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Character
Unicode name CJK UNIFIED IDEOGRAPH-4E0A
Code point U+4E0A
Entity number 上
Unicode block CJK Unified Ideographs
[U+4E09] [U+4E0B]

Translingual[edit]

Stroke order
上-order.gif
Stroke order
上-bw.png

Han character[edit]

(radical 1 +2, 3 strokes, cangjie input 卜一 (YM), four-corner 21100, composition)

References[edit]

  • KangXi: page 76, character 7
  • Dai Kanwa Jiten: character 13
  • Dae Jaweon: page 145, character 1
  • Hanyu Da Zidian: volume 1, page 5, character 4
  • Unihan data for U+4E0A

Chinese[edit]

simp. and trad.
alt. forms
𠄞

Glyph origin[edit]

Historical forms of the character
Oracle bone script Bronze inscriptions Large seal script Small seal script
上-oracle.svg 上-bronze.svg 上-bigseal.svg 上-seal.svg

Ideogram (指事): a line above another (contrast ) — up.

Pronunciation 1[edit]


Middle Chinese pronunciation (, reconstructed)
Character (), Pronunciation 2/2

Initial: (25)
Final: (105)
Tone: Departing (H)

Openness: Open
Division: III
Fanqie:

Expected Mandarin reflex: shàng
Zhengzhang
Shangfang
Pan
Wuyun
Shao
Rongfen
Edwin
Pulleyblank
Li
Rong
Wang
Li
Bernard
Karlgren
/d͡ʑɨɐŋH/ /d͡ʑiɐŋH/ /d͡ʑiɑŋH/ /d͡ʑɨaŋH/ /ʑiaŋH/ /ʑĭaŋH/ /ʑi̯aŋH/
Old Chinese pronunciation (, reconstructed)
Baxter-Sagart system 1.1 (2014)
Character Modern Beijing
(Pinyin)
Middle Chinese Old Chinese English
shàng ‹ dzyangH › /*daŋʔ-s/ top, above (n.)

Notes for Old Chinese notations in the Baxter-Sagart system:

  • Parentheses "()" indicate uncertain presence;
  • Square brackets "[]" indicate uncertain identity, e.g. *[t] as coda may in fact be *-t or *-p;
  • Angle brackets "<>" indicate infix;
  • Hyphen "-" indicates morpheme boundary;
  • Period "." indicates syllable boundary.
Zhengzhang system (2003)
Character No. Phonetic
component
Rime
group
Rime
subdivision
Corresponding
MC rime
Old Chinese Notes
11103 0 /*djaŋs/

Definitions[edit]

  1. upper part; high position; up
    Antonyms: (xià)
  2. emperor
  3. on; above
    • /   ―  shù shàng  ―  on the tree
    • /   ―  Bǐ zài zhuō shàng.  ―  The pen is on the desk.
  4. superior; senior; top
  5. preceding; previous; last; former
    •   ―  shàng nián  ―  last year
    •   ―  shàng  ―  First volume
  6. within, in, from the standpoint of, according to
  7. (Min Nan) most; extremely

Pronunciation 2[edit]


Middle Chinese pronunciation (, reconstructed)
Character (), Pronunciation 1/2

Initial: (25)
Final: (105)
Tone: Rising (X)

Openness: Open
Division: III
Fanqie:

Expected Mandarin reflex: shàng
Zhengzhang
Shangfang
Pan
Wuyun
Shao
Rongfen
Edwin
Pulleyblank
Li
Rong
Wang
Li
Bernard
Karlgren
/d͡ʑɨɐŋX/ /d͡ʑiɐŋX/ /d͡ʑiɑŋX/ /d͡ʑɨaŋX/ /ʑiaŋX/ /ʑĭaŋX/ /ʑi̯aŋX/
Old Chinese pronunciation (, reconstructed)
Baxter-Sagart system 1.1 (2014)
Character Modern Beijing
(Pinyin)
Middle Chinese Old Chinese English
shàng ‹ dzyangX › /*Cə-daŋʔ/ ascend
shàng ‹ dzyangX › /*m-daŋʔ/ to put up

Notes for Old Chinese notations in the Baxter-Sagart system:

  • Parentheses "()" indicate uncertain presence;
  • Square brackets "[]" indicate uncertain identity, e.g. *[t] as coda may in fact be *-t or *-p;
  • Angle brackets "<>" indicate infix;
  • Hyphen "-" indicates morpheme boundary;
  • Period "." indicates syllable boundary.
Zhengzhang system (2003)
Character No. Phonetic
component
Rime
group
Rime
subdivision
Corresponding
MC rime
Old Chinese Notes
11102 0 /*djaŋʔ/

Definitions[edit]

