b

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b U+0062, b
LATIN SMALL LETTER B
a
[U+0061]
Basic Latin c
[U+0063]
U+1D47, ᵇ
MODIFIER LETTER SMALL B

[U+1D46]
Phonetic Extensions
[U+1D48]
U+FF42, b
FULLWIDTH LATIN SMALL LETTER B

[U+FF41]
Halfwidth and Fullwidth Forms
[U+FF43]

Translingual[edit]

English Wikipedia has an article on:
Wikipedia

Etymology[edit]

Approximate form of upper case B when the loop was dropped to form lower case b Modification of capital letter B by dropping its upper loop, from the Greek letter Β (B, Beta).

Pronunciation[edit]

  • (file)
    A voiced bilabial stop is made with the lips alone, by a complete closure cutting off all exit of breath from the mouth, but with accompanying sonant vibrations of the vocal chords, the current of air necessary to produce this being driven from the lungs into the closed cavity of the mouth.[1] The corresponding voiceless stop is p.

Letter[edit]

b (upper case B)

  1. The second letter of the basic modern Latin alphabet.

Symbol[edit]

b

  1. (IPA) a voiced bilabial plosive.
    (superscript ⟨ᵇ⟩) [b]-onset (prestopping / preocclusion / preplosion), [b]-release (e.g. ⟨ɡᵇ⟩ for [ɡ͡b]), [b]-coloring, or a weak, fleeting or epenthetic [b].
  2. (physics) A bottom quark.
  3. (music) Alternative form of (flat)

Usage notes[edit]

The letter b is used in several romanization systems to represent the bilabial plosive or stop, usually voiced (/b/), including Cyrillic б (b, be), Zhuyin fuhao , and Korean jamo (b, bieup).

Gallery[edit]

See also[edit]

Other representations of B:

References[edit]

  1. ^ William Dwight Whitney and Benjamin E[li] Smith, editors (1914), “b”, in The Century Dictionary: An Encyclopedic Lexicon of the English Language, volume I (A–C), revised edition, New York, N.Y.: The Century Co., →OCLC.

Further reading[edit]

English[edit]

Etymology 1[edit]

Pronunciation[edit]

Letter[edit]

b (lower case, upper case B, plural bs or b's)

  1. The second letter of the English alphabet, called bee and written in the Latin script.
Usage notes[edit]

In Modern English, the letter b is sometimes silent, as when final after m, in climb, lamb, limb, tomb, thumb, and in a few other cases, such as debt and doubt. In most of these cases b is a modern graphic insertion, and was never pronounced (in the English forms); see limb, thumb, debt, and doubt.[1]

See also[edit]

Number[edit]

b (lower case, upper case B)

  1. The ordinal number second, derived from this letter of the English alphabet, called bee and written in the Latin script.

Etymology 2[edit]

Adjective[edit]

b (not comparable)

  1. Alternative form of b. (born)

Symbol[edit]

b

  1. (astronomy) latitude in the galactic coordinate system
  2. (physics) barn
  3. (computing) bit
  4. (cricket) bye
  5. (size) big
Derived terms[edit]
Translations[edit]

See also[edit]

  • (astronomy): (galactic longitude)
  • (computing): B (byte)

Etymology 3[edit]

Abbreviations.

  1. (stenoscript) a single consonant /b/ in a word, or a dominant /b/ in a cluster.
  2. (stenoscript) the sequence /biː/
  3. (stenoscript) Abbreviation of be and inflections being, been.
  4. (stenoscript) Abbreviation of by and homophones buy, bye.
  5. (stenoscript) Abbreviation of but.

References[edit]

  1. ^ William Dwight Whitney and Benjamin E[li] Smith, editors (1914), “b”, in The Century Dictionary: An Encyclopedic Lexicon of the English Language, volume I (A–C), revised edition, New York, N.Y.: The Century Co., →OCLC.

Afar[edit]

Letter[edit]

b

  1. The second letter of the Afar alphabet, written in the Latin script.

See also[edit]

Azerbaijani[edit]

Pronunciation[edit]

Letter[edit]

b lower case (upper case B)

  1. The second letter of the Azerbaijani alphabet, written in the Latin script.

See also[edit]

Basque[edit]

Pronunciation[edit]

Letter[edit]

b (lower case, upper case B)

  1. The second letter of the Basque alphabet, called be and written in the Latin script.

See also[edit]

Catalan[edit]

Pronunciation[edit]

Letter[edit]

b (lower case, upper case B)

  1. The second letter of the Catalan alphabet, written in the Latin script.

See also[edit]

