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See also: and
U+6708, 月
CJK UNIFIED IDEOGRAPH-6708

[U+6707]
CJK Unified Ideographs
[U+6709]
Emoji u1f237.svg
🈷 U+1F237, 🈷
SQUARED CJK UNIFIED IDEOGRAPH-6708
🈶
[U+1F236]
Enclosed Ideographic Supplement 🈸
[U+1F238]

Translingual[edit]

Stroke order
月-order.gif

Han character[edit]

(radical 74, +0, 4 strokes, cangjie input 月 (B), four-corner 77220, composition𠄠)

  1. Kangxi radical #74, .

Usage notes[edit]

Do not confuse with , a form of (flesh, meat) when used as the left-hand radical of a character. is used for parts of the body such as (back) or (liver). These may be written identically as , but in careful use they are distinguished, with the inside of being written with unattached diagonal strokes. This is particularly an issue in looking up characters by radical; compare the 月 index and 肉 index.

Derived characters[edit]

References[edit]

  • KangXi: page 504, character 19
  • Dai Kanwa Jiten: character 14330
  • Dae Jaweon: page 879, character 20
  • Hanyu Da Zidian: volume 3, page 2041, character 1
  • Unihan data for U+6708

Chinese[edit]

simp. and trad.

Glyph origin[edit]

Historical forms of the character
Shang Western Zhou Warring States Shuowen Jiezi (compiled in Han) Liushutong (compiled in Ming)
Oracle bone script Bronze inscriptions Chu Slip and silk script Small seal script Transcribed ancient scripts
月-oracle.svg 月-bronze.svg 月-silk.svg 月-seal.svg 月-bigseal.svg
Characters in the same phonetic series () (Zhengzhang, 2003) 
Old Chinese
*ŋroːd, *ŋod, *ŋuːd
*ŋoːd, *ŋod
*ŋod
*ŋod
*ŋod
*ŋod
*ŋod
*ɢod

Pictogram (象形) – pictographic representation of a crescent moon.

Etymology 1[edit]

Unknown. Unger (1992) proposes as cognates Tibetan ངོ (ngo, waxing and waning moon; half moon) (e.g. མར་ངོ (mar ngo, waning moon) and ཡར་ངོ (yar ngo, waxing moon)). Also compare Proto-Sino-Tibetan *s-ŋow (white; light colour).

Matisoff sets up Proto-Sino-Tibetan *s-ŋʷ(j)a-t (moon; star) for this, whence also Magar [script needed] (gya hot, moon).

Thai งวด (ngûuat, occasion; time; period) may be a Chinese loan (Manomaivibool, 1975).

Pronunciation[edit]


Note:
  • ngut5 - month;
  • ngut5-4 - moon.
  • Gan
  • Hakka
  • Jin
  • Min Bei
  • Min Dong
  • Min Nan
  • Note:
    • ge̍h/ge̍rh/goe̍h/gōe/gēr - vernacular;
    • goa̍t - literary.
  • Wu
  • Xiang

    • Dialectal data
    Variety Location
    Mandarin Beijing /yɛ⁵¹/
    Harbin /yɛ⁵³/
    Tianjin /ye⁵³/
    Jinan /yə²¹/
    Qingdao /yə⁴²/
    Zhengzhou /yɛ²⁴/
    Xi'an /yɛ²¹/
    Xining /yu⁴⁴/
    Yinchuan /ye¹³/
    Lanzhou /yə¹³/
    Ürümqi /yɤ²¹³/
    Wuhan /ye²¹³/
    Chengdu /ye³¹/
    Guiyang /ie²¹/
    Kunming /iɛ³¹/
    Nanjing /yeʔ⁵/
    Hefei /yɐʔ⁵/
    Jin Taiyuan /yəʔ²/
    Pingyao /yʌʔ⁵³/
    Hohhot /yaʔ⁴³/
    Wu Shanghai /ɦioʔ¹/
    /ȵioʔ¹/
    /ɦyɪʔ¹/
    /ȵyɪʔ¹/
    Suzhou /ŋəʔ³/
    Hangzhou /ɦyəʔ²/
    Wenzhou /ȵy²¹³/
    Hui Shexian /ue²²/
    Tunxi /ȵyɛ¹¹/
    Xiang Changsha /ye²⁴/
    Xiangtan /yæ²⁴/
    Gan Nanchang /ȵyɵʔ²/ ~光
    /ȵyɵʔ⁵/ 一個~
    Hakka Meixian /ŋiat̚⁵/
    Taoyuan /ŋiet̚⁵⁵/
    Cantonese Guangzhou /jyt̚²/
    Nanning /yt̚²²/
    Hong Kong /jyt̚²/
    Min Xiamen (Min Nan) /guat̚⁵/
    /geʔ⁵/
    Fuzhou (Min Dong) /ŋuoʔ⁵/
    Jian'ou (Min Bei) /ŋyɛ⁴²/
    Shantou (Min Nan) /gueʔ⁵/
    Haikou (Min Nan) /zuak̚⁵/
    /vue³³/
    /kɔu²¹³/