  1. to go up; to ascend
  2. to go to; to leave for (a place)
  3. to board; to get on
    • /   ―  Qǐng shàng chē.  ―  Please get into the car.
  4. to attend (class, work)
    •   ―  shàngbān  ―  to go to work
    • 夜校  ―  shàng yèxiào.  ―  She goes to night school.
  5. to enter (a field); to appear (on stage)
  6. to fit; to install; to apply
  7. to screw; to tighten, to twist
  8. (colloquial) Abbreviation of 上線 (“to go online”).
  9. (Min) to pull upwards or hang with a rope
  10. (Min Nan) to grow and attach
  11. (Xiamen Min Nan) to pile up
  12. (vulgar, of a male) to fuck; to have intercourse with a female
  13. Particle following verbs, indicating direction or achievement.

Pronunciation 3[edit]


Middle Chinese pronunciation (, reconstructed)
Character (), Pronunciation 1/2

Initial: (25)
Final: (105)
Tone: Rising (X)

Openness: Open
Division: III
Fanqie:

Expected Mandarin reflex: shàng
Zhengzhang
Shangfang
Pan
Wuyun
Shao
Rongfen
Edwin
Pulleyblank
Li
Rong
Wang
Li
Bernard
Karlgren
/d͡ʑɨɐŋX/ /d͡ʑiɐŋX/ /d͡ʑiɑŋX/ /d͡ʑɨaŋX/ /ʑiaŋX/ /ʑĭaŋX/ /ʑi̯aŋX/
Old Chinese pronunciation (, reconstructed)
Baxter-Sagart system 1.1 (2014)
Character Modern Beijing
(Pinyin)
Middle Chinese Old Chinese English
shàng ‹ dzyangX › /*Cə-daŋʔ/ ascend

Notes for Old Chinese notations in the Baxter-Sagart system:

  • Parentheses "()" indicate uncertain presence;
  • Square brackets "[]" indicate uncertain identity, e.g. *[t] as coda may in fact be *-t or *-p;
  • Angle brackets "<>" indicate infix;
  • Hyphen "-" indicates morpheme boundary;
  • Period "." indicates syllable boundary.
Zhengzhang system (2003)
Character No. Phonetic
component
Rime
group
Rime
subdivision
Corresponding
MC rime
Old Chinese Notes
11102 0 /*djaŋʔ/

Definitions[edit]

  1. Only used in 上聲 (“rising tone in Chinese phonetics”).

Compounds[edit]


Japanese[edit]

Kanji[edit]

(grade 1 “Kyōiku” kanji)

Readings[edit]

Compounds[edit]

Etymology 1[edit]

upe → uɸe → uwe → ue.

Pronunciation[edit]

Noun[edit]

‎(hiragana うえ, romaji ue, historical hiragana うへ)

  1. the above
  2. the top (position, or direction)
  3. the surface of
Compounds[edit]

Etymology 2[edit]

upa → uɸa → uwa.

Noun[edit]

‎(hiragana うわ, romaji uwa, historical hiragana うは)

  1. upper, over
Compounds[edit]

Etymology 3[edit]

/kami1/ *[kami] → /kami/ [kami].

Pronunciation[edit]

Noun[edit]

‎(hiragana かみ, romaji kami)

  1. the start
  2. a high place; the top
  3. one with a high rank

Etymology 4[edit]

/zyau/ → /zyoː/ [dʑoː]

Noun[edit]

‎(hiragana じょう, romaji , historical hiragana じやう)

  1. first volume in a two- or three-volume set
Compounds[edit]

Suffix[edit]

‎(hiragana じょう, romaji -jō)

  1. from the standpoint of
    理論 (りろん) (じょう)はありえないこと
    riron- wa arienai koto
    something that is impossible according to theory
  2. aboard (a plane or ship)
  3. above, in, on
Compounds[edit]

References[edit]

  1. 1.0 1.1 1998, NHK日本語発音アクセント辞典 (NHK Japanese Pronunciation Accent Dictionary) (in Japanese), Tōkyō: NHK, ISBN 978-4-14-011112-3
  2. 2.0 2.1 1974, 新明解国語辞典 (Shin Meikai Kokugo Jiten), Second Edition (in Japanese), Tōkyō: Sanseidō

Korean[edit]

Hanja[edit]

‎(sang)
Eumhun:

  • Sound (hangeul):  (revised: sang, McCune-Reischauer: sang)
  • Name (hangeul):  (revised: wit, McCune-Reischauer: wit)
  1. This entry needs a definition. Please add one, then remove {{defn}}.

References[edit]


Vietnamese[edit]

Han character[edit]

(thượng)

  1. King, emperor
  2. One who's high - ranked
  3. To go forward, above
  4. To fill with liquid
  5. To sprinkle
  6. To light up