Definition from Wiktionary, the free dictionary
Jump to navigation Jump to search
See also:
U+80CC, 背
CJK UNIFIED IDEOGRAPH-80CC

[U+80CB]
CJK Unified Ideographs
[U+80CD]

Translingual[edit]

Stroke order
9 strokes

Han character[edit]

(radical 130, +5, 9 strokes, cangjie input 中心月 (LPB), four-corner 11227, composition)

References[edit]

  • KangXi: page 977, character 21
  • Dai Kanwa Jiten: character 29363
  • Dae Jaweon: page 1429, character 11
  • Hanyu Da Zidian: volume 3, page 2058, character 4
  • Unihan data for U+80CC

Chinese[edit]

Glyph origin[edit]

Historical forms of the character
Shuowen Jiezi (compiled in Han)
Small seal script
背-seal.svg
Characters in the same phonetic series () (Zhengzhang, 2003) 
Old Chinese
*pɯːɡs, *bɯːɡs
*bɯːɡs
*bɯːɡs
*bɯːɡs
*bɯːɡs
*pɯːɡ

Phono-semantic compound (形聲, OC *pɯːɡs, *bɯːɡs): phonetic  (OC *pɯːɡ) + semantic  (meat). Semantic was added to be distinguished from the derived meaning of (“north”).

Etymology[edit]

From Proto-Sino-Tibetan *ba (to carry (on back), shoulder).

Two pronunciations were distinguished in Middle Chinese: puʌiH (back), buʌiH (to turn one's back to; to betray).

Pronunciation 1[edit]

simp. and trad.

Note:
  • bui3 - “back; to betray; to violate”;
  • bui6 - “to recite; unlucky; out of touch”.
  • Hakka
  • Min Bei
  • Min Nan
  • Note:
    • pōe - literary;
    • pēr/pē - vernacular.
    Note: bu3 - alternative pronunciation when meaning "backside" (e.g. 手背, 刀背).
    Note:
    • 2pe - noun (“back”);
    • 3be - verb (“to betray; to recite”).

    Rime
    Character
    Reading # 1/2 2/2
    Initial () (3) (1)
    Final () (42) (42)
    Tone (調) Departing (H) Departing (H)
    Openness (開合) Closed Closed
    Division () I I
    Fanqie
    Reconstructions
    Zhengzhang
    Shangfang
    /buʌiH/ /puʌiH/
    Pan
    Wuyun
    /buoiH/ /puoiH/
    Shao
    Rongfen
    /buɒiH/ /puɒiH/
    Edwin
    Pulleyblank
    /bwəjH/ /pwəjH/
    Li
    Rong
    /buᴀiH/ /puᴀiH/
    Wang
    Li
    /buɒiH/ /puɒiH/
    Bernard
    Karlgren
    /bʱuɑ̆iH/ /puɑ̆iH/
    Expected
    Mandarin
    Reflex
    bèi bèi
    BaxterSagart system 1.1 (2014)
    Character
    Reading # 1/2 2/2
    Modern
    Beijing
    (Pinyin)
    bèi bèi
    Middle
    Chinese
    ‹ bwojH › ‹ pwojH ›
    Old
    Chinese
    /*m-pˁək-s/ /*pˁək-s/
    English turn the back on the back

    Notes for Old Chinese notations in the Baxter–Sagart system:

    * Parentheses "()" indicate uncertain presence;
    * Square brackets "[]" indicate uncertain identity, e.g. *[t] as coda may in fact be *-t or *-p;
    * Angle brackets "<>" indicate infix;
    * Hyphen "-" indicates morpheme boundary;

    * Period "." indicates syllable boundary.
    Zhengzhang system (2003)
    Character
    Reading # 1/2 2/2
    No. 408 409
    Phonetic
    component
    Rime
    group
    Rime
    subdivision
    0 0
    Corresponding
    MC rime
    Old
    Chinese
    /*pɯːɡs/ /*bɯːɡs/

    Definitions[edit]

