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U+524D, 前
CJK UNIFIED IDEOGRAPH-524D

[U+524C]
CJK Unified Ideographs
[U+524E]

Translingual[edit]

Stroke order
9 strokes

Han character[edit]

(radical 18 +7, 9 strokes, cangjie input 廿月中弓 (TBLN), four-corner 80221, composition)

Derived characters[edit]

References[edit]

  • KangXi: page 140, character 15
  • Dai Kanwa Jiten: character 2011
  • Dae Jaweon: page 318, character 6
  • Hanyu Da Zidian: volume 1, page 248, character 4
  • Unihan data for U+524D

Chinese[edit]

simp. and trad.
alt. forms

Glyph origin[edit]

Historical forms of the character
Western Zhou Warring States Shuowen Jiezi (compiled in Han) Liushutong (compiled in Ming)
Bronze inscriptions Chu bamboo and silk script Qin bamboo and wooden slip script Small seal script Transcribed ancient scripts
前-bronze.svg 前-silk.svg 前-slip.svg 前-seal.svg 前-bigseal.svg
Characters in the same phonetic series () (Zhengzhang, 2003) 
Old Chinese
*ʔslel, *ʔslenʔ
*ʔslen, *ʔslens
*ʔslen, *ʔslens, *ʔsleːn, *zleːn
*ʔslen, *ʔslenʔ, *ʔslens
*ʔslenʔ
*ʔslenʔ
*ʔslenʔ
*ʔslenʔ
*ʔslens
*ʔslens
*zleːn
*zleːn
*zleːn

Originally , an ideogrammic compound (會意):  (foot) +  (boat) – a foot on a boat moving forward. Alternatively, represents a shoe (cf. Shuowen : 舟象履形) — a foot with a shoe on to walk forward. In the current form, is simplified to and to . The current form with an additional (“knife”) is the original form of (OC *ʔslenʔ, “to cut”).

Etymology 1[edit]

Pronunciation[edit]


Note:
  • sèng - vernacular;
  • cièng - literary.
Note:
  • chêng/chûiⁿ/châiⁿ - vernacular;
  • chiân - literary;
  • chûn - vernacular (limited, e.g. 前年);
  • chân - vernacular (limited).

  • Dialectal data
Variety Location
Mandarin Beijing /t͡ɕʰian³⁵/
Harbin /t͡ɕʰian²⁴/ ~天
/t͡ɕʰian²¹³/ 跟~兒
Tianjin /t͡ɕʰian⁴⁵/
Jinan /t͡ɕʰiã⁴²/
Qingdao /t͡sʰiã⁴²/
Zhengzhou /t͡sʰian⁴²/
Xi'an /t͡ɕʰiã²⁴/
Xining /t͡ɕʰiã²⁴/
Yinchuan /t͡ɕʰian⁵³/
Lanzhou /t͡ɕʰiɛ̃n⁵³/
Ürümqi /t͡ɕʰian⁵¹/
Wuhan /t͡ɕʰiɛn²¹³/
Chengdu /t͡ɕʰian³¹/
Guiyang /t͡ɕʰian²¹/
Kunming /t͡ɕʰiɛ̃³¹/
Nanjing /t͡sʰien²⁴/
Hefei /t͡ɕʰiĩ⁵⁵/
Jin Taiyuan /t͡ɕʰie¹¹/
Pingyao /t͡ɕʰie̞¹³/
/t͡ɕie̞¹³/
Hohhot /t͡ɕʰie³¹/
Wu Shanghai /ʑi²³/
Suzhou /ziɪ¹³/
Hangzhou /d͡ʑd͡ʑiẽ̞²¹³/
Wenzhou /ji³¹/
Hui Shexian /t͡sʰe⁴⁴/
Tunxi /t͡sʰiɛ⁴⁴/
Xiang Changsha /t͡siẽ¹³/
Xiangtan /d͡ziẽ¹²/
Gan Nanchang /t͡ɕʰiɛn²⁴/
Hakka Meixian /t͡sʰien¹¹/
Taoyuan /t͡sʰien¹¹/
Cantonese Guangzhou /t͡sʰin²¹/
Nanning /t͡sʰin²¹/
Hong Kong /t͡sʰin²¹/
Min Xiamen (Min Nan) /t͡sian³⁵/
/t͡siŋ³⁵/
Fuzhou (Min Dong) /t͡sieŋ⁵³/
Jian'ou (Min Bei) /t͡sʰiŋ³³/
Shantou (Min Nan) /t͡sõi⁵⁵/
Haikou (Min Nan) /sin³¹/
/tai³¹/
/tun³¹/

