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See also:
U+4E0A, 上
CJK UNIFIED IDEOGRAPH-4E0A

[U+4E09]
CJK Unified Ideographs
[U+4E0B]

Translingual[edit]

Stroke order
上-order.gif
Stroke order
3 strokes

Han character[edit]

(radical 1, +2, 3 strokes, cangjie input 卜一 (YM), four-corner 21100, composition)

References[edit]

  • KangXi: page 76, character 7
  • Dai Kanwa Jiten: character 13
  • Dae Jaweon: page 145, character 1
  • Hanyu Da Zidian: volume 1, page 5, character 4
  • Unihan data for U+4E0A

Chinese[edit]

simp. and trad.
variant forms
𠄞
Min Nan “most”

Glyph origin[edit]

Historical forms of the character
Shang Western Zhou Warring States Shuowen Jiezi (compiled in Han) Liushutong (compiled in Ming)
Oracle bone script Bronze inscriptions Chu Slip and silk script Qin slip script Ancient script Small seal script Transcribed ancient scripts
上-oracle.svg 上-bronze.svg 上-silk.svg 上-slip.svg 上-ancient.svg 上-seal.svg 上-bigseal.svg





References:

Mostly from Richard Sears' Chinese Etymology site (authorisation),
which in turn draws data from various collections of ancient forms of Chinese characters, including:

  • Shuowen Jiezi (small seal),
  • Jinwen Bian (bronze inscriptions),
  • Liushutong (Liushutong characters) and
  • Yinxu Jiaguwen Bian (oracle bone script).
Characters in the same phonetic series () (Zhengzhang, 2003) 
Old Chinese
*djaŋʔ, *djaŋs
*djaŋʔ, *djaŋs

Ideogram (指事): a line above another (contrast ) — up.

Etymology 1[edit]

Pronunciation 1[edit]


Note: Xiamen siāng - only used for “most”.
Note:
  • zion7/ziên7 - vernacular (“upper part; up; on; above; in”);
  • siang6 - literary (“superior; most”).
  • Wu
  • Xiang
  • Note:
    • shan5 - vernacular;
    • shan4 - literary.

    Rime
    Character
    Reading # 2/2
    Initial () (25)
    Final () (105)
    Tone (調) Departing (H)
    Openness (開合) Open
    Division () III
    Fanqie
    Reconstructions
    Zhengzhang
    Shangfang
    /d͡ʑɨɐŋH/
    Pan
    Wuyun
    /d͡ʑiɐŋH/
    Shao
    Rongfen
    /d͡ʑiɑŋH/
    Edwin
    Pulleyblank
    /d͡ʑɨaŋH/
    Li
    Rong
    /ʑiaŋH/
    Wang
    Li
    /ʑĭaŋH/
    Bernard
    Karlgren
    /ʑi̯aŋH/
    Expected
    Mandarin
    Reflex
    shàng
    BaxterSagart system 1.1 (2014)
    Character
    Reading # 3/3
    Modern
    Beijing
    (Pinyin)
    shàng
    Middle
    Chinese
    ‹ dzyangH ›
    Old
    Chinese
    /*daŋʔ-s/
    English top, above (n.)

    Notes for Old Chinese notations in the Baxter–Sagart system:

    * Parentheses "()" indicate uncertain presence;
    * Square brackets "[]" indicate uncertain identity, e.g. *[t] as coda may in fact be *-t or *-p;
    * Angle brackets "<>" indicate infix;
    * Hyphen "-" indicates morpheme boundary;

    * Period "." indicates syllable boundary.
    Zhengzhang system (2003)
    Character
    Reading # 2/2
    No. 11103
    Phonetic
    component
    Rime
    group
    Rime
    subdivision
    0
    Corresponding
    MC rime
    Old
    Chinese
    /*djaŋs/
    Definitions[edit]

