R

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R U+0052, R
LATIN CAPITAL LETTER R
Q
[U+0051]
Basic Latin S
[U+0053]
U+FF32, R
FULLWIDTH LATIN CAPITAL LETTER R

[U+FF31]
Halfwidth and Fullwidth Forms
[U+FF33]

Translingual[edit]

 R (disambiguation) on Wikipedia

Alternative forms[edit]

Etymology[edit]

From the Etruscan letter 𐌓 (r, er), from the Ancient Greek letter Ρ (R, rho), derived from the Phoenician letter 𐤓 (r, reš), from the Egyptian hieroglyph 𓁶.

Letter[edit]

R (lower case r)

  1. The eighteenth letter of the basic modern Latin alphabet.

See also[edit]

Symbol[edit]

R

  1. Abbreviation of ronna-.
  2. (currency symbol) Rand, national currency of South Africa.
  3. (metrology) roentgen
  4. (physics) resistance (in electricity)
  5. (organic chemistry) An unspecified radical, usually containing a carbon atom that binds to the structure of interest.
    Alcohols have the generic formula ROH.
  6. (genetics) IUPAC 1-letter abbreviation for any purine.
  7. (biochemistry) IUPAC 1-letter abbreviation for arginine.
  8. (linguistics) A wildcard for a rhotic consonant or a resonant (sonorant)
    synonyms: S for a sonorant
  9. (linguistics) rising tone
    synonyms: more commonly LH, or more specifically LM or MH
  10. (finance) Long-term bond credit rating by S&P Global Ratings, indicating that a bond is extremely speculative and possibly in default, with some prospect of debt recovery.

Gallery[edit]

See also[edit]

The template Template:Letter does not use the parameter(s):
Character=R
Please see Module:checkparams for help with this warning.

Other representations of R:

English[edit]

 R (disambiguation) on Wikipedia

Etymology 1[edit]

This etymology is incomplete. You can help Wiktionary by elaborating on the origins of this term.

Pronunciation[edit]

(Name of letter)

Letter[edit]

R (upper case, lower case r, plural Rs or R's)

  1. The eighteenth letter of the English alphabet, called ar and written in the Latin script.
See also[edit]

Number[edit]

R (upper case, lower case r)

  1. The ordinal number eighteenth, derived from this letter of the English alphabet, called ar and written in the Latin script.

Etymology 2[edit]

Abbreviations

"Elizabeth R", hand of Elizabeth II

Noun[edit]

R

  1. (entomology) radius
  2. (US, politics) Abbreviation of Republican, especially preceding the constituent location.
    R-Texas
    Antonym: D (Democrat)
  3. (monarchy) rex (king) or regina (queen); the initial by which a British monarch signs documents after his or her name
  4. (handbells) ring
  5. (chess) rook
  6. (baseball, cricket) runs, the statistic reporting the number of runs scored by a player
  7. (law) the Crown, the government of a monarchy (abbreviating rex (king) or regina (queen))
    The English case of R v R [1992] AC 599 ruled that rape can be committed by a husband against his wife.
  8. (especially in university catalogs) Thursday
    • 1986, Cornell University Courses of Study, page 250:
      Lecs, T R 9:05; lab, M T W R or F 1:25—4:25, or M or W 7:30—10:30 p.m.
    • 2000 August, M.W. Carter, “A Comprehensive Course Timetabling and Student Scheduling System at the University of Waterloo”, in Edmund Burke, Wilhelm Erben, editors, Practice and Theory of Automated Timetabling III, Springer, published 2001, →ISBN, page 66:
      8:30 MWF (3 x 1 hour) [] 8:30-10 TR (2 x 1.5 hours)
    • 2007, W. Ted Mahavier, “Syllabus for Analysis” (Lamar University course syllabus), appendix II.A of Charles A. Coppin et al., The Moore Method: A Pathway to Learner-Centered Instruction, Mathematical Association of America (2009), →ISBN, page 201:
      Office Hours: MTWRF: 9:00–11:00, 1:30–3:00 or stop by my office anytime.