Chipewyan[edit]

Pronunciation[edit]

  1. IPA(key): /p/

Letter[edit]

b (upper case B)

  1. A letter of the Chipewyan alphabet, written in the Latin script.

Dutch[edit]

Pronunciation[edit]

Letter[edit]

b (lower case, upper case B)

  1. The second letter of the Dutch alphabet, written in the Latin script.

See also[edit]

Esperanto[edit]

Pronunciation[edit]

Letter[edit]

b (lower case, upper case B)

  1. The second letter of the Esperanto alphabet, called bo and written in the Latin script.

See also[edit]

Estonian[edit]

 b on Estonian Wikipedia

Pronunciation[edit]

  • (letter name, bee): IPA(key): /ˈb̥eː/, [ˈb̥eː]
  • (phoneme): IPA(key): /ˈb̥/, [ˈb̥]

Letter[edit]

b (lower case, upper case B)

  1. The second letter of the Estonian alphabet, called bee and written in the Latin script.

See also[edit]

Noun[edit]

b (genitive b or b', partitive b-d or b'd)

  1. The letter b (the second letter of the Estonian alphabet)
  2. (music) B-flat (note)
    Synonym: si-bemoll

Declension[edit]

(music):

References[edit]

Faroese[edit]

Pronunciation[edit]

Letter[edit]

b (upper case B)

  1. The third letter of the Faroese alphabet, written in the Latin script.

See also[edit]

Finnish[edit]

Etymology 1[edit]

The Finnish orthography using the Latin script was based on Swedish, German and Latin. No earlier script is known. See the Wikipedia article on Finnish for more information, and b for development of the glyph itself.

Pronunciation[edit]

Letter[edit]

b (lower case, upper case B)

  1. The second letter of the Finnish alphabet, called bee and written in the Latin script.
Usage notes[edit]
  • Used only in loanwords.
See also[edit]

Etymology 2[edit]

German musical notation.

Noun[edit]

b

  1. (music) B flat
Usage notes[edit]
  • Capitalized for the great octave or any octave below that, or in names of major keys; not capitalized for the small octave or any octave above that, or in names of minor keys.
  • Finnish uses the German system; B is written as h.
Declension[edit]

French[edit]

Pronunciation[edit]

Letter[edit]

b (lower case, upper case B)

  1. The second letter of the French alphabet, written in the Latin script.

Fula[edit]

Pronunciation[edit]

Letter[edit]

b (lower case, upper case B)

  1. The third letter of the Fula alphabet, written in the Latin script.

Usage notes[edit]

See also[edit]

Gothic[edit]

Romanization[edit]

b

  1. Romanization of 𐌱

Hungarian[edit]

Pronunciation[edit]

Letter[edit]

b (lower case, upper case B)

  1. The third letter of the Hungarian alphabet, called and written in the Latin script.
  2. (music) B-flat, B♭ (the 11th note of the C chromatic scale)
    Coordinate terms: cesz, desz, esz, fesz, gesz, asz

Declension[edit]

Inflection (stem in long/high vowel, front unrounded harmony)
singular plural
nominative b b-k
accusative b-t b-ket
dative b-nek b-knek
instrumental b-vel b-kkel
causal-final b-ért b-kért
translative b-vé b-kké
terminative b-ig b-kig
essive-formal b-ként b-kként
essive-modal
inessive b-ben b-kben
superessive b-n b-ken
adessive b-nél b-knél
illative b-be b-kbe
sublative b-re b-kre
allative b-hez b-khez
elative b-ből b-kből
delative b-ről b-kről
ablative b-től b-ktől
non-attributive
possessive - singular
b-é b-ké
non-attributive
possessive - plural
b-éi b-kéi
Possessive forms of b
possessor single possession multiple possessions
1st person sing. b-m b-im
2nd person sing. b-d b-id
3rd person sing. b-je b-i
1st person plural b-nk b-ink
2nd person plural b-tek b-itek
3rd person plural b-jük b-ik

Derived terms[edit]

Compound words

See also[edit]

Further reading[edit]

