Definition from Wiktionary, the free dictionary
Jump to navigation Jump to search
See also:
U+4E0A, 上
CJK UNIFIED IDEOGRAPH-4E0A

[U+4E09]
CJK Unified Ideographs
[U+4E0B]

Translingual[edit]

Stroke order
3 strokes
Stroke order
上-order.gif

Han character[edit]

(radical 1, +2, 3 strokes, cangjie input 卜一 (YM), four-corner 21100, composition)

Derived characters[edit]

References[edit]

  • KangXi: page 76, character 7
  • Dai Kanwa Jiten: character 13
  • Dae Jaweon: page 145, character 1
  • Hanyu Da Zidian (first edition): volume 1, page 5, character 4
  • Unihan data for U+4E0A

Chinese[edit]

simp. and trad.
alternative forms
𠄞
Min Nan “most”

Glyph origin[edit]

Historical forms of the character
Shang Western Zhou Warring States Shuowen Jiezi (compiled in Han) Liushutong (compiled in Ming)
Oracle bone script Bronze inscriptions Chu Slip and silk script Qin slip script Ancient script Small seal script Transcribed ancient scripts
上-oracle.svg 上-bronze.svg 上-silk.svg 上-slip.svg 上-ancient.svg 上-seal.svg 上-bigseal.svg





References:

Mostly from Richard Sears' Chinese Etymology site (authorisation),
which in turn draws data from various collections of ancient forms of Chinese characters, including:

  • Shuowen Jiezi (small seal),
  • Jinwen Bian (bronze inscriptions),
  • Liushutong (Liushutong characters) and
  • Yinxu Jiaguwen Bian (oracle bone script).

Ideogram (指事): a line above another (contrast ) — up. Originally written as 𠄞, but changed to this form to prevent confusion with (èr).

Etymology 1[edit]

From Sino-Tibetan. Cognate with Tibetan ཡང་རྩེ (yang rtse, summit; pinnacle) (Bodman, 1980), Mizo zo (to be high), zah (to respect; to revere). STEDT, on the other hand, considers to be from Proto-Sino-Tibetan *s-tjaŋ (upper part; rise; raise; top; summit).

Shijing rimes indicate occasional level tone for pronunciation 2 (Schuessler, 2007).

Pronunciation 1 is the exopassive of pronunciation 2 with suffix *-s, literally meaning "what has been raised" (Schuessler, 2007). The rising tone in Middle Chinese words with voiced stop initials regularly evolves into departing tone in Mandarin; pronunciation 3 results from 叶韻叶韵 (xiéyùn), which artificially preserves classical poetry rhyming words' pronunciations.

Pronunciation 1[edit]


Note: Xiamen siāng - only used for “most”.
Note:
  • zion7/ziên7 - vernacular (“upper part; up; on; above; in”);
  • siang6 - literary (“superior; most”).
  • Wu
  • Xiang
    • (Changsha)
      • Wiktionary: shan5 / shan4
      • Sinological IPA (key) (old-style): /ʂan²¹/, /ʂan⁴⁵/
      • Sinological IPA (key) (new-style): /san²¹/, /san⁴⁵/
  • Note:
    • shan5 - vernacular;
    • shan4 - literary.

    Rime
    Character
    Reading # 2/2
    Initial () (25)
    Final () (105)
    Tone (調) Departing (H)
    Openness (開合) Open
    Division () III
    Fanqie
    Reconstructions
    Zhengzhang
    Shangfang
    /d͡ʑɨɐŋH/
    Pan
    Wuyun
    /d͡ʑiɐŋH/
    Shao
    Rongfen
    /d͡ʑiɑŋH/
    Edwin
    Pulleyblank
    /d͡ʑɨaŋH/
    Li
    Rong
    /ʑiaŋH/
    Wang
    Li
    /ʑĭaŋH/
    Bernard
    Karlgren
    /ʑi̯aŋH/
    Expected
    Mandarin
    Reflex
    shàng
    BaxterSagart system 1.1 (2014)
    Character
    Reading # 3/3
    Modern
    Beijing
    (Pinyin)
    shàng
    Middle
    Chinese
    ‹ dzyangH ›
    Old
    Chinese
    /*daŋʔ-s/
    English top, above (n.)

