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See also:
U+80CC, 背
CJK UNIFIED IDEOGRAPH-80CC

[U+80CB]
CJK Unified Ideographs
[U+80CD]

Translingual[edit]

Stroke order
9 strokes
Stroke order
背-order.gif

Han character[edit]

(Kangxi radical 130, +5, 9 strokes, cangjie input 中心月 (LPB), four-corner 11227, composition(GJK) or ⿱(HT))

References[edit]

  • KangXi: page 977, character 21
  • Dai Kanwa Jiten: character 29363
  • Dae Jaweon: page 1429, character 11
  • Hanyu Da Zidian (first edition): volume 3, page 2058, character 4
  • Unihan data for U+80CC

Chinese[edit]

Glyph origin[edit]

Historical forms of the character
Shuowen Jiezi (compiled in Han)
Small seal script
背-seal.svg

Phono-semantic compound (形聲, OC *pɯːɡs, *bɯːɡs): phonetic (OC *pɯːɡ) + semantic (meat). Semantic was added to be distinguished from the derived meaning of (“north”).

Etymology[edit]

From Proto-Sino-Tibetan *ba (to carry (on back), shoulder).

Two pronunciations were distinguished in Middle Chinese: puʌiH (back), buʌiH (to turn one's back to; to betray).

Pronunciation 1[edit]

trad.
simp. #


Note:
  • bui3 - “back; to betray; to violate”;
  • bui6 - “to recite; unlucky; out of touch”.
  • Hakka
  • Min Bei
  • Min Dong
  • Min Nan
  • Note:
    • pōe - literary;
    • pēr/pē - vernacular.
    Note: bu3 - alternative pronunciation when meaning "backside" (e.g. 手背, 刀背).
    Note:
    • 2pe - noun (“back”);
    • 3be - verb (“to betray; to recite”).
  • Xiang

  • Rime
    Character
    Reading # 1/2 2/2
    Initial () (3) (1)
    Final () (42) (42)
    Tone (調) Departing (H) Departing (H)
    Openness (開合) Closed Closed
    Division () I I
    Fanqie
    Reconstructions
    Zhengzhang
    Shangfang
    /buʌiH/ /puʌiH/
    Pan
    Wuyun
    /buoiH/ /puoiH/
    Shao
    Rongfen
    /buɒiH/ /puɒiH/
    Edwin
    Pulleyblank
    /bwəjH/ /pwəjH/
    Li
    Rong
    /buᴀiH/ /puᴀiH/
    Wang
    Li
    /buɒiH/ /puɒiH/
    Bernard
    Karlgren
    /bʱuɑ̆iH/ /puɑ̆iH/
    Expected
    Mandarin
    Reflex
    bèi bèi
    Expected
    Cantonese
    Reflex
    bui6 bui3
    BaxterSagart system 1.1 (2014)
    Character
    Reading # 1/2 2/2
    Modern
    Beijing
    (Pinyin)
    bèi bèi
    Middle
    Chinese
    ‹ bwojH › ‹ pwojH ›
    Old
    Chinese
    /*m-pˁək-s/ /*pˁək-s/
    English turn the back on the back

    Notes for Old Chinese notations in the Baxter–Sagart system:

    * Parentheses "()" indicate uncertain presence;
    * Square brackets "[]" indicate uncertain identity, e.g. *[t] as coda may in fact be *-t or *-p;
    * Angle brackets "<>" indicate infix;
    * Hyphen "-" indicates morpheme boundary;

    * Period "." indicates syllable boundary.
    Zhengzhang system (2003)
    Character
    Reading # 1/2 2/2
    No. 408 409
    Phonetic
    component
    Rime
    group
    Rime
    subdivision
    0 0
    Corresponding
    MC rime
    Old
    Chinese
    /*pɯːɡs/ /*bɯːɡs/

    Definitions[edit]