  • (the letter): b in Bárczi, Géza and László Országh. A magyar nyelv értelmező szótára (‘The Explanatory Dictionary of the Hungarian Language’, abbr.: ÉrtSz.). Budapest: Akadémiai Kiadó, 1959–1962. Fifth ed., 1992: →ISBN
  • (in music: “B-flat”): b in Bárczi, Géza and László Országh. A magyar nyelv értelmező szótára (‘The Explanatory Dictionary of the Hungarian Language’, abbr.: ÉrtSz.). Budapest: Akadémiai Kiadó, 1959–1962. Fifth ed., 1992: →ISBN
  • (in music, rare): b , synonym of (), defined at in Bárczi, Géza and László Országh: A magyar nyelv értelmező szótára (’An Explanatory Dictionary of the Hungarian Language’, abbr.: ÉrtSz.). Budapest: Akadémiai Kiadó, 1959–1962. Fifth ed., 1992: →ISBN
  • b in Ittzés, Nóra (ed.). A magyar nyelv nagyszótára (‘A Comprehensive Dictionary of the Hungarian Language’). Budapest: Akadémiai Kiadó, 2006–2031 (work in progress; published A–ez as of 2023)

Icelandic[edit]

Pronunciation[edit]

  • (letter name) IPA(key): /pjɛː/

Letter[edit]

b (upper case B)

  1. The third letter of the Icelandic alphabet, written in the Latin script.

See also[edit]

Ido[edit]

Pronunciation[edit]

  • (context pronunciation) IPA(key): /b/
  • (letter name) IPA(key): /be/

Letter[edit]

b (upper case B)

  1. The second letter of the Ido alphabet, written in the Latin script.

See also[edit]

Indonesian[edit]

Pronunciation[edit]

Letter[edit]

b (lower case, upper case B)

  1. The second letter of the Indonesian alphabet, written in the Latin script.

See also[edit]

Italian[edit]

Noun[edit]

b f or m (invariable, lower case, upper case B)

  1. The second letter of the Italian alphabet, called bi and written in the Latin script.

Kashubian[edit]

Etymology[edit]

The Kashubian orthography is based on the Latin alphabet. No earlier script is known. See the Kashubian alphabet article on Wikipedia for more, and b for development of the glyph itself.

Letter[edit]

b (lower case, upper case B)

  1. The fourth letter of the Kashubian alphabet, written in the Latin script.

See also[edit]

Latvian[edit]

Latvian Wikipedia has an article on:
Wikipedia lv

Etymology[edit]

Proposed in 1908 as part of the new Latvian spelling by the scientific commission headed by K. Mīlenbahs, which was accepted and began to be taught in schools in 1909. Prior to that, Latvian had been written in German Fraktur, and sporadically in Cyrillic.

Pronunciation[edit]

(file)

Letter[edit]

B

b (lower case, upper case B)

  1. The third letter of the Latvian alphabet, called and written in the Latin script.

See also[edit]

Livonian[edit]

Pronunciation[edit]

Letter[edit]

b (upper case B)

  1. The fifth letter of the Livonian alphabet, written in the Latin script.

See also[edit]

Lushootseed[edit]

Letter[edit]

b

  1. The third letter of the Lushootseed alphabet, pronounced as a voiced bilabial stop.

Malay[edit]

Letter[edit]

b (lower case, upper case B)

  1. The second letter of the Malay alphabet, written in the Latin script.

See also[edit]

Maltese[edit]

Pronunciation[edit]

  • IPA(key): /b/
  • IPA(key): /p/ (per final devoicing or assimilation to a following voiceless obstruent)

Letter[edit]

b (lower case, upper case B)

  1. The second letter of the Maltese alphabet, written in the Latin script.

See also[edit]

Mazahua[edit]

Pronunciation[edit]

Letter[edit]

b (upper case B)

  1. A letter of the Mazahua alphabet.

Norwegian Bokmål[edit]

Norwegian Bokmål Wikipedia has an article on:
Wikipedia nb
The uppercase and lowercase form of the letter B.

Alternative forms[edit]

Etymology[edit]

Modification of the capital letter B by dropping its upper loop, from Latin B, from Etruscan 𐌁 (b, be), from Ancient Greek Β (B, beta), from the Phoenician 𐤁(b, bet), from Proto-Canaanite , from Proto-Sinaitic , from Egyptian 𓉐, representing the plan of a house.

Pronunciation[edit]

Letter[edit]

b (upper case B)

  1. The second letter of the Norwegian Bokmål alphabet, written in the Latin script.

Noun[edit]

b m (definite singular b-en, indefinite plural b-er, definite plural b-ene)

  1. the letter b, the second letter of the Norwegian alphabet
  2. (music) the tone h lowered by half a step
    • 1944, Børre Qvamme, Musikk, pages 35–36:
      enhver tone er mangetydig, fiss er også gess, diss er ess, b er aiss og så videre
      every tone is ambiguous, fiss is also gess, diss is ace, b is aiss and so on
    • 2000, Bjørnar Pedersen og Egil Birkeland, Hillman Hunter:
      skotske sekkepiper stemmes i B
      Scottish bagpipes are tuned in B
  3. (music) a B-flat (sign indicating that the following note is to be lowered by half a step)
    • 1974, Jens Bjørneboe, Haiene, page 98:
      ingen vil påstå at notebladet med nøkler, kryss og b’er er selve musikken
      no one will claim that the sheet music with keys, crosses and bs is the music itself
  4. (physics) symbol for bar (bar)