Rime
Character
Reading # 1/1
Initial () (15)
Final () (85)
Tone (調) Level (Ø)
Openness (開合) Open
Division () IV
Fanqie
Reconstructions
Zhengzhang
Shangfang
/d͡zen/
Pan
Wuyun
/d͡zen/
Shao
Rongfen
/d͡zɛn/
Edwin
Pulleyblank
/d͡zɛn/
Li
Rong
/d͡zen/
Wang
Li
/d͡zien/
Bernard
Karlgren
/d͡zʱien/
Expected
Mandarin
Reflex
qián
Baxter-Sagart system 1.1 (2014)
Character
Reading # 1/1
Modern
Beijing
(Pinyin)
qián
Middle
Chinese
‹ dzen ›
Old
Chinese
/*[dz]ˤen/ (~ *m-dzˤen)
English before

Notes for Old Chinese notations in the Baxter-Sagart system:

* Parentheses "()" indicate uncertain presence;
* Square brackets "[]" indicate uncertain identity, e.g. *[t] as coda may in fact be *-t or *-p;
* Angle brackets "<>" indicate infix;
* Hyphen "-" indicates morpheme boundary;

* Period "." indicates syllable boundary.
Zhengzhang system (2003)
Character
Reading # 1/1
No. 10256
Phonetic
component
Rime
group
Rime
subdivision
2
Corresponding
MC rime
Old
Chinese
/*zleːn/

Definitions[edit]

  1. front; forepart
    Antonyms: (hòu)
  2. past
  3. former; previous; last
  4. preceding
  5. future; time ahead
  6. first; top
  7. battlefront
  8. to move forward
  9. A surname​.

Compounds[edit]

Etymology 2[edit]

For pronunciation and definitions of – see (“to cut”).
(This character, , is an ancient form of .)

Japanese[edit]

Kanji[edit]

(grade 2 “Kyōiku” kanji)

  1. in front
  2. before

Readings[edit]

Etymology 1[edit]

Kanji in this term
まえ
Grade: 2
kun’yomi

From Old Japanese as a compound of (ma, eye) +‎ (he, direction, -wards).[1][2]

/mape/ > /maɸe/ > /mawe/ > /mae/

Pronunciation[edit]

Noun[edit]

(hiragana まえ, rōmaji mae, historical hiragana まへ)

  1. the front
  2. the past

Suffix[edit]

(hiragana まえ, rōmaji -mae)

  1. a portion, an amount
    六人 (ろくにん) (まえ) () (ぜん)
    rokunin-mae no gozen
    a banquet for six people

Etymology 2[edit]

Kanji in this term
さき
Grade: 2
kun’yomi

From Old Japanese. Cognate with (saki, a (geographical) point, where the land sticks out into the water).[1]

Pronunciation[edit]

Noun[edit]

(hiragana さき, rōmaji saki)

  1. Alternative spelling of the tip of something; ahead, in front; before, earlier, the past; afterwards, the future; the destination of a motion or action
Usage notes[edit]

This sense is much more commonly spelled . See that entry for more details.

Etymology 3[edit]

From Middle Chinese (dzen). Compare modern Mandarin (qián).

Pronunciation[edit]

Counter[edit]

(hiragana ぜん, rōmaji -zen)

  1. counter for irregularly shaped objects such as desks, armrests, and serving trays
  2. counter for kami and shrines

Prefix[edit]

(hiragana ぜん, rōmaji zen-)

  1. the last, the previous
  2. pre- (of an era)

Etymology 4[edit]

Kanji in this term

Grade: 2
kan’yōon

Contraction of  () () (goze), itself a contraction of  () (ぜん) (gozen), an honorific form of address.[1][2]

Pronunciation[edit]

Suffix[edit]

(hiragana , rōmaji -ze)

  1. (rare) an honorific suffix added to a noun denoting a person
     (あま) ()
    ama-ze
    (honorable) nun

References[edit]

  1. 1.0 1.1 1.2 1988, 国語大辞典(新装版) (Kokugo Dai Jiten, Revised Edition) (in Japanese), Tōkyō: Shogakukan
  2. 2.0 2.1 2.2 2.3 2.4 2006, 大辞林 (Daijirin), Third Edition (in Japanese), Tōkyō: Sanseidō, ISBN 4-385-13905-9
  3. 3.0 3.1 3.2 1998, NHK日本語発音アクセント辞典 (NHK Japanese Pronunciation Accent Dictionary) (in Japanese), Tōkyō: NHK, ISBN 978-4-14-011112-3
  4. ^ 1997, 新明解国語辞典 (Shin Meikai Kokugo Jiten), Fifth Edition (in Japanese), Tōkyō: Sanseidō, ISBN 4-385-13143-0

Korean[edit]

Hanja[edit]

(jeon) (hangeul , revised jeon, McCune-Reischauer chŏn)

  1. front (direction)
  2. before

Vietnamese[edit]

Han character[edit]

(tiền, tèn)

  1. This term needs a translation to English. Please help out and add a translation, then remove the text {{rfdef}}.