    Rime
    Character
    Reading # 1/1
    Initial () (31)
    Final () (68)
    Tone (調) Checked (Ø)
    Openness (開合) Closed
    Division () III
    Fanqie
    Reconstructions
    Zhengzhang
    Shangfang
    /ŋʉɐt̚/
    Pan
    Wuyun
    /ŋʷiɐt̚/
    Shao
    Rongfen
    /ŋiuɐt̚/
    Edwin
    Pulleyblank
    /ŋuat̚/
    Li
    Rong
    /ŋiuɐt̚/
    Wang
    Li
    /ŋĭwɐt̚/
    Bernard
    Karlgren
    /ŋi̯wɐt̚/
    Expected
    Mandarin
    Reflex
    yuè
    BaxterSagart system 1.1 (2014)
    Character
    Reading # 1/1
    Modern
    Beijing
    (Pinyin)
    yuè
    Middle
    Chinese
    ‹ ngjwot ›
    Old
    Chinese
    /*[ŋ]ʷat/
    English moon, month

    Notes for Old Chinese notations in the Baxter–Sagart system:

    * Parentheses "()" indicate uncertain presence;
    * Square brackets "[]" indicate uncertain identity, e.g. *[t] as coda may in fact be *-t or *-p;
    * Angle brackets "<>" indicate infix;
    * Hyphen "-" indicates morpheme boundary;

    * Period "." indicates syllable boundary.
    Zhengzhang system (2003)
    Character
    Reading # 1/1
    No. 16319
    Phonetic
    component
    Rime
    group
    Rime
    subdivision
    3
    Corresponding
    MC rime
    Old
    Chinese
    /*ŋod/

    Definitions[edit]

    1. (literary or dialectal) moon (Classifier: m)
    2. moon-shaped objects
    3. moonlight
    4. month (Classifier: )
    5. monthly
    6. Classifier for months.
    7. A surname​.

    Synonyms[edit]

