Definition from Wiktionary, the free dictionary
Jump to: navigation, search
See also:
Character U+4E0A, 上
Name CJK UNIFIED IDEOGRAPH-4E0A
Block CJK Unified Ideographs
[U+4E09] [U+4E0B]

Translingual[edit]

Stroke order
上-order.gif
Stroke order
上-bw.png

Han character[edit]

(radical 1 +2, 3 strokes, cangjie input 卜一 (YM), four-corner 21100, composition)

References[edit]

  • KangXi: page 76, character 7
  • Dai Kanwa Jiten: character 13
  • Dae Jaweon: page 145, character 1
  • Hanyu Da Zidian: volume 1, page 5, character 4
  • Unihan data for U+4E0A

Chinese[edit]

simp. and trad.
alt. forms
𠄞

Glyph origin[edit]

Historical forms of the character
Oracle bone script Bronze inscriptions Large seal script Small seal script
上-oracle.svg 上-bronze.svg 上-bigseal.svg 上-seal.svg





References:

Mostly from Richard Sears' Chinese Etymology site (authorisation),
which in turn draws data from various collections of ancient forms of Chinese characters, including:

  • Shuowen Jiezi (small seal),
  • Jinwen Bian (bronze inscriptions),
  • Liushutong (large seal) and
  • Xu Jiaguwen Bian (oracle bone script).

Ideogram (指事): a line above another (contrast ) — up.

Etymology[edit]

From Proto-Sino-Tibetan *s-tjaŋ.

Pronunciation 1[edit]



Rime
Character
Reading # 2/2
Initial () (25)
Final () (105)
Tone (調) Departing (H)
Openness (開合) Open
Division () III
Fanqie
Reconstructions
Zhengzhang
Shangfang
/d͡ʑɨɐŋH/
Pan
Wuyun
/d͡ʑiɐŋH/
Shao
Rongfen
/d͡ʑiɑŋH/
Edwin
Pulleyblank
/d͡ʑɨaŋH/
Li
Rong
/ʑiaŋH/
Wang
Li
/ʑĭaŋH/
Bernard
Karlgren
/ʑi̯aŋH/
Expected
Mandarin
Reflex
shàng
Baxter-Sagart system 1.1 (2014)
Character
Reading # 3/3
Modern
Beijing
(Pinyin)
shàng
Middle
Chinese
‹ dzyangH ›
Old
Chinese
/*daŋʔ-s/
English top, above (n.)

Notes for Old Chinese notations in the Baxter-Sagart system:

* Parentheses "()" indicate uncertain presence;
* Square brackets "[]" indicate uncertain identity, e.g. *[t] as coda may in fact be *-t or *-p;
* Angle brackets "<>" indicate infix;
* Hyphen "-" indicates morpheme boundary;

* Period "." indicates syllable boundary.
Zhengzhang system (2003)
Character
Reading # 2/2
No. 11103
Phonetic
component
Rime
group
Rime
subdivision
0
Corresponding
MC rime
Old
Chinese
/*djaŋs/

Definitions[edit]

  1. upper part; high position; up
    Antonyms: (xià)
  2. emperor
  3. on; above
    • /   ―  shù shàng  ―  on the tree
    • /   ―  Bǐ zài zhuō shàng.  ―  The pen is on the desk.
  4. superior; senior; top
  5. preceding; previous; last; former
    •   ―  shàng nián  ―  last year
    •   ―  shàng  ―  First volume
  6. within, in, from the standpoint of, according to
  7. (Min Nan) most; extremely

Pronunciation 2[edit]



Rime
Character
Reading # 1/2
Initial () (25)
Final () (105)
Tone (調) Rising (X)
Openness (開合) Open
Division () III
Fanqie
Reconstructions
Zhengzhang
Shangfang
/d͡ʑɨɐŋX/
Pan
Wuyun
/d͡ʑiɐŋX/
Shao
Rongfen
/d͡ʑiɑŋX/
Edwin
Pulleyblank
/d͡ʑɨaŋX/
Li
Rong
/ʑiaŋX/
Wang
Li
/ʑĭaŋX/
Bernard
Karlgren
/ʑi̯aŋX/
Expected
Mandarin
Reflex
shàng
Baxter-Sagart system 1.1 (2014)
Character
Reading # 1/3 2/3
Modern
Beijing
(Pinyin)
shàng shàng
Middle
Chinese
‹ dzyangX › ‹ dzyangX ›
Old
Chinese
/*Cə-daŋʔ/ /*m-daŋʔ/
English ascend to put up

Notes for Old Chinese notations in the Baxter-Sagart system:

* Parentheses "()" indicate uncertain presence;
* Square brackets "[]" indicate uncertain identity, e.g. *[t] as coda may in fact be *-t or *-p;
* Angle brackets "<>" indicate infix;
* Hyphen "-" indicates morpheme boundary;

* Period "." indicates syllable boundary.
Zhengzhang system (2003)
Character
Reading # 1/2
No. 11102
Phonetic
component
Rime
group
Rime
subdivision
0
Corresponding
MC rime
Old
Chinese
/*djaŋʔ/

