r

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r U+0072, r
LATIN SMALL LETTER R
q
[U+0071]
Basic Latin s
[U+0073]
ʳ U+02B3, ʳ
MODIFIER LETTER SMALL R
ʲ
[U+02B2]
Spacing Modifier Letters ʴ
[U+02B4]
U+FF52, r
FULLWIDTH LATIN SMALL LETTER R

[U+FF51]
Halfwidth and Fullwidth Forms
[U+FF53]
𝆌 U+1D18C, 𝆌
MUSICAL SYMBOL RINFORZANDO
◌𝆋
[U+1D18B]
Musical Symbols 𝆍
[U+1D18D]

Translingual

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English Wikipedia has an article on:
Wikipedia

Etymology 1

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Upper case R, the source for lower case r Modification of capital letter R by not closing the bottom of the loop but continuing into the leg to save a pen stroke, later shortening the right leg into a simple arc.

Alternative forms

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Letter

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r (upper case R)

  1. The eighteenth letter of the basic modern Latin alphabet.
See also
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Etymology 2

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Pronunciation

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  • IPA:(file)

Symbol

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English Wikipedia has an article on:
Wikipedia

r

  1. Abbreviation of ronto-.
  2. (engineering, geometry) radius
  3. (IPA) (a) an alveolar trill.
    (b) Used in broad transcription for any rhotic consonant, e.g. in English, French or Japanese where the ⟨r⟩ is not a trill [r].
    (c) (superscript ⟨ʳ⟩) an [r]-trill release (of a plosive); a weak, fleeting or epenthetic [r].
    (d) (superscript, obsolete) a non-trilled rhotic coloration or offglide of a vowel; a rhotic vowel, now formed with ⟨◌˞⟩ or a more-precise transcription such as ʴ – see ⟨ʳ⟩.
  4. (phonetics) used in several romanization systems of non-Latin scripts to represent various rhotic sounds:
    1. Romanization of the Hebrew ר (reish”, “resh”, “rēš) in the Common Israeli, Hebrew Academy (1953 and 2006), and ISO 259 transliteration schemes
    2. Romanization of the Hebrew רּ (reish”, “resh”, “rēš ḥāzāq) in the Common Israeli transliteration scheme
  5. (chemistry) Of a tactic diad, having structural units in opposition.
Synonyms
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  • (Romanization of רּ, “reish”, “resh”, “rēš ḥāzāq”): rr (in the Hebrew Academy (1953 and 2006) and ISO 259 transliteration schemes)
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See also

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Other representations of R:

English

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Etymology 1

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Anglo-Saxon Futhorc letter ᚱ, the Old English letter replaced by Latin r
Anglo-Saxon Futhorc letter ᚱ, the Old English letter replaced by Latin r

Old English lower case letter r, from 7th century replacement by Latin lower case r of the Anglo-Saxon Futhorc letter .

Pronunciation

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Letter

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r (lower case, upper case R, plural rs or r's)

  1. The eighteenth letter of the English alphabet, called ar and written in the Latin script.
See also
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Number

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r (lower case, upper case R)

  1. The ordinal number eighteenth, derived from this letter of the English alphabet, called ar and written in the Latin script.

Etymology 2

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From are and our, pronounced like the name of the letter r.

Verb

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r

  1. (Internet slang, text messaging) Abbreviation of are.
    How r uHow are you?
Translations
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Determiner

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r

  1. (Internet slang, text messaging) Abbreviation of our.
    • 2013, Jessica Burkhart, Home for Christmas (Canterwood Crest; Super Special), New York, NY: Aladdin M!X, →ISBN, page 44:
      This was supposed 2 be a SURPRISE, but the girls got it out of me. ☺ I wanted all of us 2 spend Xmas 2gether. By all, I mean r horses 2. Sooo . . . B, C, G, Z, & D, you have guests waiting @ BC. Zane, Valentino, Scout, Nero, & Polo r there! Now we can ride r horses when we r not volunteering & spend Xmas w them. ☺

Etymology 3

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Abbreviations.

r

  1. (stenoscript) the sound sequence /ɑr/, including the verb are
  2. (stenoscript) Abbreviation of her and inflection hers.
  3. (stenoscript) Abbreviation of our, inflection ours, and homophone hour.

