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See also:
U+5916, 外
CJK UNIFIED IDEOGRAPH-5916

[U+5915]
CJK Unified Ideographs
[U+5917]

Translingual[edit]

Stroke order
5 strokes

Han character[edit]

(radical 36 +2, 5 strokes, cangjie input 弓戈卜 (NIY), four-corner 23200, composition)

References[edit]

  • KangXi: page 246, character 2
  • Dai Kanwa Jiten: character 5750
  • Dae Jaweon: page 487, character 5
  • Hanyu Da Zidian: volume 2, page 860, character 1
  • Unihan data for U+5916

Chinese[edit]

simp. and trad.

Glyph origin[edit]

Historical forms of the character
Oracle bone script Bronze inscriptions Large seal script Small seal script
外-oracle.svg 外-bronze.svg 外-bigseal.svg 外-seal.svg

Phono-semantic compound (形聲, OC *ŋʷaːds): semantic  + phonetic  (OC *ŋod).

Pronunciation[edit]


Note: wei4 appears in some phrases.
Note:
  • nguôi - literary;
  • ngiê - colloquial.
Note:
  • gōe - literary;
  • gōa - colloquial.

Rime
Character
Reading # 1/1
Initial () (31)
Final () (26)
Tone (調) Departing (H)
Openness (開合) Closed
Division () I
Fanqie
Reconstructions
Zhengzhang
Shangfang
/ŋuɑiH/
Pan
Wuyun
/ŋʷɑiH/
Shao
Rongfen
/ŋuɑiH/
Edwin
Pulleyblank
/ŋwajH/
Li
Rong
/ŋuɑiH/
Wang
Li
/ŋuɑiH/
Bernard
Karlgren
/ŋuɑiH/
Expected
Mandarin
Reflex
wèi
Baxter-Sagart system 1.1 (2014)
Character
Reading # 1/1
Modern
Beijing
(Pinyin)
wài
Middle
Chinese
‹ ngwajH ›
Old
Chinese
/*[ŋ]ʷˤa[t]-s/
English outside

Notes for Old Chinese notations in the Baxter-Sagart system:

* Parentheses "()" indicate uncertain presence;
* Square brackets "[]" indicate uncertain identity, e.g. *[t] as coda may in fact be *-t or *-p;
* Angle brackets "<>" indicate infix;
* Hyphen "-" indicates morpheme boundary;

* Period "." indicates syllable boundary.
Zhengzhang system (2003)
Character
Reading # 1/1
No. 12606
Phonetic
component
Rime
group
Rime
subdivision
1
Corresponding
MC rime
Old
Chinese
/*ŋʷaːds/

Definitions[edit]

  1. out, outside, external
    Antonyms: (), (nèi)
  2. beyond, above
  3. not of one's own family, clan, locality, school, country, etc.; foreign
  4. relatives of one's mother, sister or daughter
      ―  wài  ―  maternal grandmother
    /   ―  wàisūn  ―  daughter's son
    祖父  ―  wàizǔfù  ―  maternal grandfather

Compounds[edit]


Japanese[edit]

Kanji[edit]

(grade 2 “Kyōiku” kanji)

  1. outside
  2. foreign
  3. other
  4. except

Readings[edit]

Antonyms[edit]

Compounds[edit]

Etymology 1[edit]

Kanji in this term
そと
Grade: 2
kun’yomi

Pronunciation[edit]

Noun[edit]

(hiragana そと, rōmaji soto)

  1. (the) outside

Etymology 2[edit]

Kanji in this term
ほか
Grade: 2
kun’yomi

Pronunciation[edit]

Alternative forms[edit]

Noun[edit]

(hiragana ほか, rōmaji hoka)

  1. other (things); the rest

Etymology 3[edit]

Kanji in this term
Grade: 2
Irregular

Pronunciation[edit]

Noun[edit]

(hiragana よそ, rōmaji yoso)

  1. Alternative spelling of 余所

Etymology 4[edit]

Kanji in this term

Grade: 2
Irregular

Pronunciation[edit]

  • (Irregular reading)

Noun[edit]

(hiragana , rōmaji to)

  1. (the) outside
  2. toilet

Etymology 5[edit]

Kanji in this term
がい
Grade: 2
on’yomi

Middle Chinese

Pronunciation[edit]

Suffix[edit]

(hiragana がい, rōmaji -gai, historical hiragana ぐわい)

  1. outside of
  2. except for
Derived terms[edit]

Etymology 6[edit]

Kanji in this term

Grade: 2
on’yomi

Middle Chinese

Pronunciation[edit]

Noun[edit]

(hiragana , rōmaji ge)

  1. (Buddhism) non-Buddhist teachings or texts
Derived terms[edit]

References[edit]

  1. 1.0 1.1 1.2 1.3 1.4 2006, 大辞林 (Daijirin), Third Edition (in Japanese), Tōkyō: Sanseidō, ISBN 4-385-13905-9
  2. 2.0 2.1 2.2 2.3 1998, NHK日本語発音アクセント辞典 (NHK Japanese Pronunciation Accent Dictionary) (in Japanese), Tōkyō: NHK, ISBN 978-4-14-011112-3

Korean[edit]

Hanja[edit]

(oe)

  • Eumhun:
    • Sound (hangeul): (revised: oe, McCune-Reischauer: oe, Yale: oy)
    • Name (hangeul): 바깥 (revised: bakkat, McCune-Reischauer: pakkat, Yale: pakkath)
  1. This term needs a translation to English. Please help out and add a translation, then remove the text {{rfdef}}.

Vietnamese[edit]

Han character[edit]

(ngoại, ngoái, ngoải, ngoài, nguậy)

  • This term needs a translation to English. Please help out and add a translation, then remove the text {{rfdef}}.

Readings[edit]

  • Nôm: ngoái, ngoài, ngoại, ngòi, ngồi

Compounds[edit]

References[edit]

  • Thiều Chửu : Hán Việt Tự Điển Hà Nội 1942
  • Trần Văn Chánh: Từ Điển Hán Việt NXB Trẻ, Ho Chi Minh Ville, 1999
  • Vũ Văn Kính: Đại Tự Điển Chữ Nôm, NXB Văn Nghệ, Ho Chi Minh Ville