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Character
Unicode name CJK UNIFIED IDEOGRAPH-524D
Code point U+524D
Entity number 前
Unicode block CJK Unified Ideographs
[U+524C] [U+524E]

Translingual[edit]

Stroke order
前-bw.png

Han character[edit]

(radical 18 +7, 9 strokes, cangjie input 廿月中弓 (TBLN), four-corner 80221, composition)

Derived characters[edit]

References[edit]

  • KangXi: page 140, character 15
  • Dai Kanwa Jiten: character 2011
  • Dae Jaweon: page 318, character 6
  • Hanyu Da Zidian: volume 1, page 248, character 4
  • Unihan data for U+524D

Chinese[edit]

simp. and trad.
alt. forms

Glyph origin[edit]

Historical forms of the character
Oracle bone script Bronze inscriptions Large seal script Small seal script
前-oracle.svg 前-bronze.svg 前-bigseal.svg 前-seal.svg

Originally , an ideogrammic compound (會意):  ‎(foot) +  ‎(boat) – a foot on a boat moving forward. Alternatively, represents a shoe (cf. Shuowen : 舟象履形) — a foot with a shoe on to walk forward. In the current form, is simplified to and to . The current form with an additional (“knife”) is the original form of (OC *ʔslenʔ, “to cut”).

Etymology 1[edit]

Pronunciation[edit]



  • Dialectal data
Variety Location
Mandarin Beijing /t͡ɕʰian³⁵/
Harbin /t͡ɕʰian²⁴/ ~天
/t͡ɕʰian²¹³/ 跟~兒
Tianjin /t͡ɕʰian⁴⁵/
Jinan /t͡ɕʰiã⁴²/
Qingdao /t͡sʰiã⁴²/
Zhengzhou /t͡sʰian⁴²/
Xi'an /t͡ɕʰiã²⁴/
Xining /t͡ɕʰiã²⁴/
Yinchuan /t͡ɕʰian⁵³/
Lanzhou /t͡ɕʰiɛ̃n⁵³/
Ürümqi /t͡ɕʰian⁵¹/
Wuhan /t͡ɕʰiɛn²¹³/
Chengdu /t͡ɕʰian³¹/
Guiyang /t͡ɕʰian²¹/
Kunming /t͡ɕʰiɛ̃³¹/
Nanjing /t͡sʰien²⁴/
Hefei /t͡ɕʰiĩ⁵⁵/
Jin Taiyuan /t͡ɕʰie¹¹/
Pingyao /t͡ɕʰie̞¹³/
/t͡ɕie̞¹³/
Hohhot /t͡ɕʰie³¹/
Wu Shanghai /ʑi²³/
Suzhou /ziɪ¹³/
Hangzhou /d͡ʑd͡ʑiẽ̞²¹³/
Wenzhou /ji³¹/
Hui Shexian /t͡sʰe⁴⁴/
Tunxi /t͡sʰiɛ⁴⁴/
Xiang Changsha /t͡siẽ¹³/
Xiangtan /d͡ziẽ¹²/
Gan Nanchang /t͡ɕʰiɛn²⁴/
Hakka Meixian /t͡sʰien¹¹/
Taoyuan /t͡sʰien¹¹/
Cantonese Guangzhou /t͡sʰin²¹/
Nanning /t͡sʰin²¹/
Hong Kong /t͡sʰin²¹/
Min Xiamen (Min Nan) /t͡sian³⁵/
/t͡siŋ³⁵/
Fuzhou (Min Dong) /t͡sieŋ⁵³/
Jian'ou (Min Bei) /t͡sʰiŋ³³/
Shantou (Min Nan) /t͡sõi⁵⁵/
Haikou (Min Nan) /sin³¹/
/tai³¹/
/tun³¹/

Rime
Character
Reading # 1/1
Initial () (15)
Final () (85)
Tone (調) Level (Ø)
Openness (開合) Open
Division () IV
Fanqie
Reconstructions
Zhengzhang
Shangfang
/d͡zen/
Pan
Wuyun
/d͡zen/
Shao
Rongfen
/d͡zɛn/
Edwin
Pulleyblank
/d͡zɛn/
Li
Rong
/d͡zen/
Wang
Li
/d͡zien/
Bernard
Karlgren
/d͡zʱien/
Expected
Mandarin
Reflex
qián
Baxter-Sagart system 1.1 (2014)
Character
Reading # 1/1
Modern
Beijing
(Pinyin)
qián
Middle
Chinese
‹ dzen ›
Old
Chinese
/*[dz]ˤen/ (~ *m-dzˤen)
English before

