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Translingual[edit]

Stroke order
外-bw.png

Han character[edit]

(radical 36 +2, 5 strokes, cangjie input 弓戈卜 (NIY), four-corner 23200, composition)

References[edit]

  • KangXi: page 246, character 2
  • Dai Kanwa Jiten: character 5750
  • Dae Jaweon: page 487, character 5
  • Hanyu Da Zidian: volume 2, page 860, character 1
  • Unihan data for U+5916

Chinese[edit]

simp. and trad.

Glyph origin[edit]

Historical forms of the character
Oracle bone script Bronze inscriptions Large seal script Small seal script
外-oracle.svg 外-bronze.svg 外-bigseal.svg 外-seal.svg

In the Oracle Bone script, the graph is a vertical line with one stroke on one side, identical to (, “divination”). (yuè) was later added as phonetic.

Pronunciation[edit]


Dialectal pronunciations ()
Variety Location
Mandarin Beijing /uai⁵¹/
Harbin /uai⁵³/
Tianjin /vai⁵³/
Jinan /vɛ²¹/
Qingdao /vɛ⁴²/
Zhengzhou /uai³¹²/
Xi'an /uai⁴⁴/
Xining /uɛ²¹³/
Yinchuan /vɛ¹³/
Lanzhou /vɛ¹³/
Ürümqi /vai²¹³/
Wuhan /uai³⁵/
Chengdu /uai¹³/
Guiyang /uai²¹³/
Kunming /uæ²¹²/
Nanjing /uae⁴⁴/
Hefei /ue̞⁵³/
/ue⁵³/
Jin Taiyuan /vai⁴⁵/
Pingyao /uæ³⁵/
Hohhot /vɛ⁵⁵/
Wu Shanghai /ŋa¹³/
Suzhou /ŋɑ³¹/
Hangzhou /ɦue̞¹³/
Wenzhou /va²²/
Hui Shexian /uɛ²²/
/ŋa²²/
Tunxi /ŋa¹¹/
Xiang Changsha /uai⁵⁵/
/uai¹¹/
Xiangtan /uai²¹/
Gan Nanchang /uai²¹/
Hakka Meixian /ŋoi⁵³/
Taoyuan /ŋoi⁵⁵/
Cantonese Guangzhou /ŋɔi²²/
Nanning /ŋɔi²²/
Hong Kong /ŋɔi²²/
Min Xiamen (Min Nan) /gue²²/
/gua²²/
Fuzhou (Min Dong) /ŋuɔi²⁴²/
Jian'ou (Min Bei) /kuɛ⁴⁴/
Shantou (Min Nan) /gua³¹/
Haikou (Min Nan) /ŋɔi³³/
/hua²³/
Middle Chinese pronunciation (, reconstructed)
Character (), Pronunciation 1/1

Initial: (31)
Final: (26)
Tone: Departing (H)

Openness: Closed
Division: I
Fanqie:

Expected Mandarin reflex: wuì
Zhengzhang
Shangfang
Pan
Wuyun
Shao
Rongfen
Edwin
Pulleyblank
Li
Rong
Wang
Li
Bernard
Karlgren
/ŋuɑiH/ /ŋʷɑiH/ /ŋuɑiH/ /ŋwajH/ /ŋuɑiH/ /ŋuɑiH/ /ŋuɑiH/
Old Chinese pronunciation (, reconstructed)
Baxter-Sagart system 1.1 (2014)
Character Modern Beijing
(Pinyin)
Middle Chinese Old Chinese English
wài ‹ ngwajH › /*[ŋ]ʷˤa[t]-s/ outside

Notes for Old Chinese notations in the Baxter-Sagart system:

  • Parentheses "()" indicate uncertain presence;
  • Square brackets "[]" indicate uncertain identity, e.g. *[t] as coda may in fact be *-t or *-p;
  • Angle brackets "<>" indicate infix;
  • Hyphen "-" indicates morpheme boundary;
  • Period "." indicates syllable boundary.
Zhengzhang system (2003)
Character No. Phonetic
component
Rime
group
Rime
subdivision
Corresponding
MC rime
Old Chinese Notes
12606 1 /*ŋʷaːds/

Definitions[edit]

  1. out, outside, external
    Antonyms: (), (nèi)
  2. beyond, above
  3. not of one's own family, clan, locality, school, country, etc.; foreign
  4. relatives of one's mother, sister or daughter
      ―  wài  ―  maternal grandmother
    /   ―  wàisūn  ―  daughter's son
    祖父  ―  wàizǔfù  ―  maternal grandfather

Compounds[edit]


Japanese[edit]

Kanji[edit]

(grade 2 “Kyōiku” kanji)

  1. outside
  2. foreign
  3. other
  4. except

Readings[edit]

Noun[edit]

‎(hiragana ほか, romaji hoka)

  1. other (things); the rest

Noun[edit]

‎(hiragana そと, romaji soto)

  1. (the) outside

Suffix[edit]

‎(hiragana がい, romaji -gai)

  1. outside of; except for

Compounds[edit]

Antonyms[edit]


Korean[edit]

Hanja[edit]

‎(oe)
Eumhun:

  • Sound (hangeul):  (revised: oe, McCune-Reischauer: oe, Yale: oy)
  • Name (hangeul): 바깥 (revised: bakkat, McCune-Reischauer: pakkat, Yale: pakkath)
  1. This entry needs a definition. Please add one, then remove {{defn}}.

Vietnamese[edit]

Han character[edit]

(ngoại, ngoái, ngoải, ngoài, nguậy)

  • This entry needs a definition. Please add one, then remove {{defn}}.

Readings[edit]

  • Nôm: ngoái, ngoài, ngoại, ngòi, ngồi

Compounds[edit]

References[edit]

  • Thiều Chửu : Hán Việt Tự Điển Hà Nội 1942
  • Trần Văn Chánh: Từ Điển Hán Việt NXB Trẻ, Ho Chi Minh Ville, 1999
  • Vũ Văn Kính: Đại Tự Điển Chữ Nôm , NXB Văn Nghệ, Ho Chi Minh Ville