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See also: , , and
U+548C, 和
CJK UNIFIED IDEOGRAPH-548C

[U+548B]
CJK Unified Ideographs
[U+548D]

Translingual[edit]

Stroke order
和-order.gif

Han character[edit]

(radical 30, +5, 8 strokes, cangjie input 竹木口 (HDR), four-corner 26900, composition)

Descendants[edit]

References[edit]

  • KangXi: page 185, character 1
  • Dai Kanwa Jiten: character 3490
  • Dae Jaweon: page 404, character 3
  • Hanyu Da Zidian: volume 1, page 602, character 1
  • Unihan data for U+548C

Chinese[edit]

simp. and trad.
variant forms

Glyph origin[edit]

Historical forms of the character
Western Zhou Warring States Shuowen Jiezi (compiled in Han)
Bronze inscriptions Chu Slip and silk script Small seal script
和-bronze.svg 和-silk.svg 和-seal.svg
Characters in the same phonetic series () (Zhengzhang, 2003) 
Old Chinese
*kʰoːl, *kʰoːls
*kʰoːl
*kʰoːl
*kʰoːl
*ɡoːl
*ɡoːl, *ɡoːls
*ɡoːl
*ɡoːl, *ɡoːls
*ɡoːl
*ɡoːl
*ɡoːls

Phono-semantic compound (形聲, OC *ɡoːl, *ɡoːls): phonetic  (OC *ɡoːl) + semantic  (mouth) – harmony.

Pronunciation 1[edit]


Note:
  • hô/hô͘ - literary;
  • hê/hêr/hôe - vernacular.
Note:
  • hua5 - literary;
  • huê5 - vernacular (used in 和尚).
  • Wu
  • Xiang

  • Rime
    Character
    Reading # 1/2
    Initial () (33)
    Final () (95)
    Tone (調) Level (Ø)
    Openness (開合) Closed
    Division () I
    Fanqie
    Reconstructions
    Zhengzhang
    Shangfang
    /ɦuɑ/
    Pan
    Wuyun
    /ɦuɑ/
    Shao
    Rongfen
    /ɣuɑ/
    Edwin
    Pulleyblank
    /ɦwa/
    Li
    Rong
    /ɣuɑ/
    Wang
    Li
    /ɣuɑ/
    Bernard
    Karlgren
    /ɣuɑ/
    Expected
    Mandarin
    Reflex
    huó
    BaxterSagart system 1.1 (2014)
    Character
    Reading # 1/2
    Modern
    Beijing
    (Pinyin)
    Middle
    Chinese
    ‹ hwa ›
    Old
    Chinese
    /*[ɢ]ˤoj/
    English harmonious

    Notes for Old Chinese notations in the Baxter–Sagart system:

    * Parentheses "()" indicate uncertain presence;
    * Square brackets "[]" indicate uncertain identity, e.g. *[t] as coda may in fact be *-t or *-p;
    * Angle brackets "<>" indicate infix;
    * Hyphen "-" indicates morpheme boundary;

    * Period "." indicates syllable boundary.
    Zhengzhang system (2003)
    Character
    Reading # 1/2
    No. 4932
    Phonetic
    component
    Rime
    group
    Rime
    subdivision
    3
    Corresponding
    MC rime
    Old
    Chinese
    /*ɡoːl/

    Definitions[edit]

    1. peaceful; harmonious
      •   ―  píng  ―  peace, peaceful
    2. gentle; kind
    3. warm; temperate
    4. sum; total
      •   ―  Wǔ jiā sì de shì jiǔ.  ―  The sum of 5 and 4 is 9.
    5. to make peace; to become reconciled
    6. (chess) to tie
    7. (music) An ancient mouth organ similar to the sheng, but smaller; no longer used.
    8. Japanese
      •   ―    ―  kimono, Japanese traditional clothing
    9. A surname​. He

    Compounds[edit]

    Pronunciation 2[edit]


    Definitions[edit]

    1. and
        ―    ―  me and you
    2. with
    Synonyms[edit]
    Dialectal synonyms of (“and”) [map]
    Variety Location Words
    Classical Chinese
    Formal (Written Standard Chinese)
    Mandarin Beijing
    Taiwan
    Jinan
    Xi'an
    Wuhan
    Chengdu
    Yangzhou
    Hefei
    Cantonese Guangzhou 同埋
    Hong Kong 同埋
    Taishan 同埋
    Yangjiang
    Gan Nanchang
    Hakka Meixian
    Miaoli (N. Sixian)
    Liudui (S. Sixian)
    Hsinchu (Hailu)
    Dongshi (Dabu)
    Zhuolan (Raoping)
    Yunlin (Zhao'an)
    Jin Taiyuan
    Min Bei Jian'ou
    Min Dong Fuzhou
    Min Nan Xiamen
    Quanzhou
    Zhangzhou
    Taipei
    Penang
    Chaozhou
    Wu Shanghai
    Suzhou
    Wenzhou
    Xiang Changsha
    Shuangfeng

    Pronunciation 3[edit]