Adjective[edit]

R

  1. (film certification) restricted
  2. reverse
  3. right (as opposed to left)

Proper noun[edit]

R

  1. (religion) In the context of the documentary hypothesis, the Redactor(s) who compiled and edited the Torah.
    • 2006, David Ringo Miano, Shadow on the steps[1] (dissertation), UC San Diego, page 5:
      One needs to be careful, however, to distinguish between original P and the work of the later priestly Redactor (R), who edited P and other documents in the postexilic period.

See also[edit]

Afar[edit]

Letter[edit]

R

  1. The twelfth letter in the Afar alphabet.

See also[edit]

Afrikaans[edit]

Pronunciation[edit]

  • (letter name): IPA(key): /ɛr/

Letter[edit]

R (upper case, lower case r)

  1. The eighteenth letter of the Afrikaans alphabet, written in the Latin script.

See also[edit]

Noun[edit]

R (plural R'e, diminutive R'etjie)

  1. R

Azerbaijani[edit]

Letter[edit]

R upper case (lower case r)

  1. The twenty-fourth letter of the Azerbaijani alphabet, written in the Latin script.

See also[edit]

Basque[edit]

Pronunciation[edit]

Letter[edit]

R (upper case, lower case r)

  1. The nineteenth letter of the Basque alphabet, called erre and written in the Latin script.

See also[edit]

Central Franconian[edit]

Etymology[edit]

  • /ʀ/ is from West Germanic *r. In most dialects it is vowelised in two cases: (1.) between a short vowel and an alveolar, (2.) after a long vowel. Especially in the former case it may also be lost entirely.

Pronunciation[edit]

Letter[edit]

R

  1. A letter in the German-based alphabet of Central Franconian.
  2. A letter in the Dutch-based alphabet of Central Franconian.

Usage notes[edit]

Chinese[edit]

Etymology 1[edit]

Pronunciation[edit]


Note: The zero initial /∅-/ is commonly pronounced with a ng-initial /ŋ-/ in some varieties of Cantonese, including Hong Kong Cantonese.

Verb[edit]

R

  1. (Cantonese) Alternative form of 𢯎

Etymology 2[edit]

Pronunciation 1[edit]


Note: aa1 - Used by non-rhotic proficient speakers of English, mostly in Hong Kong.
Letter[edit]

R

  1. The eighteenth letter of the Latin alphabet.

Pronunciation 2[edit]


Letter[edit]

R

  1. The eighteenth letter used in Pinyin.
Usage notes[edit]
  • 《汉语拼音方案》 defines a standard pronunciation for each letter. However, these pronunciations are rarely used in education; another pronunciation is commonly used instead.
  • The pronunciation above are only used while referring to letters in Pinyin. They are not used in other context (such as English).

Dutch[edit]

Pronunciation[edit]

Letter[edit]

R (capital, lowercase r)

  1. The eighteenth letter of the Dutch alphabet.

See also[edit]

  • Previous letter: Q
  • Next letter: S

Esperanto[edit]

Pronunciation[edit]

Letter[edit]

R (upper case, lower case r)

  1. The twenty-first letter of the Esperanto alphabet, called ro and written in the Latin script.

See also[edit]

Estonian[edit]

Estonian Wikipedia has an article on:
Wikipedia et

Letter[edit]

R (upper case, lower case r)

  1. The eighteenth letter of the Estonian alphabet, called err and written in the Latin script.

See also[edit]

Finnish[edit]

Etymology[edit]

The Finnish orthography using the Latin script was based on those of Swedish, German and Latin, and was first used in the mid-16th century. No earlier script is known. See the Wikipedia article on Finnish for more information, and R for information on the development of the glyph itself.