    1. upper part; high position; up
      Antonyms: (xià)
    2. emperor
    3. on; above
    4. superior; senior; top
    5. preceding; previous; last; former
      •   ―  shàngnián  ―  last year
      •   ―  shàng  ―  last episode
    6. first of several (usually two or three) partitions
      Antonyms: (zhōng), (xià)
    7. within; in; from the standpoint of; according to
    8. (Min Nan) most; extremely

    Pronunciation 2[edit]


    Note:
    • sông / song1 - “to go up; to go; to attend” (major reading);
    • sóng / song3 - “to fit; to install; to apply”.
  • Jin
  • Min Dong
  • Note:
    • siông - “to go up” (major reading);
    • chiông - only in “to pull up”.
  • Min Nan
  • Note:
    • chiūⁿ/chiōⁿ/chiǔⁿ - “to go up” (major reading);
    • chhiūⁿ/chhiōⁿ/chhiǔⁿ - only in “to pull up; to grow; to pile up”.
  • Wu
  • Xiang
  • Note:
    • shan5 - vernacular;
    • shan4 - literary.

    Rime
    Character
    Reading # 1/2
    Initial () (25)
    Final () (105)
    Tone (調) Rising (X)
    Openness (開合) Open
    Division () III
    Fanqie
    Reconstructions
    Zhengzhang
    Shangfang
    /d͡ʑɨɐŋX/
    Pan
    Wuyun
    /d͡ʑiɐŋX/
    Shao
    Rongfen
    /d͡ʑiɑŋX/
    Edwin
    Pulleyblank
    /d͡ʑɨaŋX/
    Li
    Rong
    /ʑiaŋX/
    Wang
    Li
    /ʑĭaŋX/
    Bernard
    Karlgren
    /ʑi̯aŋX/
    Expected
    Mandarin
    Reflex
    shàng
    BaxterSagart system 1.1 (2014)
    Character
    Reading # 1/3 2/3
    Modern
    Beijing
    (Pinyin)
    shàng shàng
    Middle
    Chinese
    ‹ dzyangX › ‹ dzyangX ›
    Old
    Chinese
    /*Cə-daŋʔ/ /*m-daŋʔ/
    English ascend to put up

    Notes for Old Chinese notations in the Baxter–Sagart system:

    * Parentheses "()" indicate uncertain presence;
    * Square brackets "[]" indicate uncertain identity, e.g. *[t] as coda may in fact be *-t or *-p;
    * Angle brackets "<>" indicate infix;
    * Hyphen "-" indicates morpheme boundary;

    * Period "." indicates syllable boundary.
    Zhengzhang system (2003)
    Character
    Reading # 1/2
    No. 11102
    Phonetic
    component
    Rime
    group
    Rime
    subdivision
    0
    Corresponding
    MC rime
    Old
    Chinese
    /*djaŋʔ/
    Definitions[edit]

    1. to go up; to ascend
    2. to go to; to leave for (a place)
    3. to board; to get on
      • /   ―  Qǐng shàng chē.  ―  Please get into the car.
    4. to attend (class, work)
      •   ―  shàngbān  ―  to go to work
      • 夜校  ―  shàng yèxiào.  ―  She goes to night school.
    5. to enter (a field); to appear (on stage)
    6. to fit; to install; to apply
    7. to screw; to tighten, to twist
    8. (colloquial) Short for 上線 (“to go online”).
    9. to connect to; browse (a website)
      • 谷歌  ―  shàng Gǔgē  ―  to go on Google; to google
    10. (Min) to pull upwards or hang with a rope
    11. (Min Nan) to grow and attach
    12. (Xiamen Min Nan) to pile up
    13. (vulgar, of a male) to fuck; to have intercourse with a female
    14. Particle following verbs, indicating direction or achievement.
    15. 7th tetragram of the Taixuanjing; "ascension" (𝌌)

    Pronunciation 3[edit]



