na

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Contents

English[edit]

Pronunciation[edit]

Etymology 1[edit]

From Old English ne (not) + ā (ever).

Adverb[edit]

na (not comparable)

  1. (obsolete) Not.
  2. (obsolete) No.

Etymology 2[edit]

Development of Etymology 1, above; compare nah.

Interjection[edit]

na

  1. (Geordie) No.
    "Na, yor wrang."
    "Na, ye cannet watch telly"
    "Divn’t yee like milk?" "'Na" (i.e., "No, I don’t like milk.")
  2. (colloquial) No.

References[edit]

  • The New Geordie Dictionary, Frank Graham, 1987, ISBN 0946928118
  • A Dictionary of North East Dialect, Bill Griffiths, 2005, Northumbria University Press, ISBN 1904794165

Etymology 3[edit]

Abbreviations.

Noun[edit]

na

  1. (linguistics) Abbreviation of noun animate.

Symbol[edit]

na

  1. nanoamp

See also[edit]

Anagrams[edit]


Acehnese[edit]

Verb[edit]

na

  1. to be (exist)

Derived terms[edit]


Albanian[edit]

Etymology[edit]

From Proto-Albanian *na-, *nō- from Proto-Indo-European *nō̆s (we). Cognate to Latin nos (we), Sanskrit नस् (nas, we).

Pronoun[edit]

na

  1. we

Alternative forms[edit]


Asturian[edit]

Etymology[edit]

From a contraction of the preposition en (in) + feminine singular article la (the).

Contraction[edit]

na f (masculine nel, neuter no, masculine plural nos, feminine plural nes)

  1. in the

Cavineña[edit]

Noun[edit]

na

  1. root of ena

References[edit]


Czech[edit]

Pronunciation[edit]

Preposition[edit]

na

  1. on, onto (direction, + accusative case)
    Dej skleničku na stůl.Put the glass on the table.
  2. on (location, + locative case)
    Sklenička je na stole.The glass is on the table.
  3. to, (direction, + accusative case, used only with certain places (do + genitive is more common))
    Jdeme na poštu.We're going to the post office.
  4. at, in (location, + locative case, used only with places that are strictly associated with their function; (v is more common))
    Jsme na poště.We're at the post office.
  5. for (purpose, + accusative case)
    Ty nůžky nejsou na hrání.The scissors are not for playing with.
  6. at (in the direction of, + accusative case)
    Nekřič na mě!Don't yell at me!

Further reading[edit]

  • na in Příruční slovník jazyka českého, 1935–1957
  • na in Slovník spisovného jazyka českého, 1960–1971, 1989

Dalmatian[edit]

Etymology[edit]

From Latin nōn.

Adverb[edit]

na

  1. no
  2. not

Related terms[edit]


Dutch[edit]

Pronunciation[edit]

Etymology 1[edit]

From Old Dutch *nāh, *nā, from Proto-Germanic *nēhw.

Preposition[edit]

na

  1. after
  2. (op ... na, with a cardinal number) bar, except Used to form ordinal numbers in relation to a superlative quality. The number that is used is 1 lower than in the English translation.
    Brazilië is met zijn 8,5 miljoen vierkante kilometer het grootste land van Zuid-Amerika en het op vier na grootste ter wereld.
    With its 8.5 million square kilometers, Brazil is the largest country in South America and the fifth largest in the world.
    Naast dat de toonladder een kenmerkend gegeven is, zijn er ook bepaalde tonen, die een speciale rol hebben, zoals de vadi en de samvadi, respectievelijk: de belangrijkste en de op een na belangrijkste toon.
    Next to [the fact] that the musical scale is a characteristic datum, there are also certain tones that have a special role, such as the vadi and the samvadi: respectively the most important and second most important tones.
Inflection[edit]
Derived terms[edit]

Etymology 2[edit]

From Old Dutch *nāh, *nā, from Proto-Germanic *nēhwaz.

Adjective[edit]

na (comparative nader, superlative naast)

  1. close
Inflection[edit]

The forms of the positive are obsolescent, particularly the inflected one. The comparative and superlative forms are functioning as independent adjectives to an increasing extent.

Inflection of na
uninflected na
inflected naë
comparative nader
positive comparative superlative
predicative/adverbial nader het naast
het naaste
indefinite m./f. sing. naë nadere naaste
n. sing. na nader naaste
plural naë nadere naaste
definite naë nadere naaste
partitive na's naders
Derived terms[edit]

Esperanto[edit]

Esperanto Wikipedia has an article on:
Wikipedia eo

Etymology[edit]

Presumably from the accusative suffix -n.

