天下

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Chinese[edit]

day; sky; heaven
 
under; next; lower; below; underneath; down(wards); to go down; latter
simp. and trad.
(天下)
Literally: “under heaven”.
Wikipedia has articles on:

Etymology[edit]

See All under Heaven.

Pronunciation[edit]



Rime
Character
Reading # 1/1 1/2 2/2
Initial () (6) (33) (33)
Final () (85) (98) (98)
Tone (調) Level (Ø) Rising (X) Departing (H)
Openness (開合) Open Open Open
Division () IV II II
Fanqie
Reconstructions
Zhengzhang
Shangfang
/tʰen/ /ɦˠaX/ /ɦˠaH/
Pan
Wuyun
/tʰen/ /ɦᵚaX/ /ɦᵚaH/
Shao
Rongfen
/tʰɛn/ /ɣaX/ /ɣaH/
Edwin
Pulleyblank
/tʰɛn/ /ɦaɨX/ /ɦaɨH/
Li
Rong
/tʰen/ /ɣaX/ /ɣaH/
Wang
Li
/tʰien/ /ɣaX/ /ɣaH/
Bernard
Karlgren
/tʰien/ /ɣaX/ /ɣaH/
Expected
Mandarin
Reflex
tiān xià xià

Noun[edit]

天下

  1. (figuratively) the world; everything under the sky; all under heaven
  2. (lofty) China; the Chinese nation
  3. (figuratively) state power; domination

Synonyms[edit]

Derived terms[edit]

Descendants[edit]

Sino-Xenic (天下):
  • Manchu: ᠠᠪᡴᠠᡳ
    ᡶᡝᠵᡝᡵᡤᡳ
    (abkai fejergi) (calque)
  • Russian: Поднебе́сная (Podnebésnaja) (calque)

  • Japanese[edit]

    Etymology 1[edit]

    Kanji in this term
    てん
    Grade: 1

    Grade: 1
    on’yomi

    From Middle Chinese 天下 (MC tʰen ɦˠaX, “heaven + under”). The kan'on, so likely a later borrowing.[1]

    Pronunciation[edit]

    Noun[edit]

    天下 (hiragana てんか, rōmaji tenka)

    1. the whole world, the earth
    2. the whole country, all of Japan
    3. the government of Japan
    4. power, control over the government
    5. (historical, Edo period) the shogun
    6. (card games) in traditional Japanese card games, one of the strong cards known as (aza)
    7. short for 天下一 (tenka ichi): the best in the world (often used attributively with the particle (no))
       (てん) () (よこ) (づな)
      tenka no yokozuna
      the best yokozuna in the world

    Etymology 2[edit]

    Kanji in this term
    てん
    Grade: 1

    Grade: 1
    on’yomi

    From Middle Chinese 天下 (MC tʰen ɦˠaX, “heaven + under”). The go'on, so likely the earlier borrowing.[1]

    Appears with this reading in the Kagerō Nikki, dating to roughly 974 CE.[2] Superseded in modern Japanese by tenka above.

    Pronunciation[edit]

    Noun[edit]

    天下 (hiragana てんげ, rōmaji tenge)

    1. (archaic, possibly obsolete) the world, the earth

    Related terms[edit]

    See also[edit]

    References[edit]

    1. 1.0 1.1 1988, 国語大辞典(新装版) (Kokugo Dai Jiten, Revised Edition) (in Japanese), Tōkyō: Shogakukan
    2. 2.0 2.1 2006, 大辞林 (Daijirin), Third Edition (in Japanese), Tōkyō: Sanseidō, →ISBN
    3. ^ 1998, NHK日本語発音アクセント辞典 (NHK Japanese Pronunciation Accent Dictionary) (in Japanese), Tōkyō: NHK, →ISBN
    4. ^ 1997, 新明解国語辞典 (Shin Meikai Kokugo Jiten), Fifth Edition (in Japanese), Tōkyō: Sanseidō, →ISBN

    Korean[edit]

    Hanja in this term

    Noun[edit]

    天下 (cheonha) (hangeul 천하)

    1. Hanja form? of 천하 (world, earth; China).

    Vietnamese[edit]

    Hán tự in this word

    Noun[edit]

    天下

    1. Hán tự form of thiên hạ (world).