    Notes for Old Chinese notations in the Baxter–Sagart system:

    * Parentheses "()" indicate uncertain presence;
    * Square brackets "[]" indicate uncertain identity, e.g. *[t] as coda may in fact be *-t or *-p;
    * Angle brackets "<>" indicate infix;
    * Hyphen "-" indicates morpheme boundary;

    * Period "." indicates syllable boundary.
    Zhengzhang system (2003)
    Character
    Reading # 2/2
    No. 11103
    Phonetic
    component
    Rime
    group
    Rime
    subdivision
    0
    Corresponding
    MC rime
    Old
    Chinese
    /*djaŋs/
    Definitions[edit]

    1. upper part; high position; up
      Antonym: (xià)
    2. emperor
    3. on; above
      /   ―  shùshàng  ―  on the tree
      /   ―  Bǐ zài zhuōshàng.  ―  The pen is on the desk.
    4. superior; senior; top
    5. preceding; previous; last; former
        ―  shàng yī nián  ―  last year
        ―  shàng  ―  last episode
      世紀 / 世纪  ―  shàng shìjì  ―  last century
    6. first of several (usually two or three) partitions
      Antonyms: (zhōng), (xià)
      西遊記 / 西游记  ―  Xīyóujì shàng  ―  Journey to the West I
      古漢語中古漢語 [MSC, trad.]
      古汉语中古汉语 [MSC, simp.]
      shànggǔ hànyǔ hé zhōnggǔ hànyǔ [Pinyin]
      Old Chinese and Middle Chinese
    7. within; in; from the standpoint of; according to
      理論 / 理论  ―  zài lǐlùn shàng  ―  according to theory
      這個世界 / 这个世界  ―  zài zhège shìjiè shàng  ―  in this world
      英文沒有相似說法 [MSC, trad.]
      英文没有相似说法 [MSC, simp.]
      Zài yīngwén shàng méiyǒu xiàngsì de shuōfǎ. [Pinyin]
      There is no similar way of wording in English.
    8. (Min Nan) most; extremely
    Synonyms[edit]

    Pronunciation 2[edit]


    Note:
    • sông / song1 - “to go up; to go; to attend” (major reading);
    • sóng / song3 - “to fit; to install; to apply”.
  • Jin
  • Min Dong
  • Note:
    • siông - “to go up” (major reading);
    • chiông - only in “to pull up”.
  • Min Nan
  • Note:
    • chiūⁿ/chiōⁿ/chiǔⁿ - “to go up” (major reading);
    • chhiūⁿ/chhiōⁿ/chhiǔⁿ - only in “to pull up; to grow; to pile up”.
  • Wu
  • Xiang
    • (Changsha)
      • Wiktionary: shan5 / shan4
      • Sinological IPA (key) (old-style): /ʂan²¹/, /ʂan⁴⁵/
      • Sinological IPA (key) (new-style): /san²¹/, /san⁴⁵/
  • Note:
    • shan5 - vernacular;
    • shan4 - literary.

    Rime
    Character
    Reading # 1/2
    Initial () (25)
    Final () (105)
    Tone (調) Rising (X)
    Openness (開合) Open
    Division () III
    Fanqie
    Reconstructions
    Zhengzhang
    Shangfang
    /d͡ʑɨɐŋX/
    Pan
    Wuyun
    /d͡ʑiɐŋX/
    Shao
    Rongfen
    /d͡ʑiɑŋX/
    Edwin
    Pulleyblank
    /d͡ʑɨaŋX/
    Li
    Rong
    /ʑiaŋX/
    Wang
    Li
    /ʑĭaŋX/
    Bernard
    Karlgren
    /ʑi̯aŋX/
    Expected
    Mandarin
    Reflex
    shàng
    BaxterSagart system 1.1 (2014)
    Character
    Reading # 1/3 2/3
    Modern
    Beijing
    (Pinyin)
    shàng shàng
    Middle
    Chinese
    ‹ dzyangX › ‹ dzyangX ›
    Old
    Chinese
    /*Cə-daŋʔ/ /*m-daŋʔ/
    English ascend to put up

    Notes for Old Chinese notations in the Baxter–Sagart system:

    * Parentheses "()" indicate uncertain presence;
    * Square brackets "[]" indicate uncertain identity, e.g. *[t] as coda may in fact be *-t or *-p;
    * Angle brackets "<>" indicate infix;
    * Hyphen "-" indicates morpheme boundary;

    * Period "." indicates syllable boundary.
    Zhengzhang system (2003)
    Character
    Reading # 1/2
    No. 11102
    Phonetic
    component
    Rime
    group
    Rime
    subdivision
    0
    Corresponding
    MC rime
    Old
    Chinese
    /*djaŋʔ/
    Definitions[edit]