    1. (anatomy) back
        ―  chuíbèi  ―  to give a back massage
      /   ―  bèi  ―  horseback
    2. back; backside; reverse side
        ―  shǒubèi  ―  back of the hand
      /   ―  zhǐbèi  ―  back of a piece of paper
    3. to leave; to abandon
      井離鄉 / 井离乡  ―  bèijǐnglíxiāng  ―  to leave one's native place and move elsewhere
    4. to back onto
      太陽 / 太阳  ―  bèi zhe tàiyáng zuò  ―  to sit with one's back to the sun
        ―  bèi shān miàn hǎi  ―  backing on to a mountain and facing the sea
    5. to betray
    6. to do something behind one's back; to hide something from someone
      男朋友其他女生聊天 [MSC, trad.]
      男朋友其他女生聊天 [MSC, simp.]
      Nánpéngyǒu bèi zhe wǒ hé qítā nǚshēng liáotiān. [Pinyin]
      My boyfriend chats with other girls behind my back.
    7. to deviate; to go contrary to; to violate
      /   ―  bèiyuē  ―  to break one’s promise
      良心說話 / 良心说话  ―  bèi zhe liángxīn shuōhuà  ―  to speak against one's conscience
    8. to memorize; to recite
      文章下來 [MSC, trad.]
      文章下来 [MSC, simp.]
      Zhè piān wénzhāng xiěde duō bàng a, bèi xiàlái. [Pinyin]
      How excellently written is this article! Memorize it.
      唐詩多少 [MSC, trad.]
      唐诗多少 [MSC, simp.]
      bèi Tángshī bèi le duōshǎo shǒu? [Pinyin]
      How many Tang poems have you memorized?
    9. unlucky; out of luck
    10. hard of hearing
      耳朵有點兒 / 耳朵有点儿  ―  ěrduo yǒudiǎnr bèi  ―  to be a bit hard of hearing
    11. remote; out-of-the-way
    Synonyms[edit]

    Compounds[edit]

    Pronunciation 2[edit]

    trad. /*
    simp.


    Definitions[edit]

    1. to carry on the back
    2. (figuratively) to carry; to bear (blame); to shoulder (responsibility)
    Synonyms[edit]
    • (to carry on the back): (tuó)

    Compounds[edit]


    Japanese[edit]

    Kanji[edit]

    (grade 6 “Kyōiku” kanji)

    1. This term needs a translation to English. Please help out and add a translation, then remove the text {{rfdef}}.

    Readings[edit]

    Etymology 1[edit]

    Kanji in this term

    Grade: 6
    kun’yomi
    For pronunciation and definitions of – see the following entry.
    H
    [noun] one's back (part of the human body)
    [noun] one's height
    [noun] the rear of something, the area behind
    Alternative spellings
    ,
    (This term, , is an alternative spelling of the above term.)

    Etymology 2[edit]

    Kanji in this term
    せい
    Grade: 6
    kun’yomi
    Alternative spelling

    Noun[edit]

    (せい) (sei

    1. height

    Korean[edit]

    Etymology[edit]

    From Middle Chinese (MC buʌiH, puʌiH). Recorded as Middle Korean ᄇᆡ〯 (pǒy) (Yale: pǒy) in Hunmong Jahoe (訓蒙字會 / 훈몽자회), 1527.

    Pronunciation[edit]

    • (SK Standard/Seoul) IPA(key): [pɛ(ː)] ~ [pe̞(ː)]
    • Phonetic hangul: [(ː)/(ː)]
      • Though still prescriptive in Standard Korean, most speakers in both Koreas no longer distinguish vowel length.

    Hanja[edit]

    Korean Wikisource has texts containing the hanja:

    Wikisource

    (eumhun (deung bae))

    1. Hanja form? of (back).
    2. Hanja form? of (betrayal).

    Compounds[edit]

    References[edit]

    • 국제퇴계학회 대구경북지부 (國際退溪學會 大邱慶北支部) (2007). Digital Hanja Dictionary, 전자사전/電子字典. [1]

    Vietnamese[edit]

    Han character[edit]

    : Hán Nôm readings: bối, bội, bổi, bồi

    1. This term needs a translation to English. Please help out and add a translation, then remove the text {{rfdef}}.