Preposition[edit]

na

  1. (neologism, rare) Preposition introducing an accusative phrase.
    Mi legis na Gerda Malaperis.
    I read Gerda Disappeared.

Usage notes[edit]

Unofficial; it is recognized by some Esperantists on the Internet. Usage is not recommended where the accusative suffix is possible (on nouns and adjectives), but where it is not: numerals (unu (one)), particles (iom (some), ties (that one's)), letters (J), titles of books, and quotations.


Galician[edit]

Etymology 1[edit]

From contraction of preposition en (in) + feminine article a (the)

Contraction[edit]

na f (masculine no, masculine plural nos, feminine plural nas)

  1. in the

Etymology 2[edit]

From a mutation of a.

Pronoun[edit]

na f (accusative)

  1. Mutated form of a. (her)
Usage notes[edit]

The n- forms of accusative third-person pronouns are used when the preceding word ends in -u or a diphthong, and is suffixed to the preceding word

Related terms[edit]

German[edit]

Pronunciation[edit]

Etymology 1[edit]

Perhaps from an unstressed form of nu.

Interjection[edit]

na

  1. (regional, chiefly northern and central Germany) well!, so!, hey!, hello!
    Na, dann fangen wir mal an!
    So, let’s get started!
    Na! Wie geht’s?
    Hey! How are you?
Derived terms[edit]

Etymology 2[edit]

A variant of nein.

Interjection[edit]

na

  1. (regional, chiefly southern Germany and Austria) Alternative form of nein (no)
    Na. Das geht net.
    No. That doesn’t work.

Anagrams[edit]


Hawaiian[edit]

Preposition[edit]

na

  1. for, belonging to, by

Usage notes[edit]

  • Used for acquired possessions, while no is used for possessions that are inherited, out of personal control, and for things that can be got into (houses, clothes, cars).

Hungarian[edit]

Pronunciation[edit]

Interjection[edit]

na

  1. well, so, hey
    Na, nem baj. - Well, no problem.
    "Itt van Péter." - "Na és?" - "Peter is here." - "So what?" / So?
    Na, gyerünk! - Alright, let's go!
    Na, ne mondj ilyet! - Hey, don't say that!
    Na, ez fáj! - Hey, that hurts!

Derived terms[edit]


Irish[edit]

Pronunciation[edit]

Article[edit]

na (definite article)

  1. genitive singular feminine of an (triggers h-prothesis)
    na háiteof the place
  2. nominative plural of an (triggers h-prothesis)
    na héinthe birds
  3. genitive plural of an (triggers eclipsis)
    na bpáistíof the children
  4. dative plural of an (triggers h-prothesis)
    ó na cailínífrom the girls

Declension[edit]

Case Masculine singular Feminine singular Plural
Nominative/accusative anT anL naH
Genitive anL naH naN
Dative (ag) anDM (ag) anDF naH
DF: triggers eclipsis or lenition depending on dialect; no lenition of d, t; changes s to ts (pronounced like t)
DM: triggers eclipsis or lenition depending on dialect; no lenition of d, t, s
H: triggers h-prothesis
L: triggers lenition except of d, t; changes s to ts (pronounced like t)
N: triggers eclipsis
T: triggers t-prothesis of a vowel

Contraction[edit]

na

  1. nonstandard form of ina

Further reading[edit]

  • "na" in Foclóir Gaeilge-Béarla, An Gúm, 1977, by Niall Ó Dónaill.
  • Entries containing “na” in English-Irish Dictionary, An Gúm, 1959, by Tomás de Bhaldraithe.
  • Entries containing “na” in New English-Irish Dictionary by Foras na Gaeilge.

Japanese[edit]

Romanization[edit]

na

  1. Rōmaji transcription of
  2. Rōmaji transcription of

Kasem[edit]

Noun[edit]

na

  1. water

References[edit]


Kikuyu[edit]

Particle[edit]

na

  1. (instrumental) with[1]
    Gũtema na kanua ti gũtema na rũhiũ.
    To cut with a mouth is not to cut with a knife.
  2. (comitative) and, with[1]
    Ikinya na thĩ itiaganaga.
    The foot and the earth cannot help meeting.
  3. (source) from[1]
    Wega uumaga na mũciĩ.
    Goodness comes from home.
  4. but[1]
    Kanua njero, na mũciĩ ndũkomeka nĩ heho.
    The mouth is sweet, but the house is too cold to lie at.