    1. to go up; to ascend
    2. to charge; to advance
      •   ―  Shàng a!  ―  Charge!
    3. to go to; to leave for (a place) (usually to a more developed place)
      • 省城  ―  shàng xǐngchéng  ―  to go to province capital
    4. to board; to get on
      • /   ―  Qǐng shàng chē.  ―  Please get into the car.
    5. to serve; to present; to offer
    6. to attend (class, work)
      •   ―  shàngbān  ―  to go to work
      • 夜校  ―  shàng yèxiào.  ―  She goes to night school.
    7. to enter (a field); to appear (on stage, TV)
    8. to fit; to install; to apply
      • 油漆  ―  shàng yóuqī  ―  to apply paint
    9. to screw; to tighten, to twist
    10. (colloquial) Short for 上線 (“to go online”).
    11. to connect to; browse (a website)
      • 谷歌  ―  shàng Gǔgē  ―  to go on Google; to google
    12. (Min) to pull upwards or hang with a rope
    13. (Min Nan) to grow and attach
    14. (Xiamen Min Nan) to pile up
    15. (vulgar, usually of a male) to fuck; to have intercourse (usually with a female)
    16. Particle following verbs, indicating direction or achievement.
      • 安排  ―  Ānpái shàng le.  ―  (please add an English translation of this example)
    17. 7th tetragram of the Taixuanjing; "ascension" (𝌌)
    18. (mahjong, Cantonese) chow; to call a discarded tile to produce a chow

    Pronunciation 3[edit]



    Rime
    Character
    Reading # 1/2
    Initial () (25)
    Final () (105)
    Tone (調) Rising (X)
    Openness (開合) Open
    Division () III
    Fanqie
    Reconstructions
    Zhengzhang
    Shangfang
    /d͡ʑɨɐŋX/
    Pan
    Wuyun
    /d͡ʑiɐŋX/
    Shao
    Rongfen
    /d͡ʑiɑŋX/
    Edwin
    Pulleyblank
    /d͡ʑɨaŋX/
    Li
    Rong
    /ʑiaŋX/
    Wang
    Li
    /ʑĭaŋX/
    Bernard
    Karlgren
    /ʑi̯aŋX/
    Expected
    Mandarin
    Reflex
    shàng
    BaxterSagart system 1.1 (2014)
    Character
    Reading # 1/3
    Modern
    Beijing
    (Pinyin)
    shàng
    Middle
    Chinese
    ‹ dzyangX ›
    Old
    Chinese
    /*Cə-daŋʔ/
    English ascend

    Notes for Old Chinese notations in the Baxter–Sagart system:

    * Parentheses "()" indicate uncertain presence;
    * Square brackets "[]" indicate uncertain identity, e.g. *[t] as coda may in fact be *-t or *-p;
    * Angle brackets "<>" indicate infix;
    * Hyphen "-" indicates morpheme boundary;

    * Period "." indicates syllable boundary.
    Zhengzhang system (2003)
    Character
    Reading # 1/2
    No. 11102
    Phonetic
    component
    Rime
    group
    Rime
    subdivision
    0
    Corresponding
    MC rime
    Old
    Chinese
    /*djaŋʔ/
    Definitions[edit]

    1. (~聲) (Chinese phonetics) rising tone in Chinese phonetics

    Compounds[edit]

    Descendants[edit]

    Sino-Xenic ():
    • Japanese: (じょう) ()
    • Korean: (, sang)
    • Vietnamese: thượng ()

    Etymology 2[edit]

    For pronunciation and definitions of – see (“to sole a shoe”).
    (This character, , is the second-round simplified form of .)
    Notes:

    Etymology 3[edit]

    For pronunciation and definitions of – see (“the piece of leather used for soles on Chinese shoes; a patch of leather”).
    (This character, , is the second-round simplified form of .)
    Notes:

    Further reading[edit]


    Japanese[edit]

    Kanji[edit]

    (grade 1 “Kyōiku” kanji)

    1. above, high, up
    2. earlier
    3. excellent, top
    4. certain time or place in the past
    5. limit
    6. climb, rise
    7. offer
    8. go to the center
    9. raise, bring up
    10. one of the four tones of Middle Chinese
    11. short for 上野国 (Kōzuke no kuni): Kōzuke Province

    Readings[edit]

    Compounds[edit]

    Etymology 1[edit]

    Kanji in this term
    うえ
    Grade: 1
    kun’yomi

    ⟨upe2/*upai̯//upe//ufe//uwe//ue/

    From Old Japanese, from Proto-Japonic *upay.

    Bound apophonic form of uwa, ancient upa (see below), possibly by fusion with an emphatic nominal particle (i).