    Rime
    Character
    Reading # 1/2
    Initial () (25)
    Final () (105)
    Tone (調) Rising (X)
    Openness (開合) Open
    Division () III
    Fanqie
    Reconstructions
    Zhengzhang
    Shangfang
    /d͡ʑɨɐŋX/
    Pan
    Wuyun
    /d͡ʑiɐŋX/
    Shao
    Rongfen
    /d͡ʑiɑŋX/
    Edwin
    Pulleyblank
    /d͡ʑɨaŋX/
    Li
    Rong
    /ʑiaŋX/
    Wang
    Li
    /ʑĭaŋX/
    Bernard
    Karlgren
    /ʑi̯aŋX/
    Expected
    Mandarin
    Reflex
    shàng
    BaxterSagart system 1.1 (2014)
    Character
    Reading # 1/3
    Modern
    Beijing
    (Pinyin)
    shàng
    Middle
    Chinese
    ‹ dzyangX ›
    Old
    Chinese
    /*Cə-daŋʔ/
    English ascend

    Notes for Old Chinese notations in the Baxter–Sagart system:

    * Parentheses "()" indicate uncertain presence;
    * Square brackets "[]" indicate uncertain identity, e.g. *[t] as coda may in fact be *-t or *-p;
    * Angle brackets "<>" indicate infix;
    * Hyphen "-" indicates morpheme boundary;

    * Period "." indicates syllable boundary.
    Zhengzhang system (2003)
    Character
    Reading # 1/2
    No. 11102
    Phonetic
    component
    Rime
    group
    Rime
    subdivision
    0
    Corresponding
    MC rime
    Old
    Chinese
    /*djaŋʔ/
    Definitions[edit]

    1. (~聲) (Chinese phonetics) rising tone in Chinese phonetics

    Compounds[edit]

    Etymology 2[edit]

    For pronunciation and definitions of – see (“to sole a shoe”).
    (This character, , is the second-round simplified form of .)
    Notes:

    Etymology 3[edit]

    For pronunciation and definitions of – see (“the piece of leather used for soles on Chinese shoes. a patch”).
    (This character, , is the second-round simplified form of .)
    Notes:

    Japanese[edit]

    Kanji[edit]

    (grade 1 “Kyōiku” kanji)

    1. above, high, up
    2. earlier
    3. excellent, top
    4. certain time or place in the past
    5. limit
    6. climb, rise
    7. offer
    8. go to the center
    9. raise, bring up
    10. one of the four tones of Middle Chinese
    11. short for 上野 (Kōzuke no kuni): Kōzuke Province

    Readings[edit]

    Compounds[edit]

    Etymology 1[edit]

    Kanji in this term
    うえ
    Grade: 1
    kun’yomi

    ⟨upe1 → */upʷe//ufe//uwe//ue/

    From Old Japanese.

    Bound apophonic form of uwa, ancient upa (see below), possibly by fusion with an empathic particle (i).

    Pronunciation[edit]

    Noun[edit]

    (hiragana うえ, rōmaji ue, historical hiragana うへ)

    1. the above
    2. the top (position or direction)
    3. the surface of
    Antonyms[edit]
    Derived terms[edit]
    Idioms[edit]

    Suffix[edit]

    (hiragana うえ, rōmaji -ue, historical hiragana うへ)

    1. suffix addressing to a superior
    Derived terms[edit]

    Proper noun[edit]

    (hiragana うえ, rōmaji Ue, historical hiragana うへ)

    1. a surname

    Etymology 2[edit]

    Kanji in this term
    うわ
    Grade: 1
    kun’yomi

    /upa//ufa//uwa/

    From Old Japanese. The combining form of ue, ancient upe (see above).[1]

    Noun[edit]

    (hiragana うわ, rōmaji uwa, historical hiragana うは)

    1. upper, over
    Derived terms[edit]

    Proper noun[edit]

    (hiragana うわ, rōmaji Uwa, historical hiragana うは)

    1. a place name

    Etymology 3[edit]

    Kanji in this term

    Grade: 1
    kun’yomi
    Kanji in this term

    Grade: 1
    Irregular

    ⟨upe1 → */ipe/⟨pe1 → */pʷe//fe//he/

    Short-form of or shift from ue, ancient upe (see above). Realized as -e in some compounds.