References[edit]

  1. 1.0 1.1 1.2 1.3 “na” in Benson, T.G. (1964). Kikuyu-English dictionary, p. 277. Oxford: Clarendon Press.

Kilivila[edit]

Noun[edit]

na

  1. (in compounds) woman

References[edit]


Kurdish[edit]

Interjection[edit]

na

  1. no (used to show disagreement or negation)


This Kurdish entry was created from the translations listed at no. It may be less reliable than other entries, and may be missing parts of speech or additional senses. Please also see na in the Kurdish Wiktionary. This notice will be removed when the entry is checked. (more information) December 2008


Ladin[edit]

Article[edit]

na f

  1. an, a

Synonyms[edit]

See also[edit]


Ladino[edit]

Interjection[edit]

na (Latin spelling, Hebrew spelling נה)

  1. here! behold!

Lakota[edit]

Conjunction[edit]

na

  1. and

Latin[edit]

Verb[edit]

  1. imperative singular of , swim!

References[edit]

  • du Cange, Charles (1883), “na”, in G. A. Louis Henschel, Pierre Carpentier, Léopold Favre, editors, Glossarium Mediæ et Infimæ Latinitatis (in Latin), Niort: L. Favre

Lojban[edit]

Cmavo[edit]

na (rafsi nar)

  1. Indicates the negation of a sentence.

Usage notes[edit]

  • Used before the selbri (but after "cu", if "cu" is used in the bridi).

See also[edit]


Lower Sorbian[edit]

Etymology[edit]

From Proto-Slavic *na, from Proto-Indo-European *h₂neh₃

Pronunciation[edit]

Preposition[edit]

na

  1. (with locative) on, in
  2. (with accusative) on, onto

Further reading[edit]

  • na_2 in Ernst Muka/Mucke (St. Petersburg and Prague 1911–28): Słownik dolnoserbskeje rěcy a jeje narěcow / Wörterbuch der nieder-wendischen Sprache und ihrer Dialekte. Reprinted 2008, Bautzen: Domowina-Verlag.
  • na in Manfred Starosta (1999): Dolnoserbsko-nimski słownik / Niedersorbisch-deutsches Wörterbuch. Bautzen: Domowina-Verlag.

Luganda[edit]

Conjunction[edit]

na

  1. and (only used if the overall statement is grammatically negative)

See also[edit]

References[edit]

p. 94, The Essentials of Luganda, J. D. Chesswas, 4th edition. Oxford University Press: Nairobi. 1967.

This entry has fewer than three known examples of actual usage, the minimum considered necessary for clear attestation, and may not be reliable. Luganda is subject to a special exemption for languages with limited documentation. If you speak it, please consider editing this entry or adding citations. See also Help and the Community Portal.

Mandarin[edit]

Pronunciation[edit]

Romanization[edit]

na (Zhuyin ㄋㄚ˙)

  1. Pinyin transcription of ,
  2. Pinyin transcription of

na

  1. Nonstandard spelling of .
  2. Nonstandard spelling of .
  3. Nonstandard spelling of .
  4. Nonstandard spelling of .

Usage notes[edit]

  • English transcriptions of Mandarin speech often fail to distinguish between the critical tonal differences employed in the Mandarin language, using words such as this one without the appropriate indication of tone.

Middle Dutch[edit]

Pronunciation[edit]

Etymology 1[edit]

From Old Dutch nāh, from Proto-Germanic *nēhw.

Preposition[edit]

na

  1. towards
  2. behind
  3. after, following, later than
  4. in accordance with, based on

Adverb[edit]

na

  1. afterwards, later
  2. close, near
Descendants[edit]
  • Dutch: na
  • Limburgish: nao

Etymology 2[edit]

From Old Dutch *nāh, from Proto-Germanic *nēhwaz.

Adjective[edit]

  1. close
Inflection[edit]

This adjective needs an inflection-table template.

