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See also:
U+5916, 外
CJK UNIFIED IDEOGRAPH-5916

[U+5915]
CJK Unified Ideographs
[U+5917]

Translingual[edit]

Stroke order
5 strokes

Han character[edit]

(radical 36 +2, 5 strokes, cangjie input 弓戈卜 (NIY), four-corner 23200, composition)

References[edit]

  • KangXi: page 246, character 2
  • Dai Kanwa Jiten: character 5750
  • Dae Jaweon: page 487, character 5
  • Hanyu Da Zidian: volume 2, page 860, character 1
  • Unihan data for U+5916

Chinese[edit]

simp. and trad.

Glyph origin[edit]

Historical forms of the character
Shang Western Zhou Shuowen Jiezi (compiled in Han) Liushutong (compiled in Ming)
Oracle bone script Bronze inscriptions Small seal script Transcribed ancient scripts
外-oracle.svg 外-bronze.svg 外-seal.svg 外-bigseal.svg

Phono-semantic compound (形聲, OC *ŋʷaːds): semantic  + phonetic  (OC *ŋod).

Pronunciation[edit]


Note: wei4 appears in some phrases.
Note:
  • nguôi - literary;
  • ngiê - colloquial.
  • Min Nan
  • Note:
    • gōe - literary;
    • gōa - colloquial.
  • Wu

    • Dialectal data
    Variety Location
    Mandarin Beijing /uai⁵¹/
    Harbin /uai⁵³/
    Tianjin /vai⁵³/
    Jinan /vɛ²¹/
    Qingdao /vɛ⁴²/
    Zhengzhou /uai³¹²/
    Xi'an /uai⁴⁴/
    Xining /uɛ²¹³/
    Yinchuan /vɛ¹³/
    Lanzhou /vɛ¹³/
    Ürümqi /vai²¹³/
    Wuhan /uai³⁵/
    Chengdu /uai¹³/
    Guiyang /uai²¹³/
    Kunming /uæ²¹²/
    Nanjing /uae⁴⁴/
    Hefei /ue̞⁵³/
    /ue⁵³/
    Jin Taiyuan /vai⁴⁵/
    Pingyao /uæ³⁵/
    Hohhot /vɛ⁵⁵/
    Wu Shanghai /ŋa²³/
    Suzhou /ŋɑ³¹/
    Hangzhou /ɦue̞¹³/
    Wenzhou /va²²/
    Hui Shexian /uɛ²²/
    /ŋa²²/
    Tunxi /ŋa¹¹/
    Xiang Changsha /uai⁵⁵/
    /uai¹¹/
    Xiangtan /uai²¹/
    Gan Nanchang /uai²¹/
    Hakka Meixian /ŋoi⁵³/
    Taoyuan /ŋoi⁵⁵/
    Cantonese Guangzhou /ŋɔi²²/
    Nanning /ŋɔi²²/
    Hong Kong /ŋɔi²²/
    Min Xiamen (Min Nan) /gue²²/
    /gua²²/
    Fuzhou (Min Dong) /ŋuɔi²⁴²/
    Jian'ou (Min Bei) /kuɛ⁴⁴/
    Shantou (Min Nan) /gua³¹/
    Haikou (Min Nan) /ŋɔi³³/
    /hua²³/

    Rime
    Character
    Reading # 1/1
    Initial () (31)
    Final () (26)
    Tone (調) Departing (H)
    Openness (開合) Closed
    Division () I
    Fanqie
    Reconstructions
    Zhengzhang
    Shangfang
    /ŋuɑiH/
    Pan
    Wuyun
    /ŋʷɑiH/
    Shao
    Rongfen
    /ŋuɑiH/
    Edwin
    Pulleyblank
    /ŋwajH/
    Li
    Rong
    /ŋuɑiH/
    Wang
    Li
    /ŋuɑiH/
    Bernard
    Karlgren
    /ŋuɑiH/
    Expected
    Mandarin
    Reflex
    wèi
    Baxter-Sagart system 1.1 (2014)
    Character
    Reading # 1/1
    Modern
    Beijing
    (Pinyin)
    wài
    Middle
    Chinese
    ‹ ngwajH ›
    Old
    Chinese
    /*[ŋ]ʷˤa[t]-s/
    English outside

    Notes for Old Chinese notations in the Baxter-Sagart system:

    * Parentheses "()" indicate uncertain presence;
    * Square brackets "[]" indicate uncertain identity, e.g. *[t] as coda may in fact be *-t or *-p;
    * Angle brackets "<>" indicate infix;
    * Hyphen "-" indicates morpheme boundary;

