天下

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Chinese[edit]

day; sky; heaven
 
under; next; lower
under; next; lower; below; underneath; down(wards); to go down; latter
simp. and trad.
(天下)
Literally: “under heaven”.
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Etymology[edit]

(This etymology is missing or incomplete. Please add to it, or discuss it at the Etymology scriptorium.)

Pronunciation[edit]



Rime
Character
Reading # 1/1 1/2
Initial () (6) (33)
Final () (85) (98)
Tone (調) Level (Ø) Rising (X)
Openness (開合) Open Open
Division () IV II
Fanqie
Reconstructions
Zhengzhang
Shangfang
/tʰen/ /ɦˠaX/
Pan
Wuyun
/tʰen/ /ɦᵚaX/
Shao
Rongfen
/tʰɛn/ /ɣaX/
Edwin
Pulleyblank
/tʰɛn/ /ɦaɨX/
Li
Rong
/tʰen/ /ɣaX/
Wang
Li
/tʰien/ /ɣaX/
Bernard
Karlgren
/tʰien/ /ɣaX/
Expected
Mandarin
Reflex
tiān xià
Expected
Cantonese
Reflex
tin1 haa6
BaxterSagart system 1.1 (2014)
Character
Reading # 1/2 2/2 1/2
Modern
Beijing
(Pinyin)
tiān xiān xià
Middle
Chinese
‹ then › ‹ xen › ‹ X ›
Old
Chinese
/*l̥ˁi[n]/ /*l̥ˁi[n]/ (W dialect: l̥ˁ- > Hàn-time *xˁ- > MC x-) /*ɡˁraʔ/
English heaven heaven down

Notes for Old Chinese notations in the Baxter–Sagart system:

* Parentheses "()" indicate uncertain presence;
* Square brackets "[]" indicate uncertain identity, e.g. *[t] as coda may in fact be *-t or *-p;
* Angle brackets "<>" indicate infix;
* Hyphen "-" indicates morpheme boundary;

* Period "." indicates syllable boundary.
Zhengzhang system (2003)
Character
Reading # 1/1 1/2
No. 12387 13445
Phonetic
component
Rime
group
Rime
subdivision
1 0
Corresponding
MC rime
Old
Chinese
/*qʰl'iːn/ /*ɡraːʔ/

Noun[edit]

天下

  1. (literary, figuratively) the world; everything under the sky; all under heaven
    統一天下 / 统一天下  ―  tǒngyī tiānxià  ―  to unify all under heaven
  2. (literary, lofty) China; the Chinese nation
  3. (literary, figuratively) state power; domination

Synonyms[edit]

  • (the world):
edit
  • (China):
edit

Derived terms[edit]

Descendants[edit]

Sino-Xenic (天下):
  • Japanese: (てん)() (tenka)
  • Korean: 천하 (天下, cheonha)
  • Vietnamese: thiên hạ (天下)
  • Manchu: ᠠᠪᡴᠠᡳ
    ᡶᡝᠵᡝᡵᡤᡳ
    (abkai fejergi) (calque)
  • Russian: Поднебе́сная (Podnebésnaja) (calque)

  • Japanese[edit]

    Etymology 1[edit]

    Kanji in this term
    てん
    Grade: 1

    Grade: 1
    on’yomi kan’on

    From Middle Chinese 天下 (MC tʰen ɦˠaX, “heaven + under”). The kan'on, so likely a later borrowing.[1]

    Pronunciation[edit]

    Noun[edit]

    (てん)() (tenka

    1. the whole world, the earth
    2. the whole country, all of Japan
    3. the government of Japan
    4. power, control over the government
    5. (historical, Edo period) the shogun
    6. (card games) in traditional Japanese card games, one of the strong cards known as (aza)
    7. short for 天下一 (tenka ichi): the best in the world (often used attributively with the particle (no))
      (てん)()(よこ)(づな)
      tenka no yokozuna
      the best yokozuna in the world

    Etymology 2[edit]

    Kanji in this term
    てん
    Grade: 1

    Grade: 1
    on’yomi goon

    From Middle Chinese 天下 (MC tʰen ɦˠaX, “heaven + under”). The go'on, so likely the earlier borrowing.[1]

    Appears with this reading in the Kagerō Nikki, dating to roughly 974 CE.[2] Superseded in modern Japanese by tenka above.

    Pronunciation[edit]

    Noun[edit]

    (てん)() (tenge

    1. (archaic, possibly obsolete) the world, the earth

    See also[edit]

    References[edit]

    1. 1.0 1.1 1988, 国語大辞典(新装版) (Kokugo Dai Jiten, Revised Edition) (in Japanese), Tōkyō: Shogakukan
    2. 2.0 2.1 2006, 大辞林 (Daijirin), Third Edition (in Japanese), Tōkyō: Sanseidō, →ISBN
    3. ^ 1998, NHK日本語発音アクセント辞典 (NHK Japanese Pronunciation Accent Dictionary) (in Japanese), Tōkyō: NHK, →ISBN
    4. ^ 1997, 新明解国語辞典 (Shin Meikai Kokugo Jiten), Fifth Edition (in Japanese), Tōkyō: Sanseidō, →ISBN

    Korean[edit]

    Hanja in this term

    Noun[edit]

    天下 (cheonha) (hangeul 천하)

    1. Hanja form? of 천하 (world, earth; China).

    Vietnamese[edit]

    Hán tự in this term

    Noun[edit]

    天下

    1. Hán tự form of thiên hạ (world).