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U+5152, 兒
CJK UNIFIED IDEOGRAPH-5152

[U+5151]
CJK Unified Ideographs
[U+5153]

Translingual

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Traditional
Shinjitai
Simplified

Han character

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(Kangxi radical 10, +6, 8 strokes, cangjie input 竹難竹山 (HXHU), four-corner 77217, composition )

Derived characters

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References

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  • Kangxi Dictionary: page 125, character 3
  • Dai Kanwa Jiten: character 1365
  • Dae Jaweon: page 265, character 6
  • Hanyu Da Zidian (first edition): volume 1, page 272, character 5
  • Unihan data for U+5152

Chinese

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Glyph origin

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Historical forms of the character
Shang Western Zhou Warring States Shuowen Jiezi (compiled in Han) Liushutong (compiled in Ming)
Oracle bone script Bronze inscriptions Chu slip and silk script Qin slip script Small seal script Transcribed ancient scripts



References:

Mostly from Richard Sears' Chinese Etymology site (authorisation),
which in turn draws data from various collections of ancient forms of Chinese characters, including:

  • Shuowen Jiezi (small seal),
  • Jinwen Bian (bronze inscriptions),
  • Liushutong (Liushutong characters) and
  • Yinxu Jiaguwen Bian (oracle bone script).

Pictogram (象形) : an infant with an imperfect cranium (i.e. fontanelle).

Etymology 1

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trad.
simp. *
alternative forms
𠒇
𫤘

From Proto-Sino-Tibetan *m/s-ŋa-j (small; inferior; offspring) (STEDT). Cognate with Burmese ငယ် (ngai, little; young), Jingpho shangai (ʃă³¹ ŋai³¹, to give birth).

According to Schuessler (2007), it may be an area word; compare Proto-Mon-Khmer *ŋa(i)k (baby), Proto-Bahnaric *ŋaː (baby), Khmer ង៉ា (ngaa, infant; baby). The word is also cognate with (OC *ŋeː, “small and weak”). is the southern dialectal form of (MC nye, “child; son”).

Pronunciation

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Note: Pronounced as '-r' in the suffix sense, merging with the previous syllable.
Note:
  • niè - vernacular (often written as );
  • literary - literary.
Note:
  • 3nyi, 3hhngg - vernacular;
  • 3hher - literary.

Rime
Character
Reading # 1/2
Initial () (38)
Final () (11)
Tone (調) Level (Ø)
Openness (開合) Open
Division () III
Fanqie
Baxter nye
Reconstructions
Zhengzhang
Shangfang
/ȵiᴇ/
Pan
Wuyun
/ȵiɛ/
Shao
Rongfen
/ȵʑjɛ/
Edwin
Pulleyblank
/ȵiə̆/
Li
Rong
/ȵie/
Wang
Li
/ȵʑǐe/
Bernard
Karlgren
/ȵʑie̯/
Expected
Mandarin
Reflex
ér
Expected
Cantonese
Reflex
ji4
BaxterSagart system 1.1 (2014)
Character
Reading # 1/1
Modern
Beijing
(Pinyin)
ér
Middle
Chinese
‹ nye ›
Old
Chinese
/*ŋe/
English child

Notes for Old Chinese notations in the Baxter–Sagart system:

* Parentheses "()" indicate uncertain presence;
* Square brackets "[]" indicate uncertain identity, e.g. *[t] as coda may in fact be *-t or *-p;
* Angle brackets "<>" indicate infix;
* Hyphen "-" indicates morpheme boundary;

* Period "." indicates syllable boundary.
Zhengzhang system (2003)
Character
Reading # 2/2
No. 2757
Phonetic
component
Rime
group
Rime
subdivision
0
Corresponding
MC rime
Old
Chinese
/*ŋje/