See also

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Azerbaijani

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Pronunciation

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Letter

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r lower case (upper case R)

  1. The twenty-fourth letter of the Azerbaijani alphabet, written in the Latin script.

See also

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Basque

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Pronunciation

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Letter

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r (lower case, upper case R)

  1. The nineteenth letter of the Basque alphabet, called erre and written in the Latin script.

See also

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Central Mazahua

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Pronunciation

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Letter

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r (upper case R)

  1. A letter of the Mazahua alphabet.

See also

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Dutch

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Pronunciation

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Letter

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r (lower case, upper case R)

  1. The eighteenth letter of the Dutch alphabet, written in the Latin script.

Derived terms

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See also

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  • Previous letter: q
  • Next letter: s

See also

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Egyptian

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Etymology 1

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The actual reading of this word is uncertain, as it is always written as an ideogram, but evidence from Coptic suggests the original was rꜣ. The extension in meaning to ‘part, piece, fraction’ might be either by way of a mouthful being used as a standard share in some distribution of food or goods,[1] or else extended from its meaning of ‘opening’ > ‘division’.

Pronunciation

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Noun

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r
Z1

 m

  1. mouth (of humans or animals)
    • Reign of Amenemhat II or Senusret II, c. 1929–1878 BCE, Stela of Hekaib (Rijksmuseum van Oudheden, AP 78):
      nw
      k
      n&D sA1iq
      r
      D&d mr
      Z1
      f
      jnk nḏs jqr ḏd m r(ꜣ).f
      I was an excellent individual, one who spoke with his own mouth.
  2. (figuratively, chiefly in titles) speaker, mouthpiece
  3. utterance, statement
  4. especially, ritual utterance, spell
  5. (rare) language, manner of speech
  6. opening, hole
  7. bodily orifice, opening of the human body in general, including eyes, ears, nostrils, the vulva, and open wounds
  8. entrance to a building, doorway
  9. entrance to a land or place in general
  10. mouth of a river
  11. water’s edge, waterline
  12. (especially in compounds) place or thing seen as an opening from one point to another, passage, thoroughfare
  13. a measure of volume equivalent to 132 of a hnw or 1320 of a ḥqꜣt (about 15 millilitres); mouthful
  14. part, piece, fraction
  15. (mathematics) used as a numerator of 1 in fractions, literally “piece of (the denominator)”.
    • 12th Dynasty, Siut Tomb I, 285, published in Griffith, Francis Llewellyn, The inscriptions of Siûṭ and Dêr Rîfeh:
      r
      V1 V1 V1
      V20 V20 V20
      V20 V20 V20
      r(ꜣ) ḫmtw-št sjsjw
      1360
Usage notes
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Following Sethe,[3] it has often been suggested that r should also be taken to mean ‘one third’ as a reading of the sign
D150
(questionably attested in hieroglyphs proper), extrapolating backward from the dual form rwj (two thirds); however, such a usage remains uncertain, and the reading of the form ḫmt-rw (three fourths) argues against the interpretation of r in rwj as specifically meaning a third.
Inflection
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In the sense of ‘mouth’ the plural is rare, as the singular is usually used even in reference to the mouths of multiple people.

Alternative forms
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The senses relating to ‘opening, doorway’ sometimes carry different determinatives:

The sense ‘water’s edge’ is similarly sometimes found with a different determinative:

Derived terms
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Descendants
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  • Demotic: rꜣ
    • Coptic: ⲣⲟ (ro) (Sahidic, Bohairic, Akhmimic), ⲗⲁ (la) (Fayyumic)

Etymology 2

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Possibly cognate to Hebrew אֶל (ʾel, to, at), Arabic إِلَى (ʔilā, to, until, near).[4]

Pronunciation

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Preposition

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r
  1. regarding, with respect to, concerning, according to
  2. in order to, for (the purpose of)
  3. (with following infinitive) forms the periphrastic prospective of a verb
  4. (with verbs of motion, of places) to, towards
  5. (in adverbial sentences, of places, roles, or functions) headed for, destined for, bound for
  6. (of time) at, in, on
  7. against, in opposition to
  8. from, apart from (ablative)
  9. (after an adjective or adverb, forming the comparative) than, by comparison to
  10. (generally in sentence-initial form jr) introduces the protasis of a conditional sentence; if, when, as
  11. (with a verb in the terminative as object) until
Inflection
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Alternative forms
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Derived terms
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Descendants
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Particle

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r

 enclitic

  1. (with attached suffix pronoun) so, regarding (that, you, me, etc.), as for (that, you, me, etc.)
Usage notes
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This usage is distinguished from the preposition by the fact that it occurs as the enclitic second element in a clause instead of at the end of a clause, as is otherwise the case with prepositional phrases.