    * Period "." indicates syllable boundary.
    Zhengzhang system (2003)
    Character
    Reading # 1/1
    No. 12606
    Phonetic
    component
    Rime
    group
    Rime
    subdivision
    1
    Corresponding
    MC rime
    Old
    Chinese
    /*ŋʷaːds/

    Definitions[edit]

    1. out, outside, external
      Antonyms: (), (nèi)
    2. beyond, above
    3. not of one's own family, clan, locality, school, country, etc.; foreign
    4. relatives of one's mother, sister or daughter
        ―  wài  ―  maternal grandmother
      /   ―  wàisūn  ―  daughter's son
      祖父  ―  wàizǔfù  ―  maternal grandfather

    Compounds[edit]


    Japanese[edit]

    Kanji[edit]

    (grade 2 “Kyōiku” kanji)

    1. outside
    2. foreign
    3. other
    4. except

    Readings[edit]

    Etymology 1[edit]

    Kanji in this term
    そと
    Grade: 2
    kun’yomi

    Appears from roughly the Muromachi period,[1] superseding earlier to reading (see below). Likely a compound of either (so, back, behind, ancient reading found in compounds) +‎ (to, outside), or (so, back, behind, ancient reading found in compounds) +‎ (to, place).[2]

    Pronunciation[edit]

    Noun[edit]

    (hiragana そと, rōmaji soto)

    1. (the) outside

    Etymology 2[edit]

    Kanji in this term
    ほか
    Grade: 2
    kun’yomi

    Pronunciation[edit]

    Alternative forms[edit]

    Noun[edit]

    (hiragana ほか, rōmaji hoka)

    1. other (things); the rest

    Etymology 3[edit]

    Kanji in this term
    Grade: 2
    Irregular

    Pronunciation[edit]

    Noun[edit]

    (hiragana よそ, rōmaji yoso)

    1. Alternative spelling of 余所

    Etymology 4[edit]

    Kanji in this term

    Grade: 2
    kun’yomi

    Pronunciation[edit]

    Noun[edit]

    (hiragana , rōmaji to)

    1. (the) outside
    2. toilet

    Etymology 5[edit]

    Kanji in this term
    がい
    Grade: 2
    on’yomi

    Middle Chinese

    Pronunciation[edit]

    Suffix[edit]

    (hiragana がい, rōmaji -gai, historical hiragana ぐわい)

    1. outside; external
    2. except for
    Derived terms[edit]

    Etymology 6[edit]

    Kanji in this term

    Grade: 2
    on’yomi

    From Middle Chinese (MC ŋuɑiH).

    Pronunciation[edit]

    Noun[edit]

    (hiragana , rōmaji ge)

    1. (Buddhism) non-Buddhist teachings or texts
    2. (in compounds) external
    Derived terms[edit]

    Usage notes[edit]

    The printed form of this character often differs from its handwritten form; in the latter, the last stroke often does not pass through, as in the printed Chinese form.

    References[edit]

    1. 1.0 1.1 1.2 1.3 1.4 1.5 2006, 大辞林 (Daijirin), Third Edition (in Japanese), Tōkyō: Sanseidō, →ISBN
    2. ^ 1988, 国語大辞典(新装版) (Kokugo Dai Jiten, Revised Edition) (in Japanese), Tōkyō: Shogakukan
    3. 3.0 3.1 3.2 3.3 1998, NHK日本語発音アクセント辞典 (NHK Japanese Pronunciation Accent Dictionary) (in Japanese), Tōkyō: NHK, →ISBN

    Korean[edit]

    Hanja[edit]

    (eumhun 바깥 (bakkat oe))

    1. outside
    2. oversea
    3. surface

    Compounds[edit]


    Vietnamese[edit]

    Han character[edit]

    (ngoại, ngoái, ngoải, ngoài, nguậy)

    • This term needs a translation to English. Please help out and add a translation, then remove the text {{rfdef}}.

    Readings[edit]

    • Nôm: ngoái, ngoài, ngoại, ngòi, ngồi

    Compounds[edit]

    References[edit]

    • Thiều Chửu : Hán Việt Tự Điển Hà Nội 1942
    • Trần Văn Chánh: Từ Điển Hán Việt NXB Trẻ, Ho Chi Minh Ville, 1999
    • Vũ Văn Kính: Đại Tự Điển Chữ Nôm, NXB Văn Nghệ, Ho Chi Minh Ville