    Pronunciation[edit]

    Noun[edit]

    (うえ) (ue (historical kana うへ)

    1. the above
    2. the top (position or direction)
    3. the surface of
    Antonyms[edit]
    Derived terms[edit]
    Idioms[edit]

    Suffix[edit]

    (うえ) (-ue (historical kana うへ)

    1. suffix addressing to a superior
    Derived terms[edit]

    Proper noun[edit]

    (うえ) (Ue (historical kana うへ)

    1. a surname

    Etymology 2[edit]

    Kanji in this term
    うわ
    Grade: 1
    kun’yomi

    /upa//ufa//uwa/

    From Old Japanese, from Proto-Japonic *upa. The combining form of ue, ancient upe (see above).[1]

    Pronunciation[edit]

    Noun[edit]

    (うわ) (uwa (historical kana うは)

    1. upper, over
    Derived terms[edit]

    Proper noun[edit]

    (うわ) (Uwa (historical kana うは)

    1. a place name

    Etymology 3[edit]

    Kanji in this term

    Grade: 1
    kun’yomi
    Kanji in this term

    Grade: 1
    Irregular

    ⟨upe2⟨pe2 → */pe//fe//he/

    Short-form of or shift from ue, ancient upe (see above). Realized as -e in some compounds.

    Pronunciation[edit]

    • (Irregular reading)
    Usage notes[edit]

    The senses are the same with ue.

    Derived terms[edit]

    Etymology 4[edit]

    Kanji in this term
    かみ
    Grade: 1
    kun’yomi

    ⟨kami1 → */kamʲi//kami/

    From Old Japanese. Already apparent in ancient texts such as the Kojiki (c. 712 CE) and the Man'yōshū (c. 759 CE).[1][4]

    Distinct from (⟨kami2kami, Shinto deity).

    Pronunciation[edit]

    Noun[edit]

    (かみ) (kami

    1. the start
    2. a high place; the top
    3. one with higher rank
    Antonyms[edit]
    Derived terms[edit]
    Idioms[edit]

    Proper noun[edit]

    (かみ) (Kami

    1. a place name
    2. a surname

    Etymology 5[edit]

    Kanji in this term
    かん
    Grade: 1
    kun’yomi

    /kami//kamʉ//kaɴ/

    Contraction of Old Japanese ⟨kami1. Spelled in ancient works as かむ (kamu) prior to the development of the (n) kana.[1][4][5]

    Pronunciation[edit]

    Noun[edit]

    (かん) (kan

    1. (obsolete) Same as かみ (kami) above
    Usage notes[edit]

    Generally only found when followed by the genitive / possessive particles (no) or (tsu).

    Derived terms[edit]

    Proper noun[edit]

    (かん) (Kan

    1. a place name

    Etymology 6[edit]

    Kanji in this term
    じょう
    Grade: 1
    goon

    /d͡ʑɨau//d͡ʑɔː//d͡ʑoː/

    From Middle Chinese (MC d͡ʑɨɐŋX, d͡ʑɨɐŋH).

    Pronunciation[edit]

    Noun[edit]

    (じょう) ( (historical kana じやう)

    1. the first volume in a two- or three-volume set
      Antonym: (ge)

    Suffix[edit]

    (じょう) (-jō (historical kana じやう)

    1. from the standpoint of...
      ()(ろん)(じょう)はありえないこと
      riron- wa arienai koto
      something that is impossible according to theory
      (ほう)(りつ)(じょう)(そう)(ちょう)
      hōritsu- no sōchō
      legal dispute
    2. aboard (a plane, ship, etc.)
    3. above, in, on
    Derived terms[edit]

    Proper noun[edit]

    (じょう) ( (historical kana じやう)

    1. a surname

    References[edit]

    1. 1.0 1.1 1.2 1.3 1.4 2006, 大辞林 (Daijirin), Third Edition (in Japanese), Tōkyō: Sanseidō, →ISBN
    2. 2.0 2.1 1974, 新明解国語辞典 (Shin Meikai Kokugo Jiten), Second Edition (in Japanese), Tōkyō: Sanseidō
    3. 3.0 3.1 1998, NHK日本語発音アクセント辞典 (NHK Japanese Pronunciation Accent Dictionary) (in Japanese), Tōkyō: NHK, →ISBN
    4. 4.0 4.1 1988, 国語大辞典(新装版) (Kokugo Dai Jiten, Revised Edition) (in Japanese), Tōkyō: Shogakukan
    5. ^ 1995, 大辞泉 (Daijisen) (in Japanese), Tōkyō: Shogakukan, →ISBN

    Korean[edit]

    Hanja[edit]

    (eumhun (wit sang))

    1. Hanja form? of (top; first; best).

    Compounds[edit]


    Vietnamese[edit]

    Han character[edit]

    : Hán Việt readings: thượng ((thì)(lượng)(thiết))[1][2][3][4]
    : Nôm readings: thượng[1][3][4][5]

    1. Hán tự form of thượng (upper; higher; top).

    Compounds[edit]

    References[edit]