    • (moon):
    Dialectal synonyms of 月亮 (“moon”) [map]
    Variety Location Words
    Classical Chinese
    Formal (Written Standard Chinese) 月亮月球 astronomy
    Mandarin Beijing 月亮
    Taiwan 月亮
    Harbin 月亮
    Shenyang 月亮
    Hailar 月亮
    Ulan Hot 月亮
    Tongliao 月亮
    Chifeng 月亮
    Bayanhot 月亮
    Jinan 月亮
    Muping 月亮兒
    Luoyang 月亮月奶奶
    Jiedian 月爺
    Ronghe 月明
    Xi'an 月亮月亮爺
    Qingdao 月亮
    Zhengzhou 月明
    Xining 月亮
    Xuzhou 月老娘
    Yinchuan 月亮
    Lanzhou 月亮
    Ürümqi 月亮
    Wuhan 月亮
    Chengdu 月亮
    Guiyang 月亮
    Guilin 月亮
    Liuzhou 月亮
    Kunming 月亮
    Yangzhou 涼月子
    Nanjing 月亮
    Hefei 月亮
    Nantong 涼月兒
    Malaysia 月亮
    Singapore 月亮
    Sokuluk (Gansu Dungan) 月亮 full月兒 crescent
    Cantonese Guangzhou 月光月亮
    Hong Kong 月亮月光
    Shunde 月光
    Foshan 月光
    Zhongshan 月光
    Dongguan 月光
    Hong Kong (Weitou)
    Doumen (Shangheng Tanka) 月光
    Doumen 月公
    Taishan 月光
    Kaiping 婆梳
    Shaoguan 月光
    Yunfu 月光
    Yangjiang 月亮
    Xinyi 月光月靚
    Lianjiang 月光
    Nanning 月光
    Wuzhou 月光
    Yulin 月亮
    Hepu 月亮
    Danzhou 月亮
    Kuala Lumpur 月光
    Ho Chi Minh City 月光
    Gan Nanchang 月光
    Lichuan
    Pingxiang 月光月皛 suburban
    Hakka Meixian 月光
    Xingning 月光
    Huidong 月光
    Qujiang 月光
    Xiaosanjiang 月光
    Luchuan 月光
    Changting 月光
    Pingyu 月光
    Wuping 月光
    Liancheng 月光
    Ninghua 月光
    Yudu 月亮
    Ruijin 月光
    Shicheng 月光
    Shangyou 月涼
    Miaoli (N. Sixian) 月光月華
    Liudui (S. Sixian) 月光月華
    Hsinchu (Hailu) 月光月華
    Dongshi (Dabu) 月光月華
    Hsinchu (Raoping) 月光月華
    Yunlin (Zhao'an) 月光月娘
    Hong Kong 月光
    Sabah 月光
    Senai 月光
    Singkawang 月光
    Huizhou Jixi 月亮
    Shexian 月亮
    Tunxi 月光
    Xiuning 月光月光爺爺 childish
    Yixian 月光
    Qimen 月亮
    Wuyuan 月光
    Fuliang 月光
    Dexing 月光
    Xianyu (formerly Zhanda) 月亮
    Jin Taiyuan 月明月明爺月亮月亮爺
    Pingyao 月明爺後天爺
    Xinzhou 月明月爺爺
    Baochang 月亮
    Jining 月亮
    Hohhot 月亮
    Baotou 月亮
    Dongsheng 月兒
    Linhe 月兒
    Haibowan 月兒
    Min Bei Jian'ou 月二奶
    Dikou 月南姊
    Songxi 月奶
    Zhenghe 月奶
    Zhenqian 月奶
    Jianyang
    Wuyishan 月光
    Shibei 月奶
    Min Dong Fuzhou
    Changle
    Fuqing 月光
    Yongtai
    Gutian
    Fu'an
    Ningde
    Shouning
    Zhouning
    Fuding
    Matsu
    Min Nan Xiamen 月娘
    Quanzhou 月娘
    Zhangzhou 月娘月公公
    Taipei 月娘
    Kaohsiung 月娘
    Tainan 月娘
    Taichung 月娘
    Wuqi 月娘
    Hsinchu 月娘
    Taitung 月娘
    Lukang 月娘
    Sanxia 月娘
    Yilan 月亮月娘
    Kinmen 月娘
    Magong 月娘
    Penang 月娘
    Singapore 月娘
    Philippines (Manila) 月娘
    Pingnan 月光
    Chaozhou 月娘
    Shantou 月娘
    Haifeng 月姑
    Johor Bahru 月娘
    Wenchang 月娘
    Haikou 月娘
    Leizhou 月嬭月娘
    Puxian Min Putian 月娘
    Xianyou 月公
    Pinghua Nanning 月亮
    Guilin 月光
    Shehua Fu'an
    Fuding
    Luoyuan
    Sanming
    Shunchang
    Hua'an
    Guixi 月光
    Cangnan 月光
    Jingning
    Lishui 月光
    Longyou
    Chaozhou 月姊
    Fengshun 月皓
    Wu Shanghai 月亮
    Suzhou 月亮亮月 suburbs
    Wuxi 月亮亮月
    Hangzhou 月亮
    Wenzhou 月光月光佛
    Chongming 月亮
    Danyang 亮月月亮
    Jinhua 月亮月亮婆婆 childish月亮公公 childish
    Ningbo 月亮
    Xiang Changsha 月亮
    Shuangfeng 月光
    Xiangtan 月光
    Loudi 月光
    Quanzhou 月亮

    Compounds[edit]

    See also[edit]

    Etymology 2[edit]

    For pronunciation and definitions of – see (“meat; flesh; body; etc.”).
    (This character, , is a variant form of .)

    Japanese[edit]

    Kanji[edit]

    (grade 1 “Kyōiku” kanji)

    1. moon
    2. month
    3. menstruation

    Readings[edit]

    Compounds[edit]

    Etymology 1[edit]

    Kanji in this term
    つき
    Grade: 1
    kun’yomi

    ⟨tuki2 → */tukʷɨ/ → */t͡sukʷi//t͡suki/

    From Old Japanese (compare phonetic man'yōgana forms 都奇 (MC tuo kˠiᴇ) and 追奇 (MC ʈˠiuɪ kˠiᴇ)), from Proto-Japonic *tukui. Cognate with Proto-Ryukyuan *tuki, whence Southern Amami-Oshima てぃき (tiki), Kunigami しちー (shichi), Okinawan ちち (chichi), Miyako つきぃ (tsɿkɿ), Yaeyama つぃくぃ (tsiki) and Yonaguni てぃー ().[1]

    Likely a shift from tsuku (see below), derived through a fusion with ancient Japanese emphatic nominal particle (i). Compare the development of (kami, Shinto deity) from older combining form kamu.

