- indicates interrogativity
This particle comes at the beginning of an interrogative sentence. It can be used alongside the interrogative particle tr or by itself as the sole such particle.
- introduces the agent of a passive construction, when not a personal pronoun; by
- introduces the agent of an infinitive, when not a personal pronoun
- introduces an emphasized subject (one that serves as the rheme of the clause), when not a personal pronoun
- introduces the emphasized (non-participial) element in a participial statement, when not a personal pronoun
Introduces the subject or topic of the sentence. The agent it introduces cannot be a personal pronoun.
Allen considers this preposition to be ‘probably the same word’ as the above interrogative particle.
Univerbation of j (“to say”) + (.w) (third-person masculine singular stative ending) + jn (“by”, the preposition above). The feminine form is a univerbation of j (“to say”) + .t(j) (third-person feminine singular stative ending) + jn (“by”, the preposition above), and the plural and dual are derived from the perfect of the verb j (“to say”) with a third-person plural or dual suffix pronoun (.sn or .snj, respectively).
This quotative is common in Old and Late Egyptian but restricted to archaic religious texts in Middle Egyptian.
Reflecting its verbal origin, this particle’s form can vary depending on the person and number of the speaker:
- James P[eter] Allen (2010) Middle Egyptian: An Introduction to the Language and Culture of Hieroglyphs, 2nd edition, Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, →ISBN, 86, 128–129, 165, 185, 193, 319–320, 338, 395 page 78, 86, 128–129, 165, 185, 193, 319–320, 338, 395.
- Faulkner, Raymond (1962) A Concise Dictionary of Middle Egyptian, Oxford: Griffith Institute, →ISBN