Further reading[edit]

  • na (I)”, in Vroegmiddelnederlands Woordenboek, 2000
  • na (II)”, in Vroegmiddelnederlands Woordenboek, 2000
  • na (III)”, in Vroegmiddelnederlands Woordenboek, 2000
  • na (I)”, in Middelnederlandsch Woordenboek, 1929
  • na (II)”, in Middelnederlandsch Woordenboek, 1929

Neapolitan[edit]

Alternative forms[edit]

Etymology[edit]

From Latin ūna

Article[edit]

na f sg

  1. a, an

Northern Sami[edit]

Etymology[edit]

EB1911 - Volume 01 - Page 001 - 1.svg This entry lacks etymological information. If you are familiar with the origin of this term, please add it to the page per etymology instructions. You can also discuss it at the Etymology scriptorium.

Pronunciation[edit]

  • (Kautokeino) IPA(key): /ˈnɑ/

Adverb[edit]

na

  1. This term needs a translation to English. Please help out and add a translation, then remove the text {{rfdef}}.

Ojibwe[edit]

Particle[edit]

na

  1. Question marker for yes/no questions. It is always placed after the first word in the sentence. If the first word ends in a vowel, use the particle na; if it ends in a consonant, use ina.

Synonyms[edit]


Old English[edit]

Alternative forms[edit]

Etymology[edit]

From ne- (not) + ā (ever).

Pronunciation[edit]

Adverb[edit]

  1. no, not
  2. never, not at all; not even; by no means

Conjunction[edit]

  1. no

Synonyms[edit]

Descendants[edit]


Old Irish[edit]

Article[edit]

na (triggers prothesis of an unwritten /h/ before a vowel in the feminine genitive singular, in the feminine and neuter nominative plural, and in the accusative plural; triggers eclipsis in the genitive plural)

  1. Alternative form of inna
    • c. 845, St. Gall Glosses on Priscian, published in Thesaurus Palaeohibernicus (reprinted 1975, Dublin Institute for Advanced Studies), edited and with translations by Whitley Stokes and John Strachan, vol. II, pp. 49–224, Sg. 188a28
      Ní slond na aimsire acht is slond in gnimo gnither indi.
      It is not the expression of the time, but it is the expression of the action that is performed in it.
    • c. 800, Würzburg Glosses on the Pauline Epistles, published in Thesaurus Palaeohibernicus (reprinted 1987, Dublin Institute for Advanced Studies), edited and with translations by Whitley Stokes and John Strachan, vol. I, pp. 499–712, Wb. 12c11
      Is cumme ad·ciam-ni na rúna diadi ⁊ ad·cíi nech ní tri scáath, céin ṁbimme in corpore.
      We see the divine mysteries just as one sees something through a mirror, as long as we are in corpore.
    • c. 800, Würzburg Glosses on the Pauline Epistles, published in Thesaurus Palaeohibernicus (reprinted 1987, Dublin Institute for Advanced Studies), edited and with translations by Whitley Stokes and John Strachan, vol. I, pp. 499–712, Wb. 18d14
      Ni airegdu a persan-som ol·daas persan na n-abstal olchene.
      Not more eminent are their persons than the persons of the rest of the apostles.

Related terms[edit]

  • in (which see for the complete declension of the definite article)

Pali[edit]

Alternative forms[edit]

Particle[edit]

na

  1. no, not

Polish[edit]

Etymology[edit]

From Proto-Slavic *na, from Proto-Indo-European *h₂neh₃

Pronunciation[edit]

Preposition[edit]

na

  1. (+ locative) on, in
    Siedzę na koniu.
    I'm on a horse.
  2. (+ accusative) onto, on
    Uważaj, zaraz to na mnie spadnie!
    Watch out, it's going to fall on me!
  3. (+ accusative) for, by (a time, date etc.)
    Sprawozdanie ma być gotowe na piątą.
    The report should be ready by five o'clock.
  4. (+ accusative) for, to deal with
    lek na grypę — flu medication
    na zdrowie — for [your] health; cheers; bless you.
  5. (+ accusative or adverb) in a particular manner
    pasażer na gapę — stowaway
    deser na kwaśno — sour dessert
  6. (+ accusative, mathematics) onto (surjective)

Adjective[edit]

na (not comparable)

  1. (mathematics) onto; surjective

Usage notes[edit]

  • When used as an adjective, this word is indeclinable, postpositive (when used attributively), and usually placed inside quotation marks, e.g. funkcja „na”.

Further reading[edit]

  • na in Polish dictionaries at PWN

Portuguese[edit]

Pronunciation[edit]

Etymology 1[edit]

From Old Portuguese na, clipping of ena, from en (in) + a (the).