    Pronunciation[edit]

    Noun[edit]

    (hiragana つき, rōmaji tsuki)

    1. the moon
       () (ほん)では (つき)にうさぎが ()んでいるというお (はなし)があります。
      Nihon de wa tsuki ni usagi ga sunde iru to iu o-hanashi ga arimasu.
      In Japan, there is a fairy-tale that rabbits live on the moon.
       (つき) () (きゅう)唯一 (ゆいいつ) (えい) (せい)です。
      Tsuki wa chikyū no yuiitsu no eisei desu.
      The moon is the one and only satellite of the Earth.
      Synonyms: 太陰 (taiin), ムーン (mūn)
    2. (astronomy) a natural satellite
    3. moonlight, moonbeam
      Synonyms: 月光 (gekkō), 月影 (tsukikage)
    4. a 家紋 (kamon, family crest) with various designs of the moon
    5. (tarot) the Moon, the eighteenth trump or major arcana card in most traditional Tarot decks
    6. a month (lunar cycle)
       (つき) (いち) () (りょ) (こう) ()かけます。
      Tsuki ni ichido, ryokō ni dekakemasu.
      I go for a trip once a month.
    7. one month
      Synonym: 一ヶ月 (ikkagetsu)
    8. Short for 月囲い (tsukigakoi): This term needs a translation to English. Please help out and add a translation, then remove the text {{rfdef}}.
    9. a menstrual cycle, menstruation
      • 711-712, Kojiki (poem 27)
        ... () () () () () () () () () () () () () () () () () () () [Man'yōgana]
        ... () ()せる (おすひ) (すそ) (つき) ()ちにけり [Modern spelling]
        ...naga keseru osui no suso ni tsuki tachi-ni-keri
        (please add an English translation of this example)
      Synonyms: 月経 (gekkei), 月水 (gessui), 月の障り (tsuki no sawari), 月の物 (tsuki no mono)
    Derived terms[edit]
    Idioms[edit]
    Proverbs[edit]

    Proper noun[edit]

    (hiragana つき, rōmaji Tsuki)

    1. a female given name
    2. a surname

    Etymology 2[edit]

    Kanji in this term
    つく
    Grade: 1
    kun’yomi

    /tuku//t͡suku/

    From Old Japanese (compare phonetic man'yōgana forms 都久 (MC tuo kɨuX) and 豆久 (MC dəuH kɨuX)), ultimately from Proto-Japonic *tuku.[1]

    Pronunciation[edit]

    Noun[edit]

    (hiragana つく, rōmaji tsuku)

    1. Combining form of つき (tsuki) above
    2. (regional, obsolete) Eastern Old Japanese variation of つき (tsuki) above:
      1. the moon
        • c. 759, Man'yōshū (book 14, poem 3395), text here
           () () () () () () () () () () () () () () () () () () () () () () () () () () () () () () () [Man'yōgana]
           () (つく) () ()ろに (つく) () (あひだ) ()はさはだなりぬをまた ()てむかも [Modern spelling]
          o-Tsukuba no nero ni tsukutashi aida yo wa sawada narinu o mata netemu ka mo
          (please add an English translation of this example)
      2. a month
        • c. 759, Man'yōshū (book 20, poem 4413), text here
           () () () () () () () () () () () () () () () () ()西 () () () () () () () () () () () () () () [Man'yōgana]
           (まくら) () () (こし) () ()きま (かな)しき ()ろが () () (つく) ()らなく [Modern spelling]
          makura-tashi koshi ni torihaki ma-kanashiki sero ga makikomu tsuku no shiranaku
          (please add an English translation of this example)
    Usage notes[edit]

    The first sense is not productive in modern Japanese and not found in isolation.

    Derived terms[edit]

    Etymology 3[edit]

    Kanji in this term
    がつ
    Grade: 1
    kan’yōon

    /ɡʷatɨ//ɡʷatu//ɡat͡su/

    From Middle Chinese (MC ŋʉɐt̚).