Notes for Old Chinese notations in the Baxter-Sagart system:

* Parentheses "()" indicate uncertain presence;
* Square brackets "[]" indicate uncertain identity, e.g. *[t] as coda may in fact be *-t or *-p;
* Angle brackets "<>" indicate infix;
* Hyphen "-" indicates morpheme boundary;

* Period "." indicates syllable boundary.
Zhengzhang system (2003)
Character
Reading # 1/1
No. 10256
Phonetic
component
Rime
group
Rime
subdivision
2
Corresponding
MC rime
Old
Chinese
/*zleːn/

Definitions[edit]

  1. front
    Antonyms: (hòu)
  2. past
  3. former
  4. preceding
  5. forward
  6. future
  7. first
  8. battlefront

Compounds[edit]

Etymology 2[edit]

For pronunciation and definitions of – see .
(This character, , is an ancient form of .)

Japanese[edit]

Kanji[edit]

(grade 2 “Kyōiku” kanji)

  1. in front
  2. before

Readings[edit]

Compounds[edit]

Etymology 1[edit]

Kanji in this term
まえ
Grade: 2
kun'yomi

From Old Japanese as a compound of ‎(ma, eye) +‎ ‎(he, direction, -wards).[1][2]

/mape/ > /maɸe/ > /mawe/ > /mae/

Pronunciation[edit]

Noun[edit]

‎(hiragana まえ, romaji mae, historical hiragana まへ)

  1. the front
  2. the past

Suffix[edit]

‎(hiragana まえ, romaji -mae)

  1. a portion, an amount
    六人 (ろくにん) (まえ)御膳 (ごぜん)
    rokunin-mae no gozen
    a banquet for six people

Etymology 2[edit]

Kanji in this term
さき
Grade: 2
kun'yomi

From Old Japanese. Cognate with ‎(saki, a (geographical) point, where the land sticks out into the water).[1]

Pronunciation[edit]

Noun[edit]

‎(hiragana さき, romaji saki)

  1. Alternative spelling of the tip of something; ahead, in front; before, earlier, the past; afterwards, the future; the destination of a motion or action
Usage notes[edit]

This sense is much more commonly spelled . See that entry for more details.

Etymology 3[edit]

From Middle Chinese ‎(dzen). Compare modern Mandarin ‎(qián).

Pronunciation[edit]

Counter[edit]

‎(hiragana ぜん, romaji -zen)

  1. counter for irregularly shaped objects such as desks, armrests, and serving trays
  2. counter for kami and shrines

Prefix[edit]

‎(hiragana ぜん, romaji zen-)

  1. the last, the previous
  2. pre- (of an era)

Etymology 4[edit]

Kanji in this term

Grade: 2
kan'yōon

Contraction of 御前 (ごぜ) ‎(goze), itself a contraction of 御前 (ごぜん) ‎(gozen), an honorific form of address.[1][2]

Pronunciation[edit]

Suffix[edit]

‎(hiragana , romaji -ze)

  1. (rare) an honorific suffix added to a noun denoting a person
     (あま) ()
    ama-ze
    (honorable) nun

References[edit]

  1. 1.0 1.1 1.2 1988, 国語大辞典(新装版) (Kokugo Dai Jiten, Revised Edition) (in Japanese), Tōkyō: Shogakukan
  2. 2.0 2.1 2.2 2.3 2.4 2006, 大辞林 (Daijirin), Third Edition (in Japanese), Tōkyō: Sanseidō, ISBN 4-385-13905-9
  3. 3.0 3.1 3.2 1998, NHK日本語発音アクセント辞典 (NHK Japanese Pronunciation Accent Dictionary) (in Japanese), Tōkyō: NHK, ISBN 978-4-14-011112-3
  4. ^ 1997, 新明解国語辞典 (Shin Meikai Kokugo Jiten), Fifth Edition (in Japanese), Tōkyō: Sanseidō, ISBN 4-385-13143-0

Korean[edit]

Hanja[edit]

‎(jeon) (hangeul , revised jeon, McCune-Reischauer chŏn)

  1. front (direction)
  2. before

Vietnamese[edit]

Han character[edit]

(tiền, tèn)

  1. This entry needs a definition. Please add one, then remove {{defn}}.