Contraction[edit]

na f (masculine no, masculine plural nos, feminine plural nas)

  1. Contraction of em a.
    • 2005, Lya Wyler (translator), J. K. Rowling (English author), Harry Potter e o Enigma do Príncipe (Harry Potter and the Half-Blood Prince), Rocco, page 184:
      Eu estava na esperança de encontrá-lo antes do jantar!
      I was hoping to meet you before dinner!
Quotations[edit]

For usage examples of this term, see Citations:no.

Etymology 2[edit]

Pronoun[edit]

na

  1. Alternative form of a (third-person feminine singular objective pronoun) used as an enclitic following a verb form ending in a nasal vowel or diphthong
Quotations[edit]

For usage examples of this term, see Citations:no.


Romani[edit]

Adverb[edit]

na

  1. not

Samoan[edit]

Pronoun[edit]

na

  1. he / she

See also[edit]


Scottish Gaelic[edit]

Preposition[edit]

na

  1. in his.
  2. in her.

Usage notes[edit]

  • As in his lenites the following word.
  • As in her adds h- to the following word, if it begins with a vowel.
    Bha i na h-oifigeach. - She was an official. (literally in her official).

See also[edit]

Article[edit]

na

  1. the.

Usage notes[edit]

  • This is the most common plural form. The most common singular form is an. For other forms and their specific uses, see pages listed in "See also" below.
  • This form is used in the genitive singular of feminine nouns beginning with a consonant.

See also[edit]


Serbo-Croatian[edit]

Etymology[edit]

From Proto-Slavic *na, from Proto-Indo-European *h₂no(H). Compare nȁd.

Pronunciation[edit]

Preposition[edit]

na (Cyrillic spelling на)

  1. (with accusative) to, on, onto (with change of position, answering the question kùda)
    ići na koncertto go to a concert
    staviti knjigu na sto(l)to put a book on the table
  2. (with locative) on, at, in (without change of position, answering the question gdjȅ/gdȅ)
    knjiga je na stoluthe book is on the table
    biti na koncertuto be at the concert
    biti na ulicito be in the street
  3. (with accusative) on, by, for, at (in expressions with time)
    otići nekuda na par danato go somewhere for a couple of days
    na ljeto/letonext summer, the following summer
    na vr(ij)emeon time
    biti plaćen na satto be paid by the hour
  4. (with accusative) to indicate a source of power or energy
    podmornica na atomski pogonnuclear-powered submarine (literally, “submarine (run) on the nuclear power”)

Interjection[edit]

na! (Cyrillic spelling на!)

  1. Here you are! Take it!
  2. Help yourself!

Sicilian[edit]

Article[edit]

na f sg

  1. (indefinite) a, an

See also[edit]

Sicilian articles
Masculine Feminine
indefinite singular un, nu na
definite singular lu, û la, â
definite plural li, î li, î

Slovak[edit]

Etymology[edit]

From Proto-Slavic *na.

Pronunciation[edit]

Preposition[edit]

na (followed by locative šiesty pád)

  1. on (location)

na (followed by accusative štvrtý pád)

  1. for (purpose)

Further reading[edit]

  • na in Slovak dictionaries at korpus.sk

Slovene[edit]

Etymology[edit]

From Proto-Slavic *na.

Pronunciation[edit]

Preposition[edit]

na

  1. (with locative) on (stationary)
  2. (with accusative) onto (motion towards)
  3. (with accusative) at, on (a moment in time)

Somali[edit]

Adverb[edit]

na

  1. moreover

Spanish[edit]

Etymology[edit]

From enna.

Contraction[edit]

na

  1. (obsolete) en la

Sranan Tongo[edit]

Etymology[edit]

From Dutch naar.

Preposition[edit]

na

  1. to

Swahili[edit]

Pronunciation[edit]

Conjunction[edit]

na

  1. and
  2. with

Usage notes[edit]

Older or more conservative Swahili writings only use na to connect two nouns, never to connect two adjectives; the second adjective is changed into an abstract noun instead. However, in modern colloquial Swahili, this is not always the case.


Swedish[edit]

Etymology[edit]

From Old Swedish hana, accusative form of hon. In standard Swedish the corresponding dative form (henne, in Old Norse: hænni) instead has taken its place.[1]

Pronoun[edit]

na

  1. (dialectal, strongly colloquial) her; accusative and dative of hon
    Jo, ja' gav'na brevet.
    Yes, I gave her the letter.