Letter[edit]

R (upper case, lower case r)

  1. The eighteenth letter of the Finnish alphabet, called är or er and written in the Latin script.

See also[edit]

German[edit]

Pronunciation[edit]

  • (letter name) IPA(key): /ɛr/, [ʔɛʁ], [ʔɛɐ̯]
  • (phoneme) IPA(key): /r/, [ʁ], [ɾ], [ɐ̯], [ː]
  • (file)

Letter[edit]

R (upper case, lower case r)

  1. The eighteenth letter of the German alphabet.

Usage notes[edit]

  • The letter R has a variety of possible realisations in contemporary German. Three positions must be distinguished:
    • Before vowels, the variation is mostly between a uvular consonant (fricative, approximant, or rarely trill) and an alveolar consonant (trill, flap, or rarely approximant). In northern, central, and south-western Germany, the alveolar pronunciation is now rare and chiefly restricted to the elderly generation of some areas. In south-eastern Germany, Austria, Switzerland, and South Tyrol, it remains more common; but even in these regions the uvular R is gaining ground and is already strongly predominant in some parts (e.g. Vienna).
    • Word-finally and before consonants, most accents may vowelise R to [ɐ̯]~[ə̯], but in different ways. Vowelisation is commonest after long vowels and /ə/, where it is also prescribed in the broadcasting standard. A majority of speakers, however, vowelise R after short vowels, too. The resulting diphthongs may be contracted and length distinctions before vowelised R may be lost. The degree to which this happens differs regionally and idiolectally.
    • Before the syllable -en /ən/, many speakers also vowelise R, though this is commonest in fast or casual speech, and consonantal realisations may be retained depending on the rhythm of the phrase as well as the formality of the context.

Related terms[edit]

Hungarian[edit]

Pronunciation[edit]

  • (phoneme): IPA(key): [ˈr]
  • (letter name): IPA(key): [ˈɛrː]

Letter[edit]

R (upper case, lower case r)

  1. The twenty-ninth letter of the Hungarian alphabet, called err and written in the Latin script.

Declension[edit]

Inflection (stem in -e-, front unrounded harmony)
singular plural
nominative R R-ek
accusative R-et R-eket
dative R-nek R-eknek
instrumental R-rel R-ekkel
causal-final R-ért R-ekért
translative R-ré R-ekké
terminative R-ig R-ekig
essive-formal R-ként R-ekként
essive-modal
inessive R-ben R-ekben
superessive R-en R-eken
adessive R-nél R-eknél
illative R-be R-ekbe
sublative R-re R-ekre
allative R-hez R-ekhez
elative R-ből R-ekből
delative R-ről R-ekről
ablative R-től R-ektől
non-attributive
possessive - singular
R-é R-eké
non-attributive
possessive - plural
R-éi R-ekéi
Possessive forms of R
possessor single possession multiple possessions
1st person sing. R-em R-jeim
2nd person sing. R-ed R-jeid
3rd person sing. R-je R-jei
1st person plural R-ünk R-jeink
2nd person plural R-etek R-jeitek
3rd person plural R-jük R-jeik

See also[edit]

Ido[edit]

Pronunciation[edit]

Letter[edit]

R (lower case r)

  1. The eighteenth letter of the Ido alphabet, written in the Latin script.

See also[edit]

Italian[edit]

Italian Wikipedia has an article on:
Wikipedia it

Pronunciation[edit]

Letter[edit]

R f or m (invariable, upper case, lower case r)

  1. The sixteenth letter of the Italian alphabet, called erre and written in the Latin script.

See also[edit]

Japanese[edit]

R1年〜R2年

Etymology[edit]

From the romanization, which begins with R (R).

Pronunciation[edit]

Proper noun[edit]

R(れいわ) (Reiwa

  1. Abbreviation of 令和 (Reiwa).

Kashubian[edit]

Etymology[edit]

The Kashubian orthography is based on the Latin alphabet. No earlier script is known. See the Kashubian alphabet article on Wikipedia for more, and R for development of the glyph itself.

