinile, ezinē zinile, zinē azinanga ezingananga zingananga
Class 11 lunile, lunē olunile, olunē lunile, lunē alunanga olungananga lungananga
Class 14 bunile, bunē obunile, obunē bunile, bunē abunanga obungananga bungananga
Class 15 kunile, kunē okunile, okunē kunile, kunē akunanga okungananga kungananga
Class 17 kunile, kunē okunile, okunē kunile, kunē akunanga okungananga kungananga
Remote past
Positive absolute Positive relative Positive participial Negative absolute Negative relative Negative participial
1st singular ngāna engāna ngāna anginanga engingananga ngingananga
2nd singular wāna owāna wāna awunanga ongananga ungananga
1st plural sāna esāna sāna asinanga esingananga singananga
2nd plural nāna enāna nāna aninanga eningananga ningananga
Class 1 wāna owāna āna akananga ongananga engananga
Class 2 bāna abāna bāna abananga abangananga bengananga
Class 3 wāna owāna wāna awunanga ongananga ungananga
Class 4 yāna eyāna yāna ayinanga engananga ingananga
Class 5 lāna elāna lāna alinanga elingananga lingananga
Class 6 āna āna āna awananga angananga engananga
Class 7 sāna esāna sāna asinanga esingananga singananga
Class 8 zāna ezāna zāna azinanga ezingananga zingananga
Class 9 yāna eyāna yāna ayinanga engananga ingananga
Class 10 zāna ezāna zāna azinanga ezingananga zingananga
Class 11 lwāna olwāna lwāna alunanga olungananga lungananga
Class 14 bāna obāna bāna abunanga obungananga bungananga
Class 15 kwāna okwāna kwāna akunanga okungananga kungananga
Class 17 kwāna okwāna kwāna akunanga okungananga kungananga
Potential
Positive absolute Positive relative Positive participial Negative absolute Negative relative Negative participial
1st singular ngingana ngingana ngingene ngingene
2nd singular ungana ungana ungene ungene
1st plural singana singana singene singene
2nd plural ningana ningana ningene ningene
Class 1 angana engana angene engene
Class 2 bangana bengana bangene bengene
Class 3 ungana ungana ungene ungene
Class 4 ingana ingana ingene ingene
Class 5 lingana lingana lingene lingene
Class 6 angana engana angene engene
Class 7 singana singana singene singene
Class 8 zingana zingana zingene zingene
Class 9 ingana ingana ingene ingene
Class 10 zingana zingana zingene zingene
Class 11 lungana lungana lungene lungene
Class 14 bungana bungana bungene bungene
Class 15 kungana kungana kungene kungene
Class 17 kungana kungana kungene kungene
Immediate future
Positive absolute Positive relative Positive participial Negative absolute Negative relative Negative participial
1st singular ngizokuna engizokuna ngizokuna angizukuna engingezukuna ngingezukuna
2nd singular uzokuna ozokuna uzokuna awuzukuna ongezukuna ungezukuna
1st plural sizokuna esizokuna sizokuna asizukuna esingezukuna singezukuna
2nd plural nizokuna enizokuna nizokuna anizukuna eningezukuna ningezukuna
Class 1 uzokuna ozokuna ezokuna akazukuna ongezukuna engezukuna
Class 2 bazokuna abazokuna bezokuna abazukuna abangezukuna bengezukuna
Class 3 uzokuna ozokuna uzokuna awuzukuna ongezukuna ungezukuna
Class 4 izokuna ezokuna izokuna ayizukuna engezukuna ingezukuna
Class 5 lizokuna elizokuna lizokuna alizukuna elingezukuna lingezukuna
Class 6 azokuna azokuna ezokuna awazukuna angezukuna engezukuna