Alternative forms
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See also

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References

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  • rʾ (lemma ID 92560)”, in Thesaurus Linguae Aegyptiae[1], Corpus issue 17, Web app version 2.01 edition, Tonio Sebastian Richter & Daniel A. Werning by order of the Berlin-Brandenburgische Akademie der Wissenschaften and Hans-Werner Fischer-Elfert & Peter Dils by order of the Sächsische Akademie der Wissenschaften zu Leipzig, 2004–15 December 2022
  • r (lemma ID 91900)”, in Thesaurus Linguae Aegyptiae[2], Corpus issue 17, Web app version 2.01 edition, Tonio Sebastian Richter & Daniel A. Werning by order of the Berlin-Brandenburgische Akademie der Wissenschaften and Hans-Werner Fischer-Elfert & Peter Dils by order of the Sächsische Akademie der Wissenschaften zu Leipzig, 2004–15 December 2022
  • jr (lemma ID 28170)”, in Thesaurus Linguae Aegyptiae[3], Corpus issue 17, Web app version 2.01 edition, Tonio Sebastian Richter & Daniel A. Werning by order of the Berlin-Brandenburgische Akademie der Wissenschaften and Hans-Werner Fischer-Elfert & Peter Dils by order of the Sächsische Akademie der Wissenschaften zu Leipzig, 2004–15 December 2022
  • Erman, Adolf, Grapow, Hermann (1926) Wörterbuch der ägyptischen Sprache[4], volume 1, Berlin: Akademie-Verlag, →ISBN, pages 103.6–103.9
  • Erman, Adolf, Grapow, Hermann (1928) Wörterbuch der ägyptischen Sprache[5], volume 2, Berlin: Akademie-Verlag, →ISBN, pages 386.6–388.10, 389.1–392.10
  • Faulkner, Raymond Oliver (1962) A Concise Dictionary of Middle Egyptian, Oxford: Griffith Institute, →ISBN, pages 145–146
  • James P[eter] Allen (2010) Middle Egyptian: An Introduction to the Language and Culture of Hieroglyphs, 2nd edition, Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, →ISBN, pages 65, 71, 87, 118, 170, 179–180, 196, 410–411.
  • Gardiner, Alan (1957) Egyptian Grammar: Being an Introduction to the Study of Hieroglyphs, third edition, Oxford: Griffith Institute, →ISBN, page 429
  • Hoch, James (1997) Middle Egyptian Grammar, Mississauga: Benben Publications, →ISBN, page 42
  1. ^ Palma, Helena Lopez (2015) “Egyptian Fractional Numerals: The grammar of Egyptian NPs and statements with fractional number expressions” in Lingua Aegyptia, volume 23, page 199
  2. ^ Loprieno, Antonio (1995) Ancient Egyptian: A Linguistic Introduction, Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, →ISBN, page 58
  3. ^ Sethe, Kurt (1916) Von Zahlen und Zahlworten bei den alten Ägyptern, page 82–83
  4. ^ Hoch, James (1997) Middle Egyptian Grammar, Mississauga: Benben Publications, →ISBN, page 15

Esperanto

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Pronunciation

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Letter

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r (lower case, upper case R)

  1. The twenty-first letter of the Esperanto alphabet, called ro and written in the Latin script.

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Estonian

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Estonian Wikipedia has an article on:
Wikipedia et

Pronunciation

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Letter

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r (lower case, upper case R)

  1. The eighteenth letter of the Estonian alphabet, called err and written in the Latin script.

See also

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Faroese

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Pronunciation

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Letter

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r (upper case R)

  1. The twentieth letter of the Faroese alphabet, written in the Latin script.

See also

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Finnish

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Etymology

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The Finnish orthography using the Latin script was based on those of Swedish, German and Latin, and was first used in the mid-16th century. No earlier script is known. See the Wikipedia article on Finnish for more information, and r for information on the development of the glyph itself.

Pronunciation

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Letter

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r (lower case, upper case R)

  1. The eighteenth letter of the Finnish alphabet, called är or er and written in the Latin script.

Derived terms

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compounds

See also

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French

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Pronunciation

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  • (letter name) IPA(key): /ɛʁ/

Letter

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r (lower case, upper case R)

  1. The eighteenth letter of the French alphabet, written in the Latin script.

Fula

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Pronunciation

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Letter

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r (lower case, upper case R)

  1. A letter of the Fula alphabet, written in the Latin script.

Usage notes

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See also

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Gothic

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Romanization

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r

  1. Romanization of 𐍂

Hungarian

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Pronunciation

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  • (phoneme): IPA(key): [ˈr]
  • (letter name): IPA(key): [ˈɛrː]

