jn

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See also: Jn and .jn

Egyptian[edit]

Etymology 1[edit]

Pronunciation[edit]

Particle[edit]

i
n

 proclitic

  1. indicates interrogativity
Usage notes[edit]

This particle comes at the beginning of an interrogative sentence. It can be used alongside the interrogative particle tr or by itself as the sole such particle.

In adverbial sentences with jn, the particle jw regularly follows jn, and nominal sentences with jn can also have it followed by jw.

Alternative forms[edit]

Preposition[edit]

i
n
  1. introduces the agent of a passive construction, when not a personal pronoun; by
  2. introduces the agent of an infinitive, when not a personal pronoun
    • c. 2000 BCE – 1900 BCE, Tale of the Shipwrecked Sailor (pHermitage/pPetersburg 1115) line 1:
      D&d inSmswA1iq
      r
      Y2
      ḏd jn šmsw jqr
      Recitation by an excellent follower: […]
    • c. 1550 BCE – 1295 BCE, Great Hymn to Osiris (Stela of Amenmose, Louvre C 286) line 1:
      dwAQ2
      ir
      iNns
      Z2
      E1
      [[nimn
      n
      imn
      n
      ]]msnb
      t
      pr Z1
      nfr
      t
      ir
      y
      D&d
      f
      dwꜣ wsjr jn jmj-r mnmnt [n(t) jmn jmn-]ms nbt-pr nfrt-jrj ḏd.f […]
      Worship of Osiris by the overseer of the cattle [of Amon, Amen]mose, and the mistress of the house Nefertari. He says: […]
  3. introduces an emphasized subject (one that serves as the rheme of the clause), when not a personal pronoun
    1. introduces the emphasized (non-participial) element in a participial statement, when not a personal pronoun
Usage notes[edit]

Introduces the subject or topic of the sentence. The agent it introduces cannot be a personal pronoun.

Allen considers this preposition to be ‘probably the same word’ as the above interrogative particle.

Derived terms[edit]
  • .jn
  • jn (quotative particle)

Etymology 2[edit]

Univerbation of j (to say) +‎ (.w) (third-person masculine singular stative ending) +‎ jn (by, the preposition above). The feminine form is a univerbation of j (to say) +‎ .t(j) (third-person feminine singular stative ending) +‎ jn (by, the preposition above), and the plural and dual are derived from the perfect of the verb j (to say) with a third-person plural or dual suffix pronoun (.sn or .snj, respectively).

Pronunciation[edit]

Particle[edit]

in

 quotative

  1. (with following noun indicating the speaker) marks a non-future direct quotation; says, said
Usage notes[edit]

Like the other quotatives kꜣ, ḫr, and ḫrw.fj, this word either follows the entire quotation that it marks or is inserted near its start (but never at its start).

This quotative is common in Old and Late Egyptian but restricted to archaic religious texts in Middle Egyptian.

Inflection[edit]

Reflecting its verbal origin, this particle’s form can vary depending on the person and number of the speaker:

With the plural form j.n.sn and the dual form j.n.snj, the following noun indicating the speaker is optional.

Alternative forms[edit]

References[edit]