Definitions

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  1. (now in compounds) child
      ―  értóng  ―  child
      ―  yīng'ér  ―  infant child; baby
  2. one's own child; son
      ―  érsūn  ―  child(ren) and grandchild(ren)
      ―  qī'ér  ―  wife and child(ren)
      ―  ér yī nǚ  ―  one son and one daughter
  3. (now in compounds) (male) adolescent
      ―  jiàn'ér  ―  good athlete
  4. (attributive, of animals) male
      ―  ér  ―  male horse
  5. Non-syllabic noun diminutive suffix.
      ―  pénr  ―  small basin
    小狗小狗  ―  xiǎogǒur  ―  puppy
  6. Suffix after nouns that does not indicate diminutiveness.
      ―  wèir  ―  taste
      ―  zhīr  ―  juice
    電影电影  ―  diànyǐngr  ―  film
  7. Suffix added to some verbs or adjectives to form nouns.
      ―  chīr  ―  food; something to eat
      ―  liàngr  ―  light
      ―  jiānr  ―  tip
      ―  duǎnr  ―  fault
  8. Suffix after a limited number of verbs.
      ―  wánr  ―  to play
      ―  huǒr  ―  to be angry
  9. Suffix after certain nouns that result in a different meaning from the unsuffixed form.
      ―  tóur  ―  chief; leader
    白麵白面  ―  báimiànr  ―  heroin
    老家老家  ―  lǎojiār  ―  one's elders
  10. Suffix after reduplicated adjectives.
    慢慢慢慢  ―  mànmānr  ―  slowly
Usage notes
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  • may be used to specially write erhua (or the rhotic sound) in traditional Chinese, in contrast with (ér, “child”).
    • 1950, 林濤 (Lin Tao), 定型化新文字 [Dingshinghua Sin Wenz], 2nd edition, 生活·讀書·新知三聯書店:
      有人把拉丁化新文字的方案跟寫法看做神聖不可侵犯的東西,不准有一點儿改變 []
      There are some who believe that the Latinxua Sin Wenz scheme and spelling are sacred things that should not be violated, and that there must not be even the tiniest bit of change []
      r念“儿”只有“”“二”“而”這幾個字 []
      When r is read as , the only candidates are "child", "two", and "and" []
  • may be written as a smaller character.
    • 1968, 趙元任 (Yuen Ren Chao), 語言問題 [Problems in Linguistics], 臺灣商務印書館, page 83:
      固然平常念一個單字的時候,重音的音節在樂音上也是高一點,不過它不一定老是這個樣子。
      Admittedly, when pronouncing a word, the stressed syllable is, musically speaking, also a bit higher-pitched, but this is not necessarily always the case.
    • 2001, 中華人民共和國教育部, 國家語言文字工作委員會, 第一批異形詞整理表 [The First Series of Standardized Forms of Words with Non-standardized Variant Forms]‎[1], archived from the original on 3 August 2019, page 11:
      红果(红*菓) hóngguǒr
Synonyms
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Compounds

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Etymology 2

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simp. and trad.
alternative forms
𠒇
𫤘

Pronunciation

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Rime
Character
Reading # 2/2
Initial () (31)
Final () (39)
Tone (調) Level (Ø)
Openness (開合) Open
Division () IV
Fanqie
Baxter ngej
Reconstructions
Zhengzhang
Shangfang
/ŋei/
Pan
Wuyun
/ŋei/
Shao
Rongfen
/ŋɛi/
Edwin
Pulleyblank
/ŋɛj/
Li
Rong
/ŋei/
Wang
Li
/ŋiei/
Bernard
Karlgren
/ŋiei/
Expected
Mandarin
Reflex
Expected
Cantonese
Reflex
ngai4
Zhengzhang system (2003)
Character
Reading # 1/2
No. 2748
Phonetic
component
Rime
group
Rime
subdivision
0
Corresponding
MC rime
Old
Chinese
/*ŋeː/

Definitions

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  1. a surname
  2. Alternative form of 𫠜 (, teeth grown in old age)
  3. Alternative form of (small and weak)
  4. Alternative form of ()

References

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Japanese

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Shinjitai

Kyūjitai

Kanji

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(“Jinmeiyō” kanji used for nameskyūjitai kanji, shinjitai form )

  1. Kyūjitai form of (child; young of animals)
  2. Used in personal names.

Readings

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Korean

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Etymology 1

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From Middle Chinese (MC nye).

Historical Readings
Dongguk Jeongun Reading
Dongguk Jeongun, 1448 Recorded as Middle Korean ᅀᅵᆼ (Yale: ?) in Dongguk Jeongun (東國正韻 / 동국정운), 1448.
Middle Korean
Text Eumhun
Gloss (hun) Reading
Hunmong Jahoe, 1527[3] 아ᄒᆡ ᅀᆞ Recorded as Middle Korean ᅀᆞ (zo) (Yale: ) in Hunmong Jahoe (訓蒙字會 / 훈몽자회), 1527.
Gwangju Cheonjamun, 1575 아ᄒᆡ ᄋᆞ Recorded as Middle Korean ᄋᆞ (o) (Yale: o) in Gwangju Cheonjamun (光州千字文 / 광주천자문), 1575.

Pronunciation

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Hanja

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Korean Wikisource has texts containing the hanja:

Wikisource

(eumhun 아이 (ai a))

  1. Hanja form? of (child).

Compounds

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Etymology 2

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From Middle Chinese (MC ngej).

Historical Readings
Dongguk Jeongun Reading
Dongguk Jeongun, 1448 Recorded as Middle Korean  (Yale: yey?) in Dongguk Jeongun (東國正韻 / 동국정운), 1448.

Pronunciation

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Hanja

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(eumhun 다시 (dasi nan i ye))

  1. Hanja form? of (used in personal names).

References

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  • 국제퇴계학회 대구경북지부 (國際退溪學會 大邱慶北支部) (2007). Digital Hanja Dictionary, 전자사전/電子字典. [4]
  • Supreme Court of the Republic of Korea (대한민국 대법원, Daehanmin'guk Daebeobwon) (2018). Table of hanja for personal names (인명용 한자표 / 人名用漢字表, Inmyeong-yong hanja-pyo), page 30. [5]

Vietnamese

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Han character

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: Hán Việt readings: nhi[1][2][3], nghê[1][4]
: Nôm readings: nhẻ[4]

  1. chữ Hán form of nhi (child).

References

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