Norwegian Nynorsk[edit]

Pronunciation[edit]

Letter[edit]

b m (upper case B, definite singular b-en, indefinite plural b-ar, definite plural b-ane)

  1. The second letter of the Norwegian alphabet, written in the Latin script.
  2. (music) B-flat

Nupe[edit]

Pronunciation[edit]

Letter[edit]

b (lower case, upper case B)

  1. The second letter of the Nupe alphabet, written in the Latin script.

See also[edit]

Polish[edit]

Etymology[edit]

The Polish orthography is based on the Latin alphabet. No earlier script is known. See the history of Polish orthography article on Wikipedia for more, and b for development of the glyph itself.

Pronunciation[edit]

Letter[edit]

b (upper case B, lower case)

  1. The third letter of the Polish alphabet, called be and written in the Latin script.

See also[edit]

Portuguese[edit]

Pronunciation[edit]

Letter[edit]

b (lower case, upper case B)

  1. The second letter of the Portuguese alphabet, written in the Latin script.

See also[edit]

Romani[edit]

Pronunciation[edit]

Letter[edit]

b (lower case, upper case B)

  1. The second letter of the Romani alphabet, written in the Latin script.

See also[edit]

Romanian[edit]

Pronunciation[edit]

Letter[edit]

b (lower case, upper case B)

  1. The fourth letter of the Romanian alphabet, called be or and written in the Latin script.

See also[edit]

Silesian[edit]

Etymology[edit]

The Silesian orthography is based on the Latin alphabet. No earlier script is known. See the Silesian language article on Wikipedia for more, and b for development of the glyph itself.

Letter[edit]

b (lower case, upper case B)

  1. The third letter of the Silesian alphabet, written in the Latin script.

See also[edit]

Serbo-Croatian[edit]

Pronunciation[edit]

Letter[edit]

b (Cyrillic spelling б)

  1. The second letter of the Serbo-Croatian alphabet (gajica), written in the Latin script.

See also[edit]

Skolt Sami[edit]

Pronunciation[edit]

Letter[edit]

b (upper case B)

  1. The third letter of the Skolt Sami alphabet, written in the Latin script.

See also[edit]

Slovene[edit]

Slovene Wikipedia has an article on:
Wikipedia sl

Etymology[edit]

From Gay's Latin alphabet b, from Czech alphabet b, from Latin b, modification of capital letter B by dropping its upper loop, which is derived from the Etruscan letter 𐌁 (b, be), from the Ancient Greek letter Β (B, beta), derived from the Phoenician letter 𐤁(b, bet), from the Egyptian hieroglyph 𓉐. Pronunciation as IPA(key): /bə/ is initial Slovene (phoneme plus a fill vowel) and the second pronunciation is probably taken from German B.

Pronunciation[edit]

  • (phoneme): IPA(key): /b/, [p], [b̪]
  • (letter name): IPA(key): /bə́/, /bèː/, /béː/
  • (file)
  • Rhymes: , -eː

Letter[edit]

b (lower case, upper case B)

  1. The second letter of the Slovene alphabet, written in the Latin script.
  2. The third letter of the Resian alphabet, written in the Latin script.
  3. The second letter of the Natisone Valley dialect alphabet, written in the Latin script.

Symbol[edit]

b

  1. (SNPT) Phonetic transcription of sound [b].

Noun[edit]

b m inan

  1. The name of the Latin script letter B / b.
  2. (linguistics) The name of the phoneme /b/.

Inflection[edit]

  • Overall more common
The diacritics used in this section of the entry are non-tonal. If you are a native tonal speaker, please help by adding the tonal marks.
Masculine inan., soft o-stem
nom. sing. b
gen. sing. b-ja
singular dual plural
nominative
(imenovȃlnik)
b b-ja b-ji
genitive
(rodȋlnik)
b-ja b-jev b-jev
dative
(dajȃlnik)
b-ju b-jema b-jem
accusative
(tožȋlnik)
b b-ja b-je
locative
(mẹ̑stnik)
b-ju b-jih b-jih
instrumental
(orọ̑dnik)
b-jem b-jema b-ji
  • More common when with a definite adjective
Masculine inan., no endings
nom. sing. b
gen. sing. b
singular dual plural
nominative b b b
accusative b b b
genitive b b b
dative b b b
locative b b b
instrumental b b b