Usage notes[edit]

Often merged with previous word. Rarely in written form unless supposed to imitate (dialectal) speech.

Synonyms[edit]

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ han in Elof Hellquist, Svensk etymologisk ordbok (1st ed., 1922)

Tagalog[edit]

Pronunciation[edit]

Adverb[edit]

na

  1. now
  2. already

Tok Pisin[edit]

Etymology[edit]

From English and.

Conjunction[edit]

na

  1. and
    • 1995, John Verhaar, Toward a reference grammar of Tok Pisin: an experiment in corpus linguistics[1], ISBN 0-8248-1672-2, page 433:
      Mekim olsem pinis, orait tupela i planim taro na banana, na kumu, painap, kon, tomato, na kaukau tu.

Derived terms[edit]

This entry has fewer than three known examples of actual usage, the minimum considered necessary for clear attestation, and may not be reliable. Tok Pisin is subject to a special exemption for languages with limited documentation. If you speak it, please consider editing this entry or adding citations. See also Help and the Community Portal.

Tzotzil[edit]

Pronunciation[edit]

Noun[edit]

na

  1. house

Inflection[edit]

Derived terms[edit]

(Nouns)

References[edit]


Unami[edit]

Pronunciation[edit]

Pronoun[edit]

na

  1. that (animate)

Venetian[edit]

Article[edit]

na f sg

  1. a, an

Vietnamese[edit]

Pronunciation[edit]

Noun[edit]

na

  1. sugar apple (Annona squamosa)

Synonyms[edit]


Welsh[edit]

Pronunciation[edit]

Interjection[edit]

na

  1. no

Particle[edit]

na

  1. not (in answers and tag questions)
  2. don’t (in prohibitions)

Usage notes[edit]

Triggers mixed mutation of a following consonant. When the following consonant is g, which disappears under soft mutation, the form na remains; it does not become nag, the form used before vowels. Thus na + gallan becomes na allan, not *nag allan.

Alternative forms[edit]

  • nag (used before a vowel)

Conjunction[edit]

na (triggers mixed mutation)

  1. than
  2. neither, nor

Alternative forms[edit]

  • nag (used before a vowel)

Westrobothnian[edit]

Etymology 1[edit]

From Old Norse nakkvart.

Pronunciation[edit]

Adverb[edit]

na

  1. somewhat
    rit nona högt ópp i värä tornä däna
    That tower rises fairly high up in the air.
Derived terms[edit]

Etymology 2[edit]

From Old Norse hana.

Pronunciation[edit]

Pronoun[edit]

na

  1. her

Zulu[edit]

Etymology 1[edit]

EB1911 - Volume 01 - Page 001 - 1.svg This entry lacks etymological information. If you are familiar with the origin of this term, please add it to the page per etymology instructions. You can also discuss it at the Etymology scriptorium.

Pronunciation[edit]

Particle[edit]

na

  1. Interrogative particle; indicates a yes-no question. Placed at the end of the sentence.

Etymology 2[edit]

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Pronunciation[edit]

Phonetik.svg This entry needs pronunciation information. If you are familiar with the IPA then please add some!

Verb[edit]

-na

  1. (intransitive) to rain

Inflection[edit]