Letter

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r (lower case, upper case R)

  1. The twenty-ninth letter of the Hungarian alphabet, called err and written in the Latin script.

Declension

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Inflection (stem in -e-, front unrounded harmony)
singular plural
nominative r r-ek
accusative r-et r-eket
dative r-nek r-eknek
instrumental r-rel r-ekkel
causal-final r-ért r-ekért
translative r-ré r-ekké
terminative r-ig r-ekig
essive-formal r-ként r-ekként
essive-modal
inessive r-ben r-ekben
superessive r-en r-eken
adessive r-nél r-eknél
illative r-be r-ekbe
sublative r-re r-ekre
allative r-hez r-ekhez
elative r-ből r-ekből
delative r-ről r-ekről
ablative r-től r-ektől
non-attributive
possessive - singular
r-é r-eké
non-attributive
possessive - plural
r-éi r-ekéi
Possessive forms of r
possessor single possession multiple possessions
1st person sing. r-em r-jeim
2nd person sing. r-ed r-jeid
3rd person sing. r-je r-jei
1st person plural r-ünk r-jeink
2nd person plural r-etek r-jeitek
3rd person plural r-jük r-jeik

See also

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Further reading

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  • r in Bárczi, Géza and László Országh. A magyar nyelv értelmező szótára (‘The Explanatory Dictionary of the Hungarian Language’, abbr.: ÉrtSz.). Budapest: Akadémiai Kiadó, 1959–1962. Fifth ed., 1992: →ISBN

Ido

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Pronunciation

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  • (context pronunciation) IPA(key): /ɾ/
  • (letter name) IPA(key): /ɾe/

Letter

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r (upper case R)

  1. The eighteenth letter of the Ido alphabet, written in the Latin script.

See also

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Italian

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Letter

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r f or m (invariable, lower case, upper case R)

  1. The sixteenth letter of the Italian alphabet, called erre and written in the Latin script.

Kashubian

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Etymology

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The Kashubian orthography is based on the Latin alphabet. No earlier script is known. See the Kashubian alphabet article on Wikipedia for more, and r for development of the glyph itself.

Letter

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r (lower case, upper case R)

  1. The twenty-fifth letter of the Kashubian alphabet, written in the Latin script.

See also

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Latvian

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Latvian Wikipedia has an article on:
Wikipedia lv

Etymology

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Proposed in 1908 as part of the new Latvian spelling by the scientific commission headed by K. Mīlenbahs, which was accepted and began to be taught in schools in 1909. Prior to that, Latvian had been written in German Fraktur, and sporadically in Cyrillic.

Pronunciation

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This entry needs an audio pronunciation. If you are a native speaker with a microphone, please record this word. The recorded pronunciation will appear here when it's ready.

Letter

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R

r (lower case, upper case R)

  1. The twenty-fifth letter of the Latvian alphabet, called er and written in the Latin script.

See also

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Livonian

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Pronunciation

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Letter

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r (upper case R)

  1. The twenty-ninth letter of the Livonian alphabet, written in the Latin script.

See also

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Malay

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Letter

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r (lower case, upper case R)

  1. The eighteenth letter of the Malay alphabet, written in the Latin script.

See also

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Maltese

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Pronunciation

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Letter

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r (lower case, upper case R)

  1. The twenty-second letter of the Maltese alphabet, written in the Latin script.

See also

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Mandarin

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Romanization

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r (r5r0, Zhuyin ˙ㄖ)

  1. Hanyu Pinyin reading of

References

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Norwegian

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Pronunciation

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  • (letter name): IPA(key): /ærː/, /æɾː/
  • (phoneme): IPA(key): /r/, /ɾ/, /ʁ/
  • Audio:(file)

Letter

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r

  1. The eighteenth letter of the Norwegian alphabet, written in the Latin script.

Usage notes

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  • /ʁ/ is the pronunciation of r usually found in southern and southeastern dialects of Norway. Bergen has the dialect best known for this sound. Said to come from Danish and/or German, originally from French.
  • Dialects with /ʁ/ do not have retroflex consonants.
  • Silent before l in many dialects, such as [ˈdɔːlɪ] or [ˈdɔrlɪ] (dårlig/dårleg).

Nupe

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Pronunciation

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Letter

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r (lower case, upper case R)

  1. The twentieth letter of the Nupe alphabet, written in the Latin script.

See also

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Polish

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Etymology

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The Polish orthography is based on the Latin alphabet. No earlier script is known. See the history of Polish orthography article on Wikipedia for more, and r for development of the glyph itself.