Class 7 sizokuna esizokuna sizokuna asizukuna esingezukuna singezukuna
Class 8 zizokuna ezizokuna zizokuna azizukuna ezingezukuna zingezukuna
Class 9 izokuna ezokuna izokuna ayizukuna engezukuna ingezukuna
Class 10 zizokuna ezizokuna zizokuna azizukuna ezingezukuna zingezukuna
Class 11 luzokuna oluzokuna luzokuna aluzukuna olungezukuna lungezukuna
Class 14 buzokuna obuzokuna buzokuna abuzukuna obungezukuna bungezukuna
Class 15 kuzokuna okuzokuna kuzokuna akuzukuna okungezukuna kungezukuna
Class 17 kuzokuna okuzokuna kuzokuna akuzukuna okungezukuna kungezukuna
Remote future
Positive absolute Positive relative Positive participial Negative absolute Negative relative Negative participial
1st singular ngiyokuna engiyokuna ngiyokuna angiyukuna engingeyukuna ngingeyukuna
2nd singular uyokuna oyokuna uyokuna awuyukuna ongeyukuna ungeyukuna
1st plural siyokuna esiyokuna siyokuna asiyukuna esingeyukuna singeyukuna
2nd plural niyokuna eniyokuna niyokuna aniyukuna eningeyukuna ningeyukuna
Class 1 uyokuna oyokuna eyokuna akayukuna ongeyukuna engeyukuna
Class 2 bayokuna abayokuna beyokuna abayukuna abangeyukuna bengeyukuna
Class 3 uyokuna oyokuna uyokuna awuyukuna ongeyukuna ungeyukuna
Class 4 iyokuna eyokuna iyokuna ayiyukuna engeyukuna ingeyukuna
Class 5 liyokuna eliyokuna liyokuna aliyukuna elingeyukuna lingeyukuna
Class 6 ayokuna ayokuna eyokuna awayukuna angeyukuna engeyukuna
Class 7 siyokuna esiyokuna siyokuna asiyukuna esingeyukuna singeyukuna
Class 8 ziyokuna eziyokuna ziyokuna aziyukuna ezingeyukuna zingeyukuna
Class 9 iyokuna eyokuna iyokuna ayiyukuna engeyukuna ingeyukuna
Class 10 ziyokuna eziyokuna ziyokuna aziyukuna ezingeyukuna zingeyukuna
Class 11 luyokuna oluyokuna luyokuna aluyukuna olungeyukuna lungeyukuna
Class 14 buyokuna obuyokuna buyokuna abuyukuna obungeyukuna bungeyukuna
Class 15 kuyokuna okuyokuna kuyokuna akuyukuna okungeyukuna kungeyukuna
Class 17 kuyokuna okuyokuna kuyokuna akuyukuna okungeyukuna kungeyukuna
Present subjunctive
Positive Negative
1st singular ngine ngingani
2nd singular une ungani
1st plural sine singani
2nd plural nine ningani
Class 1 ane angani
Class 2 bane bangani
Class 3 une ungani
Class 4 ine ingani
Class 5 line lingani
Class 6 ane angani
Class 7 sine singani
Class 8 zine zingani
Class 9 ine ingani
Class 10 zine zingani
Class 11 lune lungani
Class 14 bune bungani
Class 15 kune kungani
Class 17 kune kungani
Past subjunctive
Positive Negative
1st singular ngana ngangana, angana, angangana
2nd singular wana wangana, awana, awangana
1st plural sana sangana, asana, asangana
2nd plural nana nangana, anana, anangana
Class 1 wana wangana, akana, akangana
Class 2 bana bangana, abana, abangana
Class 3 wana wangana, awana, awangana
Class 4 yana yangana, ayana, ayangana
Class 5 lana langana, alana, alangana
Class 6 ana angana, awana, awangana
Class 7 sana sangana, asana, asangana
Class 8 zana zangana, azana, azangana
Class 9 yana yangana, ayana, ayangana
Class 10 zana zangana, azana, azangana
Class 11 lwana lwangana, alwana, alwangana
Class 14 bana bangana, abana, abangana
Class 15 kwana kwangana, akwana, akwangana
Class 17 kwana kwangana, akwana, akwangana

See also[edit]

References[edit]