Letter[edit]

R (upper case, lower case r)

  1. The twenty-fifth letter of the Kashubian alphabet, written in the Latin script.

See also[edit]

Latin[edit]

Alternative forms[edit]

Proper noun[edit]

R

  1. (especially coins) Abbreviation of Roma, Rome.
  2. Abbreviation of Romanus, Roman.
  3. Abbreviation of Rufus.

Noun[edit]

R

  1. (Catholicism) Abbreviation of responsorium, responsory, breviary.
  2. (Judaism) Abbreviation of rabbī.

Adjective[edit]

R (plural RR)

  1. Abbreviation of reverendus, holy, reverend.
  2. Abbreviation of reverendissimus, most holy, most reverend.

Derived terms[edit]

References[edit]

  • R in Gaffiot, Félix (1934) Dictionnaire illustré latin-français, Hachette.

Latvian[edit]

Latvian Wikipedia has an article on:
Wikipedia lv

Etymology[edit]

Proposed in 1908 as part of the new Latvian spelling by the scientific commission headed by K. Mīlenbahs, which was accepted and began to be taught in schools in 1909. Prior to that, Latvian had been written in German Fraktur, and sporadically in Cyrillic.

Pronunciation[edit]

This entry needs an audio pronunciation. If you are a native speaker with a microphone, please record this word. The recorded pronunciation will appear here when it's ready.

Letter[edit]

R

R (upper case, lower case r)

  1. The twenty-fifth letter of the Latvian alphabet, called er and written in the Latin script.

See also[edit]

Malay[edit]

Malay Wikipedia has an article on:
Wikipedia ms

Pronunciation[edit]

  • (Name of letter) IPA(key): [ar]
  • (Phoneme, Syllable initial) IPA(key): [r]
  • (Phoneme, Syllable final) IPA(key): [(r)]

Letter[edit]

R

  1. The eighteenth letter of the Malay alphabet, written in the Latin script.

See also[edit]

Nupe[edit]

Pronunciation[edit]

Letter[edit]

R (upper case, lower case r)

  1. The twentieth letter of the Nupe alphabet, written in the Latin script.

See also[edit]

Polish[edit]

Etymology[edit]

The Polish orthography is based on the Latin alphabet. No earlier script is known. See the history of Polish orthography article on Wikipedia for more, and R for development of the glyph itself.

Pronunciation[edit]

Letter[edit]

R (upper case, lower case r)

  1. The twenty-third letter of the Polish alphabet, called er and written in the Latin script.

See also[edit]

Portuguese[edit]

Letter[edit]

R (upper case, lower case r)

  1. The eighteenth letter of the Portuguese alphabet, written in the Latin script.

See also[edit]

Romani[edit]

Pronunciation[edit]

Letter[edit]

R (upper case, lower case r)

  1. (International Standard) The twenty-second letter of the Romani alphabet, written in the Latin script.
  2. (Pan-Vlax) The twenty-third letter of the Romani alphabet, written in the Latin script.

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  • Yūsuke Sumi (2018), “R, r”, in ニューエクスプレスプラス ロマ(ジプシー)語 [New Express Plus Romani (Gypsy)] (in Japanese), Tokyo: Hakusuisha, published 2021, →ISBN, →OCLC, page 14

Romanian[edit]

Pronunciation[edit]

Letter[edit]

R (upper case, lower case r)

  1. The twenty-first letter of the Romanian alphabet, called er, re, or and written in the Latin script.

See also[edit]

Scottish Gaelic[edit]

Letter[edit]

R (upper case, lower case r)

  1. The fifteenth letter of the Scottish Gaelic alphabet, written in the Latin script. It is preceded by p and followed by s. Its traditional name is ruis (elder).

See also[edit]

Silesian[edit]

Etymology[edit]

The Silesian orthography is based on the Latin alphabet. No earlier script is known. See the Silesian language article on Wikipedia for more, and R for development of the glyph itself.