Definitions[edit]

  1. to go up; to ascend
  2. to go to; to leave for (a place)
  3. to board; to get on
    • /   ―  Qǐng shàng chē.  ―  Please get into the car.
  4. to attend (class, work)
    •   ―  shàngbān  ―  to go to work
    • 夜校  ―  shàng yèxiào.  ―  She goes to night school.
  5. to enter (a field); to appear (on stage)
  6. to fit; to install; to apply
  7. to screw; to tighten, to twist
  8. (colloquial) Short for 上線 (“to go online”).
  9. to connect to, browse (a website)
    • 谷歌  ―  shàng Gǔgē  ―  to go on Google; to google
  10. (Min) to pull upwards or hang with a rope
  11. (Min Nan) to grow and attach
  12. (Xiamen Min Nan) to pile up
  13. (vulgar, of a male) to fuck; to have intercourse with a female
  14. Particle following verbs, indicating direction or achievement.

Pronunciation 3[edit]



Rime
Character
Reading # 1/2
Initial () (25)
Final () (105)
Tone (調) Rising (X)
Openness (開合) Open
Division () III
Fanqie
Reconstructions
Zhengzhang
Shangfang
/d͡ʑɨɐŋX/
Pan
Wuyun
/d͡ʑiɐŋX/
Shao
Rongfen
/d͡ʑiɑŋX/
Edwin
Pulleyblank
/d͡ʑɨaŋX/
Li
Rong
/ʑiaŋX/
Wang
Li
/ʑĭaŋX/
Bernard
Karlgren
/ʑi̯aŋX/
Expected
Mandarin
Reflex
shàng
Baxter-Sagart system 1.1 (2014)
Character
Reading # 1/3
Modern
Beijing
(Pinyin)
shàng
Middle
Chinese
‹ dzyangX ›
Old
Chinese
/*Cə-daŋʔ/
English ascend

Notes for Old Chinese notations in the Baxter-Sagart system:

* Parentheses "()" indicate uncertain presence;
* Square brackets "[]" indicate uncertain identity, e.g. *[t] as coda may in fact be *-t or *-p;
* Angle brackets "<>" indicate infix;
* Hyphen "-" indicates morpheme boundary;

* Period "." indicates syllable boundary.
Zhengzhang system (2003)
Character
Reading # 1/2
No. 11102
Phonetic
component
Rime
group
Rime
subdivision
0
Corresponding
MC rime
Old
Chinese
/*djaŋʔ/

Definitions[edit]

  1. Only used in 上聲 (“rising tone in Chinese phonetics”).

Compounds[edit]


Japanese[edit]

Kanji[edit]

(grade 1 “Kyōiku” kanji)

Readings[edit]

Compounds[edit]

  • 上石 (あげいし, ​ageishi)
  • 上人 (しょうにん, ​shōnin)

Etymology 1[edit]

/upe//uɸe//uwe//ue/

Pronunciation[edit]

Noun[edit]

‎(hiragana うえ, romaji ue, historical hiragana うへ)

  1. the above
  2. the top (position, or direction)
  3. the surface of
Compounds[edit]

Etymology 2[edit]

/upa//uɸa//uwa/

Noun[edit]

‎(hiragana うわ, romaji uwa, historical hiragana うは)

  1. upper, over
Compounds[edit]

Etymology 3[edit]

//kami1//kami/

Pronunciation[edit]

Noun[edit]

‎(hiragana かみ, romaji kami)

  1. the start
  2. a high place; the top
  3. one with a high rank

Etymology 4[edit]

/zyau//zyɔː//d͡ʑoː/

Noun[edit]

‎(hiragana じょう, romaji , historical hiragana じやう)

  1. the first volume in a two- or three-volume set
Compounds[edit]

Suffix[edit]

‎(hiragana じょう, romaji -jō, historical hiragana じやう)

  1. from the standpoint of
    理論 (りろん) (じょう)はありえないこと
    riron- wa arienai koto
    something that is impossible according to theory
  2. aboard (a plane or ship)
  3. above, in, on
Compounds[edit]

References[edit]

  1. 1.0 1.1 1998, NHK日本語発音アクセント辞典 (NHK Japanese Pronunciation Accent Dictionary) (in Japanese), Tōkyō: NHK, ISBN 978-4-14-011112-3
  2. 2.0 2.1 1974, 新明解国語辞典 (Shin Meikai Kokugo Jiten), Second Edition (in Japanese), Tōkyō: Sanseidō

Korean[edit]

Hanja[edit]

‎(sang)
Eumhun:

  • Sound (hangeul):  (revised: sang, McCune-Reischauer: sang)
  • Name (hangeul):  (revised: wit, McCune-Reischauer: wit)
  1. This term needs a translation to English. Please help out and add a translation, then remove the text {{rfdef}}.

References[edit]


Vietnamese[edit]

Han character[edit]

(thượng)

  1. King, emperor
  2. One who's high - ranked
  3. To go forward, above
  4. To fill with liquid
  5. To sprinkle
  6. To light up