    The kan'yōon, a pronunciation in common usage based on a corruption of the Middle Chinese borrowing.

    Pronunciation[edit]

    Suffix[edit]

    (hiragana がつ, rōmaji -gatsu, historical hiragana ぐわつ)

    1. month of the year
    Derived terms[edit]
    Usage notes[edit]

    When used in most compounds or when counting a number of months with (ka), 月 is pronounced げつ (getsu). When used in compounds for modern months of the year, it is pronounced がつ (gatsu). When used for poetic or lunar months, it is pronounced つき (tsuki).

    Etymology 4[edit]

    Kanji in this term
    げつ
    Grade: 1
    kan’on

    /ɡʷetu//ɡet͡su/

    From Middle Chinese (MC ŋʉɐt̚).

    The kan'on, so likely a later borrowing. Compare modern Hakka (ngie̍t), Min Nan (ge̍h).

    Pronunciation[edit]

    Counter[edit]

    (hiragana げつ, rōmaji -getsu)

    1. a month as a duration of time
    2. (possibly obsolete) month of the year

    Noun[edit]

    (hiragana げつ, rōmaji getsu)

    1. Short for 月曜, 月曜日 (getsuyō, getsuyōbi): Monday
    Usage notes[edit]

    When used in most compounds or when counting a number of months with (ka), 月 is pronounced げつ (getsu). When used in compounds for modern months of the year, it is pronounced がつ (gatsu). When used for poetic or lunar months, it is pronounced つき (tsuki).

    Derived terms[edit]

    Etymology 5[edit]

    Kanji in this term
    がち
    Grade: 1
    goon

    /ɡʷat͡ɕi//ɡat͡ɕi/

    First attested in the Edo period.

    Appears to be a poetic use of the goon reading, in reference to a rank of 端女郎 (hashi jorō, low-end prostitute) in the Kansai region. According to a popular song, a gachi prostitute cost one (monme, old unit of currency, worth roughly 3.75 grams of silver), a (kage, literally shadow) prostitute cost two monme, and a (shio, literally tide; loveliness) prostitute cost three monme.[2][4]

    Pronunciation[edit]

    Noun[edit]

    (hiragana がち, rōmaji gachi, historical hiragana ぐわち)

    1. (historical) during the Edo period, a low rank of low-end prostitute in the Kansai region
    Derived terms[edit]

    Etymology 6[edit]

    Kanji in this term
    がち
    Grade: 1
    goon

    Either a shift in sense from the low-ranking prostitute meaning above, or a shift in pronunciation from 頑痴 (ganchi, stubborn and stupid).[2][4]

    Pronunciation[edit]

    Alternative forms[edit]

    Adjective[edit]

    (-nari inflection, hiragana がち, rōmaji gachi, historical hiragana ぐわち)

    1. (archaic, possibly obsolete) crude, unrefined, hickish
      Synonym: 野暮 (yabo)

    Noun[edit]

    (hiragana がち, rōmaji gachi, historical hiragana ぐわち)

    1. (archaic, possibly obsolete) something or someone that/who is crude, unrefined, hickish
      Synonym: 野暮 (yabo)

    References[edit]

    1. 1.0 1.1 Pellard, Thomas (2012), “日琉祖語の分岐年代”, in 琉球諸語と古代日本語に関する比較言語学的研究」ワークショップ[1], page 6
    2. 2.0 2.1 2.2 2006, 大辞林 (Daijirin), Third Edition (in Japanese), Tōkyō: Sanseidō, →ISBN
    3. ^ 1998, NHK日本語発音アクセント辞典 (NHK Japanese Pronunciation Accent Dictionary) (in Japanese), Tōkyō: NHK, →ISBN
    4. 4.0 4.1 1988, 国語大辞典(新装版) (Kokugo Dai Jiten, Revised Edition) (in Japanese), Tōkyō: Shogakukan
    • New Nelson: 2530
    • Halpern: 2956
    • Halpern Learners: 1876
    • Heisig: 13
    • Tuttle Kanji Dictionary: 4b0.1
    1. Source: EDICT and KANJIDIC files licensed by the Electronic Dictionaries Research Group.

    Korean[edit]

    Hanja[edit]

    (eumhun (dal wol))

    1. month
    2. moon

    Vietnamese[edit]

    Han character[edit]

    (nguyệt)

    1. This term needs a translation to English. Please help out and add a translation, then remove the text {{rfdef}}.