    1. to memorize
    2. (anatomy) back
    3. back; backside; reverse side
    4. back of the hand
    5. to turn one's back to
    6. to abandon; to give up
    7. to betray; to be disloyal
    8. to deviate; to go contrary to; to violate
    9. unlucky; out of luck
    10. to recite
    11. hard of hearing
        ―  ěrbèi  ―  hard of hearing
    Synonyms[edit]
    Dialectal synonyms of (“back (of the body)”) [map]
    Variety Location Words
    Classical Chinese
    Formal (Written Standard Chinese) , 背部, 背脊, 脊背, 後背
    Mandarin Beijing 後脊樑, 脊樑
    Taiwan
    Harbin , 後背, 後脊樑, 脊樑
    Hailar
    Ulan Hot
    Tongliao
    Chifeng
    Bayanhot , 脊背, 脊樑
    Jinan 脊樑
    Muping 脊樑桿子, 脊樑, 脊樑蓋子
    Luoyang 脊樑
    Jiedian 脊背
    Xi'an 脊背
    Zhengzhou 脊樑
    Xining 脊背
    Xuzhou 後筋股, 筋股, 後脊樑股, 脊樑股
    Yinchuan 脊樑
    Lanzhou 脊背
    Ürümqi 脊背, 脊樑
    Wuhan 背心,
    Chengdu
    Guiyang
    Liuzhou , 脊樑
    Yangzhou 脊背, 脊樑,
    Nanjing 脊背, 脊背心
    Hefei 脊背, , 後背心
    Cantonese Guangzhou 背脊, 背脢
    Hong Kong 背脊
    Hong Kong (San Tin Weitou) 背脊, 背樑, 背裡
    Zhongshan (Shiqi) 背脢
    Yangjiang 背脊
    Kuala Lumpur 背脊
    Gan Nanchang 背脊
    Lichuan 背脊
    Pingxiang 背脊,
    Hakka Meixian 背囊, 背脊
    Xingning 背囊
    Huidong 背囊脊
    Qujiang 背脊
    Xiaosanjiang 背囊
    Changting 背脊,
    Pingyu 背囊
    Wuping 背脊, 背囊
    Liancheng 背脊
    Ninghua 背脊
    Yudu
    Ruijin 背脊
    Shicheng 背脊
    Shangyou
    Miaoli (N. Sixian) 背囊
    Liudui (S. Sixian) 背囊
    Hsinchu (Hailu) 背囊
    Dongshi (Dabu) 背囊
    Hsinchu (Raoping) 背囊
    Yunlin (Zhao'an) 背脊𩩍
    Hong Kong 背囊
    Sabah 背囊,
    Senai 背囊
    Singkawang 背囊
    Huizhou Jixi 背脊
    Jin Taiyuan 脊背
    Xinzhou 脊背
    Baochang
    Jining 脊背
    Hohhot 脊背
    Baotou 脊背
    Dongsheng 脊背
    Linhe 脊背
    Haibowan 脊背
    Min Bei Jian'ou 背脊, 背脊𩩍
    Min Dong Fuzhou 𩩍, 𩩍脊骨
    Min Nan Xiamen 胛脊, 胛脊𩩍, 巴脊
    Quanzhou 胛脊, 巴脊
    Zhangzhou 胛脊, 胛脊𩩍, 巴脊
    Taipei 胛脊𩩍
    Kaohsiung 胛脊𩩍
    Tainan 胛脊𩩍
    Taichung 胛脊𩩍
    Hsinchu 胛脊𩩍
    Lukang 胛脊𩩍
    Sanxia 巴脊
    Yilan 胛脊𩩍
    Kinmen 胛脊𩩍
    Magong 胛脊𩩍
    Penang 胛脊, 胛脊後
    Philippines (Manila) 巴脊
    Chaozhou 胛脊
    Johor Bahru 胛脊
    Haikou 胛脊
    Leizhou 胛脊
    Pinghua Nanning 背脊, 背脢
    Wu Shanghai 背脊, 背脊骨
    Suzhou 背心,
    Hangzhou 背脊
    Wenzhou 背脊身, 背骶身, 後半身
    Chongming 背肌
    Danyang 背背
    Jinhua 背脊
    Ningbo 背脊心, 背脊登, 背脊胴, 背脊
    Xiang Changsha 背脊, 背心,
    Shuangfeng 背心,
    Loudi , 背皮

    Compounds[edit]

    Pronunciation 2[edit]

    trad. /*
    simp.

    Definitions[edit]

    1. to carry on the back
    2. (figuratively) to carry; to bear (blame); to shoulder (responsibility)

    Synonyms[edit]

    Dialectal synonyms of 背負 (“to carry on the back”) [map]
    Variety Location Words
    Classical Chinese
    Formal (Written Standard Chinese) 背負
    Mandarin Beijing
    Taiwan
    Jinan
    Xi'an
    Wuhan ,
    Chengdu
    Yangzhou ,
    Hefei ,
    Cantonese Guangzhou
    Hong Kong
    Yangjiang
    Gan Nanchang ,
    Hakka Meixian ,
    Jin Taiyuan
    Min Bei Jian'ou ,
    Min Dong Fuzhou
    Min Nan Xiamen , ,
    Zhangzhou ,
    Taipei ,
    Chaozhou
    Wu Suzhou
    Wenzhou ,
    Xiang Changsha
    Shuangfeng

    Compounds[edit]


    Japanese[edit]

    Kanji[edit]

    (grade 6 “Kyōiku” kanji)

    1. This term needs a translation to English. Please help out and add a translation, then remove the text {{rfdef}}.

    Readings[edit]

    Noun[edit]

    (hiragana , rōmaji se)

    1. one's back (part of the human body)
    2. one's height
       () (なか)さんは () (たか)い。
      Tanaka-san wa se ga takai.
      Tanaka is tall.
    3. the rear of something, the area behind

    Synonyms[edit]


    Korean[edit]

    Hanja[edit]

    (bae, pae) (hangeul , , revised bae, pae, McCune–Reischauer pae, p'ae, Yale pay, phay)

    1. This term needs a translation to English. Please help out and add a translation, then remove the text {{rfdef}}.

    Vietnamese[edit]

    Han character[edit]

    (bối, bội, bổi, bồi)

    1. This term needs a translation to English. Please help out and add a translation, then remove the text {{rfdef}}.