Derived terms[edit]

See also[edit]

Further reading[edit]

  • b”, in Slovarji Inštituta za slovenski jezik Frana Ramovša ZRC SAZU, portal Fran

Spanish[edit]

Pronunciation[edit]

  • IPA(key): (phoneme) /b/ [β̞]
  • IPA(key): (letter name) /ˈbe/ [ˈbe]
    • Rhymes: -e
    • IPA(key): (common in some countries) /ˌbe ˈlaɾɡa/ [ˌbe ˈlaɾ.ɣ̞a] (be larga)

Letter[edit]

b (lower case, upper case B)

  1. The second letter of the Spanish alphabet, called be and written in the Latin script.

Derived terms[edit]

Swedish[edit]

Pronunciation[edit]

Letter[edit]

b (lower case, upper case B)

  1. The second letter of the Swedish alphabet, written in the Latin script.

Noun[edit]

b

  1. (slang) Abbreviation of brunt (hashish).

See also[edit]

References[edit]

Tagalog[edit]

Etymology[edit]

From Spanish b. Each pronunciation has a different source:

  • Filipino alphabet pronunciation is influenced by English b.
  • Abecedario pronunciation is from Spanish b.
  • Abakada alphabet pronunciation is influenced by Baybayin character (ba).

Pronunciation[edit]

  • Hyphenation: b
  • (letter name, Filipino alphabet): IPA(key): /bi/, [bɪ]
  • (letter name, Abecedario): IPA(key): /be/, [bɛ]
  • (letter name, Abakada alphabet): IPA(key): /ˈba/, [ˈbɐ]
  • (phoneme): IPA(key): /b/, [b]
  • Rhymes: -i, -e, -a

Letter[edit]

b (lower case, upper case B, Baybayin spelling ᜊᜒ)

  1. The second letter of the Tagalog alphabet (Filipino alphabet), called bi and written in the Latin script.
  2. (historical) The second letter of the Tagalog alphabet (Abecedario), called be and written in the Latin script.

Letter[edit]

b (lower case, upper case B, Baybayin spelling )

  1. The second letter of the Tagalog alphabet (Abakada alphabet), called ba and written in the Latin script.

See also[edit]

Further reading[edit]

Turkish[edit]

Pronunciation[edit]

Letter[edit]

b (lower case, upper case B)

  1. The second letter of the Turkish alphabet, called be and written in the Latin script.

See also[edit]

Turkmen[edit]

Pronunciation[edit]

Letter[edit]

b (upper case B)

  1. The second letter of the Turkmen alphabet, written in the Latin script.

See also[edit]

Vietnamese[edit]

Pronunciation[edit]

  • (Hà Nội) IPA(key): [ʔɓe˧˧], [ʔɓe˧˧ ʔɓɔ˨˩], [ʔɓəː˨˩]
  • (Huế) IPA(key): [ʔɓej˧˧], [ʔɓej˧˧ ʔɓɔ˦˩], [ʔɓəː˦˩]
  • (Hồ Chí Minh City) IPA(key): [ʔɓej˧˧], [ʔɓej˧˧ ʔɓɔ˨˩], [ʔɓəː˨˩]
  • Phonetic: bê, bê bò, bờ

Letter[edit]

b (upper case B)

  1. The fourth letter of the Vietnamese alphabet, called , bê bò, or bờ and written in the Latin script.

See also[edit]

Welsh[edit]

Pronunciation[edit]

Letter[edit]

b (lower case, upper case B)

  1. The second letter of the Welsh alphabet, called bi and written in the Latin script. It is preceded by a and followed by c.

Mutation[edit]

Welsh mutation
radical soft nasal aspirate
bara fara mara unchanged
Note: Some of these forms may be hypothetical. Not every possible mutated form of every word actually occurs.

See also[edit]

Further reading[edit]

  • R. J. Thomas, G. A. Bevan, P. J. Donovan, A. Hawke et al., editors (1950–present), “b”, in Geiriadur Prifysgol Cymru Online (in Welsh), University of Wales Centre for Advanced Welsh & Celtic Studies

Yoruba[edit]

Pronunciation[edit]

Letter[edit]

b (lower case, upper case B)

  1. The second letter of the Yoruba alphabet, called and written in the Latin script.

See also[edit]

Zulu[edit]

Letter[edit]

b (lower case, upper case B)

  1. The second letter of the Zulu alphabet, written in the Latin script.

See also[edit]