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U+524D, 前
CJK UNIFIED IDEOGRAPH-524D

[U+524C]
CJK Unified Ideographs
[U+524E]

Translingual[edit]

Stroke order
9 strokes

Han character[edit]

(radical 18, +7, 9 strokes, cangjie input 廿月中弓 (TBLN), four-corner 80221, composition)

Derived characters[edit]

References[edit]

  • KangXi: page 140, character 15
  • Dai Kanwa Jiten: character 2011
  • Dae Jaweon: page 318, character 6
  • Hanyu Da Zidian (first edition): volume 1, page 248, character 4
  • Unihan data for U+524D

Chinese[edit]

Glyph origin[edit]

Historical forms of the character
Western Zhou Warring States Shuowen Jiezi (compiled in Han) Liushutong (compiled in Ming)
Bronze inscriptions Chu Slip and silk script Qin slip script Small seal script Transcribed ancient scripts
前-bronze.svg 前-silk.svg 前-slip.svg 前-seal.svg 前-bigseal.svg

Originally , an ideogrammic compound (會意): (foot) + (boat) – a foot on a boat moving forward. Alternatively, represents a shoe (cf. Shuowen : 舟象履形) — a foot with a shoe on to walk forward. In the current form, is simplified to and to . The current form with an additional (“knife”) is the original form of (OC *ʔslenʔ, “to cut”).

Etymology 1[edit]

simp. and trad.
alternative forms

𠝣
𣥑
𣦃

Unknown (Schuessler, 2007).

Pronunciation[edit]


Note:
  • sèng - vernacular;
  • cièng - literary.
  • Min Nan
  • Note:
    • chêng/chûiⁿ/châiⁿ - vernacular;
    • chiân - literary;
    • chûn - vernacular (limited, e.g. 前年);
    • chân - vernacular (limited).
    Note:
    • zoin5 - Chaozhou;
    • zain5 - Jieyang, Chaoyang, Puning, Huilai.
  • Wu
  • Xiang

    • Dialectal data
    Variety Location
    Mandarin Beijing /t͡ɕʰian³⁵/
    Harbin /t͡ɕʰian²⁴/ ~天
    /t͡ɕʰian²¹³/ 跟~兒
    Tianjin /t͡ɕʰian⁴⁵/
    Jinan /t͡ɕʰiã⁴²/
    Qingdao /t͡sʰiã⁴²/
    Zhengzhou /t͡sʰian⁴²/
    Xi'an /t͡ɕʰiã²⁴/
    Xining /t͡ɕʰiã²⁴/
    Yinchuan /t͡ɕʰian⁵³/
    Lanzhou /t͡ɕʰiɛ̃n⁵³/
    Ürümqi /t͡ɕʰian⁵¹/
    Wuhan /t͡ɕʰiɛn²¹³/
    Chengdu /t͡ɕʰian³¹/
    Guiyang /t͡ɕʰian²¹/
    Kunming /t͡ɕʰiɛ̃³¹/
    Nanjing /t͡sʰien²⁴/
    Hefei /t͡ɕʰiĩ⁵⁵/
    Jin Taiyuan /t͡ɕʰie¹¹/
    Pingyao /t͡ɕʰie̞¹³/
    /t͡ɕie̞¹³/
    Hohhot /t͡ɕʰie³¹/
    Wu Shanghai /ʑi²³/
    Suzhou /ziɪ¹³/
    Hangzhou /d͡ʑd͡ʑiẽ̞²¹³/
    Wenzhou /ji³¹/
    Hui Shexian /t͡sʰe⁴⁴/
    Tunxi /t͡sʰiɛ⁴⁴/
    Xiang Changsha /t͡siẽ¹³/
    Xiangtan /d͡ziẽ¹²/
    Gan Nanchang /t͡ɕʰiɛn²⁴/
    Hakka Meixian /t͡sʰien¹¹/
    Taoyuan /t͡sʰien¹¹/
    Cantonese Guangzhou /t͡sʰin²¹/
    Nanning /t͡sʰin²¹/
    Hong Kong /t͡sʰin²¹/
    Min Xiamen (Min Nan) /t͡sian³⁵/
    /t͡siŋ³⁵/
    Fuzhou (Min Dong) /t͡sieŋ⁵³/
    Jian'ou (Min Bei) /t͡sʰiŋ³³/
    Shantou (Min Nan) /t͡sõi⁵⁵/
    Haikou (Min Nan) /sin³¹/
    /tai³¹/
    /tun³¹/

    Rime
    Character
    Reading # 1/1
    Initial () (15)
    Final () (85)
    Tone (調) Level (Ø)
    Openness (開合) Open
    Division () IV
    Fanqie
    Reconstructions
    Zhengzhang
    Shangfang
    /d͡zen/
    Pan
    Wuyun
    /d͡zen/
    Shao
    Rongfen
    /d͡zɛn/
    Edwin
    Pulleyblank
    /d͡zɛn/
    Li
    Rong
    /d͡zen/
    Wang
    Li
    /d͡zien/
    Bernard
    Karlgren
    /d͡zʱien/
    Expected
    Mandarin
    Reflex
    qián
    BaxterSagart system 1.1 (2014)
    Character
    Reading # 1/1
    Modern
    Beijing
    (Pinyin)
    qián
    Middle
    Chinese
    ‹ dzen ›
    Old
    Chinese
    /*[dz]ˁen/ (~ *m-dzˁen)
    English before

    Notes for Old Chinese notations in the Baxter–Sagart system:

    * Parentheses "()" indicate uncertain presence;
    * Square brackets "[]" indicate uncertain identity, e.g. *[t] as coda may in fact be *-t or *-p;
    * Angle brackets "<>" indicate infix;
    * Hyphen "-" indicates morpheme boundary;