Letter[edit]

R (upper case, lower case r)

  1. The twenty-fifth letter of the Silesian alphabet, written in the Latin script.

See also[edit]

Skolt Sami[edit]

Pronunciation[edit]

Letter[edit]

R (lower case r)

  1. The twenty-seventh letter of the Skolt Sami alphabet, written in the Latin script.

See also[edit]

Slovene[edit]

Slovene Wikipedia has an article on:
Wikipedia sl

Letter[edit]

R (capital, lowercase r)

  1. The 18th letter of the Slovene alphabet. Preceded by P and followed by S.

Somali[edit]

Pronunciation[edit]

Letter[edit]

R upper case (lower case r)

  1. The eighth letter of the Somali alphabet, called ra and written in the Latin script.

Usage notes[edit]

  1. The eighth letter of the Somali alphabet, which follows Arabic abjad order. It is preceded by D and followed by S.

See also[edit]

Spanish[edit]

Letter[edit]

R (upper case, lower case r)

  1. the 19th letter of the Spanish alphabet

Tagalog[edit]

Etymology[edit]

From Spanish R. Each pronunciation has a different source:

  • Filipino alphabet pronunciation is influenced by English R.
  • Abakada alphabet pronunciation is influenced by Baybayin character (da/ra).
  • Abecedario pronunciation is from Spanish R.

Pronunciation[edit]

  • Hyphenation: R
  • (letter name, Filipino alphabet): IPA(key): /ʔaɾ/, [ʔɐɾ]
  • (letter name, Abakada alphabet): IPA(key): /ɾa/, [ɾɐ]
  • (letter name, Abecedario): IPA(key): /ˈʔeɾe/, [ˈʔɛ.ɾɛ]
  • (phoneme): IPA(key): /ɾ/, [ɾ]
  • Rhymes: -aɾ, -a, -eɾe

Letter[edit]

R (upper case, lower case r, Baybayin spelling ᜀᜇ᜔)

  1. The twentieth letter of the Tagalog alphabet (Filipino alphabet), called ar and written in the Latin script.

See also[edit]

Letter[edit]

R (upper case, lower case r, Baybayin spelling )

  1. The fifteenth letter of the Tagalog alphabet (Abakada alphabet), called ra and written in the Latin script.

Letter[edit]

R (upper case, lower case r, Baybayin spelling ᜁᜇᜒ)

  1. (historical) The twenty-first letter of the Tagalog alphabet (Abecedario), called ere and written in the Latin script.

Further reading[edit]

  • R”, in Pambansang Diksiyonaryo | Diksiyonaryo.ph, Manila, 2018

Turkish[edit]

Letter[edit]

R (upper case, lower case r)

  1. The twenty-first letter of the Turkish alphabet, called re and written in the Latin script.

See also[edit]

Vietnamese[edit]

Pronunciation[edit]

Letter[edit]

R (upper case, lower case r)

  1. The twenty-second letter of the Vietnamese alphabet, called e-rờ or rờ and written in the Latin script.

See also[edit]

Welsh[edit]

Pronunciation[edit]

Letter[edit]

R (upper case, lower case r)

  1. The twenty-second letter of the Welsh alphabet, called er and written in the Latin script. It is preceded by Ph and followed by Rh.

Mutation[edit]

  • R cannot be mutated in Welsh.

See also[edit]

Further reading[edit]

  • R. J. Thomas, G. A. Bevan, P. J. Donovan, A. Hawke et al., editors (1950–present), “R”, in Geiriadur Prifysgol Cymru Online (in Welsh), University of Wales Centre for Advanced Welsh & Celtic Studies

Yoruba[edit]

Pronunciation[edit]

Letter[edit]

R (upper case, lower case r)

  1. The nineteenth letter of the Yoruba alphabet, called and written in the Latin script.

See also[edit]

Zulu[edit]

Letter[edit]

R (upper case, lower case r)

  1. The eighteenth letter of the Zulu alphabet, written in the Latin script.

See also[edit]