Pronunciation

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Letter

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r (upper case R, lower case)

  1. The twenty-third letter of the Polish alphabet, called er and written in the Latin script.

See also

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Portuguese

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Pronunciation

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Letter

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r (lower case, upper case R)

  1. The eighteenth letter of the Portuguese alphabet, written in the Latin script.

See also

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Romani

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Pronunciation

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Letter

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r (lower case, upper case R)

  1. (International Standard) The twenty-second letter of the Romani alphabet, written in the Latin script.
  2. (Pan-Vlax) The twenty-third letter of the Romani alphabet, written in the Latin script.

See also

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References

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  • Yūsuke Sumi (2018) “R, r”, in ニューエクスプレスプラス ロマ(ジプシー)語 [New Express Plus Romani (Gypsy)] (in Japanese), Tokyo: Hakusuisha, published 2021, →ISBN, →OCLC, page 14

Romanian

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Pronunciation

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Letter

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r (lower case, upper case R)

  1. The twenty-first letter of the Romanian alphabet, called er, re, or and written in the Latin script.

See also

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Scottish Gaelic

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Letter

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r (lower case, upper case R)

  1. The fifteenth letter of the Scottish Gaelic alphabet, written in the Latin script. It is preceded by p and followed by s. Its traditional name is ruis (elder).

See also

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Serbo-Croatian

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Alternative forms

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  • R (uppercase)

Pronunciation

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Letter

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r (Cyrillic spelling р)

  1. The 23rd letter of the Serbo-Croatian Latin alphabet (gajica), preceded by p and followed by s.

Silesian

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Etymology

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The Silesian orthography is based on the Latin alphabet. No earlier script is known. See the Silesian language article on Wikipedia for more, and r for development of the glyph itself.

Letter

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r (lower case, upper case R)

  1. The twenty-fifth letter of the Silesian alphabet, written in the Latin script.

See also

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Skolt Sami

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Pronunciation

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Letter

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r (upper case R)

  1. The twenty-seventh letter of the Skolt Sami alphabet, written in the Latin script.

See also

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Spanish

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Pronunciation

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Letter

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r (lower case, upper case R)

  1. The nineteenth letter of the Spanish alphabet, written in the Latin script.

Derived terms

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See also

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Tagalog

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Etymology

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Borrowed from Spanish r. Each pronunciation has a different source:

  • Filipino alphabet pronunciation is influenced by English r.
  • Abakada alphabet pronunciation is influenced by Baybayin character (da/ra).
  • Abecedario pronunciation is from Spanish r.

Pronunciation

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  • (Standard Tagalog)
    • IPA(key): /ˈʔaɾ/ [ˈʔaɾ] (letter name, Filipino alphabet)
    • IPA(key): /ˈɾa/ [ˈɾa] (letter name, Abakada alphabet)
      • Rhymes: -a
    • IPA(key): /ˈʔeɾe/ [ˈʔɛː.ɾɛ] (letter name, Abecedario)
    • IPA(key): /ɾ/ [ɾ] (phoneme)

Letter

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r (lower case, upper case R, Baybayin spelling ᜀᜇ᜔)

  1. The twentieth letter of the Tagalog alphabet (the Filipino alphabet), called ar and written in the Latin script.

See also

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Letter

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r (lower case, upper case R, Baybayin spelling )

  1. The fifteenth letter of the Tagalog alphabet (the Abakada alphabet), called ra and written in the Latin script.

Letter

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r (lower case, upper case R, Baybayin spelling ᜁᜇᜒ)

  1. (historical) The twenty-first letter of the Tagalog alphabet (the Abecedario), called ere and written in the Latin script.

Further reading

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  • r”, in Pambansang Diksiyonaryo | Diksiyonaryo.ph, Manila, 2018

Turkish

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Pronunciation

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Letter

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r (lower case, upper case R)

  1. The twenty-first letter of the Turkish alphabet, called re and written in the Latin script.

See also

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Turkmen

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Pronunciation

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Letter

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r (upper case R)

  1. The twenty-first letter of the Turkmen alphabet, called er and written in the Latin script.

See also

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Yoruba

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Pronunciation

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Letter

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r (lower case, upper case R)

  1. The nineteenth letter of the Yoruba alphabet, called and written in the Latin script.

See also

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Zulu

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Letter

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r (lower case, upper case R)

  1. The eighteenth letter of the Zulu alphabet, written in the Latin script.

See also

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