    * Period "." indicates syllable boundary.
    Zhengzhang system (2003)
    Character
    Reading # 1/1
    No. 10256
    Phonetic
    component
    Rime
    group
    Rime
    subdivision
    2
    Corresponding
    MC rime
    Old
    Chinese
    /*zleːn/

    Definitions[edit]

    Quote-alpha.png This entry needs quotations to illustrate usage. If you come across any interesting, durably archived quotes then please add them!
    1. front; forepart
        ―  qiánfāng  ―  front
      /   ―  qiánmén  ―  front door
      Antonym: (hòu)
    2. ago
        ―  qián  ―  previously; ago
        ―  wǔ tiān qián  ―  five days ago
    3. past; previous; former
        ―  qiánrèn  ―  predecessor
      功盡棄 / 功尽弃  ―  qiángōngjìnqì  ―  all the previous effort is wasted
    4. top
        ―  qián sān míng  ―  top three
    5. future; time ahead
        ―  qiánchéng  ―  future; prospects
    6. to move forward
      勇往直  ―  yǒngwǎngzhíqián  ―  to advance bravely
    7. A surname​.

    Compounds[edit]

    Descendants[edit]

    Sino-Xenic ():
    • Japanese: (ぜん) (zen)
    • Korean: (, jeon)
    • Vietnamese: tiền ()

    Etymology 2[edit]

    For pronunciation and definitions of – see (“to cut”).
    (This character, , is an ancient form of .)

    References[edit]


    Japanese[edit]

    Kanji[edit]

    (grade 2 “Kyōiku” kanji)

    1. in front
    2. before

    Readings[edit]

    Compounds[edit]

    Etymology 1[edit]

    Kanji in this term
    まえ
    Grade: 2
    kun’yomi

    From Old Japanese as a compound of (ma, eye) +‎ (pe, direction, -wards).[1][2]

    /mape//maɸe//mawe//maje//mae/

    Pronunciation[edit]

    Noun[edit]

    (まえ) (mae (historical kana まへ)

    1. the front
      (まえ)(すす)
      mae e susumu
      to advance forwards
      (literally, “to advance towards the front”)
      Antonym: 後ろ (ushiro)
    2. the past
      (まえ)から()になってたんだけど []
      mae kara ki ni natteta n da kedo []
      I've been thinking about it for a while, but []
      ずっと(まえ)からそう(おも)ってた
      zutto mae kara sō omotteta
      I've thought that for ages
      (literally, “I've been thinking that way since forever ago”)
      (まえ)にも()よう
      mae ni mo itta yō ni
      as I've said before
      (literally, “just as I have said in the past”)
      Antonym: (ato)
    3. previous
      (まえ)()()
      mae no kiji
      previous entries
      Antonym: (tsugi)

    Suffix[edit]

    (まえ) (-mae

    1. a portion, an amount
      (ろく)(にん)(まえ)()(ぜん)
      rokunin-mae no go-zen
      a banquet for six people

    Etymology 2[edit]

    Kanji in this term
    さき
    Grade: 2
    kun’yomi

    See .

    Noun[edit]

    (さき) (saki

    1. Alternative spelling of


    Etymology 3[edit]

    Kanji in this term
    ぜん
    Grade: 2
    on’yomi

    From Middle Chinese (dzen). Compare modern Mandarin (qián).

    Pronunciation[edit]

    Counter[edit]

    (ぜん) (-zen

    1. counter for irregularly shaped objects such as desks, armrests, and serving trays
    2. counter for kami and shrines

    Prefix[edit]

    (ぜん) (zen-

    1. the last, the previous
    2. pre- (of an era)

    Etymology 4[edit]

    Kanji in this term

    Grade: 2
    kan’yōon

    Contraction of ()() (goze), itself a contraction of ()(ぜん) (go-zen), an honorific form of address.[1][2]

    Pronunciation[edit]

    Suffix[edit]

    () (-ze

    1. (rare) an honorific suffix added to a noun denoting a person
      (あま)()
      ama-ze
      (honorable) nun

    References[edit]

    1. 1.0 1.1 1988, 国語大辞典(新装版) (Kokugo Dai Jiten, Revised Edition) (in Japanese), Tōkyō: Shogakukan
    2. 2.0 2.1 2.2 2.3 2006, 大辞林 (Daijirin), Third Edition (in Japanese), Tōkyō: Sanseidō, →ISBN
    3. 3.0 3.1 1998, NHK日本語発音アクセント辞典 (NHK Japanese Pronunciation Accent Dictionary) (in Japanese), Tōkyō: NHK, →ISBN
    4. ^ 1997, 新明解国語辞典 (Shin Meikai Kokugo Jiten), Fifth Edition (in Japanese), Tōkyō: Sanseidō, →ISBN

    Korean[edit]

    Etymology[edit]

    From Middle Chinese (MC d͡zen).

    Recorded as Middle Korean * (Yale: ccyen) in Dongguk Jeongun (東國正韻 / 동국정운), 1448.

    Recorded as Middle Korean  (Yale: cyen) in Hunmong Jahoe (訓蒙字會 / 훈몽자회), 1527.

    Hanja[edit]

    Korean Wikisource has texts containing the hanja:

    Wikisource

    (eumhun (ap jeon))

    1. Hanja form? of (front (direction)).
    2. Hanja form? of (before).

    Compounds[edit]

    References[edit]

    • 국제퇴계학회 대구경북지부 (國際退溪學會 大邱慶北支部) (2007). Digital Hanja Dictionary, 전자사전/電子字典. [2]

    Vietnamese[edit]

    Han character[edit]

    : Hán Nôm readings: tiền, tèn

    1. This term needs a translation to English. Please help out and add a translation, then remove the text {{rfdef}}.