Tone L
Infinitive ukuna
Positive Negative
Infinitive ukuna ukungani
Imperative
Simple + object concord
Singular yina yine
Plural yinani yineni
Present
Positive absolute Positive relative Positive participial Negative absolute Negative relative Negative participial
1st singular ngiyana, ngina enginayo, engina ngina angini engingani ngingani
2nd singular uyana, una onayo, ona una awuni ongani ungani
1st plural siyana, sina esinayo, esina sina asini esingani singani
2nd plural niyana, nina eninayo, enina nina anini eningani ningani
Class 1 uyana, una onayo, ona ena akani ongani engani
Class 2 bayana, bana abanayo, abana bena abani abangani bengani
Class 3 uyana, una onayo, ona una awuni ongani ungani
Class 4 iyana, ina enayo, ena ina ayini engani ingani
Class 5 liyana, lina elinayo, elina lina alini elingani lingani
Class 6 ayana, ana anayo, ana ena awani angani engani
Class 7 siyana, sina esinayo, esina sina asini esingani singani
Class 8 ziyana, zina ezinayo, ezina zina azini ezingani zingani
Class 9 iyana, ina enayo, ena ina ayini engani ingani
Class 10 ziyana, zina ezinayo, ezina zina azini ezingani zingani
Class 11 luyana, luna olunayo, oluna luna aluni olungani lungani
Class 14 buyana, buna obunayo, obuna buna abuni obungani bungani
Class 15 kuyana, kuna okunayo, okuna kuna akuni okungani kungani
Class 17 kuyana, kuna okunayo, okuna kuna akuni okungani kungani
Recent past
Positive absolute Positive relative Positive participial Negative absolute Negative relative Negative participial
1st singular nginile, nginē enginile, enginē nginile, nginē anginanga engingananga ngingananga
2nd singular unile, unē onile, onē unile, unē awunanga ongananga ungananga
1st plural sinile, sinē esinile, esinē sinile, sinē asinanga esingananga singananga
2nd plural ninile, ninē eninile, eninē ninile, ninē aninanga eningananga ningananga
Class 1 unile, unē onile, onē enile, enē akananga ongananga engananga
Class 2 banile, banē abanile, abanē benile, benē abananga abangananga bengananga
Class 3 unile, unē onile, onē unile, unē awunanga ongananga ungananga
Class 4 inile, inē enile, enē inile, inē ayinanga engananga ingananga
Class 5 linile, linē elinile, elinē linile, linē alinanga elingananga lingananga
Class 6 anile, anē anile, anē enile, enē awananga angananga engananga
Class 7 sinile, sinē esinile, esinē sinile, sinē asinanga esingananga singananga
Class 8 zinile, zinē ezinile, ezinē zinile, zinē azinanga ezingananga zingananga
Class 9 inile, inē enile, enē inile, inē ayinanga engananga ingananga
Class 10 zinile, zinē ezinile, ezinē zinile, zinē azinanga ezingananga zingananga
Class 11 lunile, lunē olunile, olunē lunile, lunē alunanga olungananga lungananga
Class 14 bunile, bunē obunile, obunē bunile, bunē abunanga obungananga bungananga
Class 15 kunile, kunē okunile, okunē kunile, kunē akunanga okungananga kungananga
Class 17 kunile, kunē okunile, okunē kunile, kunē akunanga okungananga kungananga
Remote past
Positive absolute Positive relative Positive participial Negative absolute Negative relative Negative participial
1st singular ngāna engāna ngāna anginanga engingananga ngingananga
2nd singular wāna owāna wāna awunanga ongananga ungananga
1st plural sāna esāna sāna asinanga esingananga singananga
2nd plural nāna enāna nāna aninanga eningananga ningananga
Class 1 wāna owāna āna akananga ongananga engananga
Class 2 bāna abāna bāna abananga abangananga bengananga
Class 3 wāna owāna wāna awunanga ongananga ungananga
Class 4 yāna eyāna yāna ayinanga engananga ingananga
Class 5 lāna elāna lāna alinanga elingananga lingananga
Class 6 āna āna āna awananga angananga engananga
Class 7 sāna esāna sāna asinanga esingananga singananga
Class 8 zāna ezāna zāna azinanga ezingananga zingananga
Class 9 yāna eyāna yāna ayinanga engananga ingananga
Class 10 zāna ezāna zāna azinanga ezingananga zingananga
Class 11 lwāna olwāna lwāna alunanga olungananga lungananga
Class 14 bāna obāna bāna abunanga obungananga bungananga
Class 15 kwāna okwāna kwāna akunanga okungananga kungananga
Class 17 kwāna okwāna kwāna akunanga okungananga kungananga