    Usage notes[edit]

    The senses are the same with ue.

    Derived terms[edit]

    Etymology 4[edit]

    Kanji in this term
    かみ
    Grade: 1
    kun’yomi

    ⟨kami1 → */kamʲi//kami/

    From Old Japanese. Already apparent in ancient texts such as the Kojiki (c. 712 CE) and the Man'yōshū (c. 759 CE).[1][4]

    Distinct from (⟨kami2kami, Shinto deity).

    Pronunciation[edit]

    Noun[edit]

    (hiragana かみ, rōmaji kami)

    1. the start
    2. a high place; the top
    3. one with higher rank
    Antonyms[edit]
    Derived terms[edit]
    Idioms[edit]

    Proper noun[edit]

    (hiragana かみ, rōmaji Kami)

    1. a place name
    2. a surname

    Etymology 5[edit]

    Kanji in this term
    かん
    Grade: 1
    kun’yomi

    /kami//kamʉ//kaɴ/

    Contraction of Old Japanese ⟨kami1. Spelled in ancient works as かむ (kamu) prior to the development of the (n) kana.[1][4][5]

    Pronunciation[edit]

    Noun[edit]

    (hiragana かん, rōmaji kan)

    1. (obsolete) Same as かみ (kami) above
    Usage notes[edit]

    Generally only found when followed by the genitive / possessive particles (no) or (tsu).

    Derived terms[edit]

    Proper noun[edit]

    (hiragana かん, rōmaji Kan)

    1. a place name

    Etymology 6[edit]

    Kanji in this term
    じょう
    Grade: 1
    kun’yomi

    /d͡ʑɨau//d͡ʑɔː//d͡ʑoː/

    From Middle Chinese (MC d͡ʑɨɐŋX, d͡ʑɨɐŋH).

    Pronunciation[edit]

    Noun[edit]

    (hiragana じょう, rōmaji , historical hiragana じやう)

    1. the first volume in a two- or three-volume set
      Antonym: (ge)

    Suffix[edit]

    (hiragana じょう, rōmaji -jō, historical hiragana じやう)

    1. from the standpoint of...
       () (ろん) (じょう)はありえないこと
      riron- wa arienai koto
      something that is impossible according to theory
       (ほう) (りつ) (じょう) (そう) (ちょう)
      hōritsu- no sōchō
      legal dispute
    2. aboard (a plane, ship, etc.)
    3. above, in, on
    Derived terms[edit]

    Proper noun[edit]

    (hiragana じょう, rōmaji , historical hiragana じやう)

    1. a surname

    References[edit]

    1. 1.0 1.1 1.2 1.3 1.4 2006, 大辞林 (Daijirin), Third Edition (in Japanese), Tōkyō: Sanseidō, →ISBN
    2. 2.0 2.1 1974, 新明解国語辞典 (Shin Meikai Kokugo Jiten), Second Edition (in Japanese), Tōkyō: Sanseidō
    3. 3.0 3.1 1998, NHK日本語発音アクセント辞典 (NHK Japanese Pronunciation Accent Dictionary) (in Japanese), Tōkyō: NHK, →ISBN
    4. 4.0 4.1 1988, 国語大辞典(新装版) (Kokugo Dai Jiten, Revised Edition) (in Japanese), Tōkyō: Shogakukan
    5. ^ 1995, 大辞泉 (Daijisen) (in Japanese), Tōkyō: Shogakukan, →ISBN

    Korean[edit]

    Hanja[edit]

    (eumhun (wit sang))

    1. This term needs a translation to English. Please help out and add a translation, then remove the text {{rfdef}}.

    References[edit]


    Vietnamese[edit]

    Han character[edit]

    (thượng)

    1. king, emperor
    2. One who's high - ranked
    3. To go forward, above
    4. To fill with liquid
    5. To sprinkle
    6. To light up