Potential
Positive absolute Positive relative Positive participial Negative absolute Negative relative Negative participial
1st singular ngingana ngingana ngingene ngingene
2nd singular ungana ungana ungene ungene
1st plural singana singana singene singene
2nd plural ningana ningana ningene ningene
Class 1 angana engana angene engene
Class 2 bangana bengana bangene bengene
Class 3 ungana ungana ungene ungene
Class 4 ingana ingana ingene ingene
Class 5 lingana lingana lingene lingene
Class 6 angana engana angene engene
Class 7 singana singana singene singene
Class 8 zingana zingana zingene zingene
Class 9 ingana ingana ingene ingene
Class 10 zingana zingana zingene zingene
Class 11 lungana lungana lungene lungene
Class 14 bungana bungana bungene bungene
Class 15 kungana kungana kungene kungene
Class 17 kungana kungana kungene kungene
Immediate future
Positive absolute Positive relative Positive participial Negative absolute Negative relative Negative participial
1st singular ngizokuna engizokuna ngizokuna angizukuna ngingezukuna
2nd singular uzokuna ozokuna uzokuna awuzukuna ungezukuna
1st plural sizokuna esizokuna sizokuna asizukuna singezukuna
2nd plural nizokuna enizokuna nizokuna anizukuna ningezukuna
Class 1 uzokuna ozokuna ezokuna akazukuna engezukuna
Class 2 bazokuna abazokuna bezokuna abazukuna bengezukuna
Class 3 uzokuna ozokuna uzokuna awuzukuna ungezukuna
Class 4 izokuna ezokuna izokuna ayizukuna ingezukuna
Class 5 lizokuna elizokuna lizokuna alizukuna lingezukuna
Class 6 azokuna azokuna ezokuna awazukuna engezukuna
Class 7 sizokuna esizokuna sizokuna asizukuna singezukuna
Class 8 zizokuna ezizokuna zizokuna azizukuna zingezukuna
Class 9 izokuna ezokuna izokuna ayizukuna ingezukuna
Class 10 zizokuna ezizokuna zizokuna azizukuna zingezukuna
Class 11 luzokuna oluzokuna luzokuna aluzukuna lungezukuna
Class 14 buzokuna obuzokuna buzokuna abuzukuna bungezukuna
Class 15 kuzokuna okuzokuna kuzokuna akuzukuna kungezukuna
Class 17 kuzokuna okuzokuna kuzokuna akuzukuna kungezukuna
Remote future
Positive absolute Positive relative Positive participial Negative absolute Negative relative Negative participial
1st singular ngiyokuna engiyokuna ngiyokuna angiyukuna ngingeyukuna
2nd singular uyokuna oyokuna uyokuna awuyukuna ungeyukuna
1st plural siyokuna esiyokuna siyokuna asiyukuna singeyukuna
2nd plural niyokuna eniyokuna niyokuna aniyukuna ningeyukuna
Class 1 uyokuna oyokuna eyokuna akayukuna engeyukuna
Class 2 bayokuna abayokuna beyokuna abayukuna bengeyukuna
Class 3 uyokuna oyokuna uyokuna awuyukuna ungeyukuna
Class 4 iyokuna eyokuna iyokuna ayiyukuna ingeyukuna
Class 5 liyokuna eliyokuna liyokuna aliyukuna lingeyukuna
Class 6 ayokuna ayokuna eyokuna awayukuna engeyukuna
Class 7 siyokuna esiyokuna siyokuna asiyukuna singeyukuna
Class 8 ziyokuna eziyokuna ziyokuna aziyukuna zingeyukuna
Class 9 iyokuna eyokuna iyokuna ayiyukuna ingeyukuna
Class 10 ziyokuna eziyokuna ziyokuna aziyukuna zingeyukuna
Class 11 luyokuna oluyokuna luyokuna aluyukuna lungeyukuna
Class 14 buyokuna obuyokuna buyokuna abuyukuna bungeyukuna
Class 15 kuyokuna okuyokuna kuyokuna akuyukuna kungeyukuna
Class 17 kuyokuna okuyokuna kuyokuna akuyukuna kungeyukuna
Present subjunctive
Positive Negative
1st singular ngine ngingani
2nd singular une ungani
1st plural sine singani
2nd plural nine ningani
Class 1 ane angani
Class 2 bane bangani
Class 3 une ungani
Class 4 ine ingani
Class 5 line lingani
Class 6 ane angani
Class 7 sine singani
Class 8 zine zingani
Class 9 ine ingani
Class 10 zine zingani
Class 11 lune lungani
Class 14 bune bungani
Class 15 kune kungani
Class 17 kune kungani
Past subjunctive
Positive Negative
1st singular ngana angina
2nd singular wana awuna
1st plural sana asina
2nd plural nana anina
Class 1 wana akana
Class 2 bana abana
Class 3 wana awuna
Class 4 yana ayina
Class 5 lana alina
Class 6 ana awana
Class 7 sana asina
Class 8 zana azina
Class 9 yana ayina
Class 10 zana azina
Class 11 lwana aluna
Class 14 bana abuna
Class 15 kwana akuna
Class 17 kwana akuna

See also[edit]

References[edit]