    Rime
    Character
    Reading # 2/2
    Initial () (33)
    Final () (95)
    Tone (調) Departing (H)
    Openness (開合) Closed
    Division () I
    Fanqie
    Reconstructions
    Zhengzhang
    Shangfang
    /ɦuɑH/
    Pan
    Wuyun
    /ɦuɑH/
    Shao
    Rongfen
    /ɣuɑH/
    Edwin
    Pulleyblank
    /ɦwaH/
    Li
    Rong
    /ɣuɑH/
    Wang
    Li
    /ɣuɑH/
    Bernard
    Karlgren
    /ɣuɑH/
    Expected
    Mandarin
    Reflex
    huò
    BaxterSagart system 1.1 (2014)
    Character
    Reading # 2/2
    Modern
    Beijing
    (Pinyin)
    Middle
    Chinese
    ‹ hwaH ›
    Old
    Chinese
    /*[ɢ]ˤoj-s/
    English tune (instruments); respond in singing

    Notes for Old Chinese notations in the Baxter–Sagart system:

    * Parentheses "()" indicate uncertain presence;
    * Square brackets "[]" indicate uncertain identity, e.g. *[t] as coda may in fact be *-t or *-p;
    * Angle brackets "<>" indicate infix;
    * Hyphen "-" indicates morpheme boundary;

    * Period "." indicates syllable boundary.
    Zhengzhang system (2003)
    Character
    Reading # 2/2
    No. 4937
    Phonetic
    component
    Rime
    group
    Rime
    subdivision
    3
    Corresponding
    MC rime
    Old
    Chinese
    /*ɡoːls/

    Definitions[edit]

    1. to make sounds in concert with; to echo
        ―    ―  to second, to echo
        ―  chàng  ―  antiphon, sung reply
      /   ―  yìng  ―  to echo, to correspond
        ―  chóu  ―  to respond to a poem with a poem

    Compounds[edit]

    Pronunciation 4[edit]

    Definitions[edit]

    1. to mix with water to make something stick together; to knead
      /   ―  huó miàn  ―  to knead dough

    Compounds[edit]

    Pronunciation 5[edit]


    Note: gwo3 - variant pronunciation for the classifier.

    Definitions[edit]

    1. to mix (usually substances in powder or grain form)
      /   ―  jiǎohuo  ―  to stir, to mix
    2. to add water to make something less thick
    3. Classifier for the number of rinses when washing clothes.
    4. Classifier for the number of times a dose of Chinese medicine is boiled.

    Compounds[edit]

    Pronunciation 6[edit]


    Definitions[edit]

    1. to have a winning hand (at mahjong etc)
        ―  pái  ―  to win in mahjong

    Compounds[edit]

    Pronunciation 7[edit]

    Definitions[edit]

    1. warm
        ―  nuǎnhuo  ―  warm
      /   ―  wēnhuo  ―  warm, lukewarm

    Compounds[edit]


    Japanese[edit]

    English Wikipedia has an article on:
    Wikipedia

    Kanji[edit]

    (grade 3 “Kyōiku” kanji)

    Readings[edit]

    Compounds[edit]

    Etymology 1[edit]

    Kanji in this term

    Grade: 3
    on’yomi

    From Middle Chinese (hwa, harmonious).

    The “Japan” sense appears during the reign of Empress Genmei (707–715), as this character was chosen as a homophone with a more favorable meaning to replace the previous character (wa) then in use as the kanji name for Japan[1] (see the etymology at 大和 (やまと) (Yamato) for more details). The “Japan” sense was usually read with a kun'yomi of yamato, until some time in the Muromachi period, when the kan'on reading of Wa became more common.[2]

    Pronunciation[edit]

    Noun[edit]

    (hiragana , rōmaji wa)

    1. peace, harmony
    2. (arithmetic) sum

    See also[edit]

    Proper noun[edit]

    (hiragana , rōmaji Wa)

    1. Japan, Japanese, Nippo-
       () () () (てん)
      Wa-Ro jiten
      Japanese-Russian dictionary
       () (しょく)
      washoku
      Japanese-style food, Japanese cuisine
       () (しつ)
      washitsu
      a Japanese-style room with tatami flooring and usually sliding doors
    Usage notes[edit]

    Often used as a prefix to form compounds, as in the usage examples above.

    Etymology 2[edit]

    Kanji in this term
    やまと
    Grade: 3
    kun’yomi

    Appears during the reign of Empress Genmei (707–715), as this character was chosen as a homophone with a more favorable meaning to replace the previous character (wa) then in use as the kanji name for Japan[1] (see the etymology at 大和 (やまと) (Yamato) for more details). The “Japan” sense was usually read with a kun'yomi of Yamato, until some time in the Muromachi period, when the kan'on reading of Wa became more common.[2]

    In modern Japanese, the Yamato reading is more commonly spelled 大和.

    Pronunciation[edit]

    Alternative forms[edit]

    Proper noun[edit]

    (hiragana やまと, rōmaji Yamato)

    1. 大和: Japan, Japanese

    Etymology 3[edit]

    Kanji in this term
    Grade: 3
    Irregular

    Used as ateji in various names.

    Proper noun[edit]

    (hiragana のどか, rōmaji Nodoka)

    1. A male or female given name

    References[edit]

    1. 1.0 1.1 1.2 2006, 大辞林 (Daijirin), Third Edition (in Japanese), Tōkyō: Sanseidō, →ISBN
    2. 2.0 2.1 1988, 国語大辞典(新装版) (Kokugo Dai Jiten, Revised Edition) (in Japanese), Tōkyō: Shogakukan
    3. ^ 1998, NHK日本語発音アクセント辞典 (NHK Japanese Pronunciation Accent Dictionary) (in Japanese), Tōkyō: NHK, →ISBN

    Korean[edit]

    Hanja[edit]

    (hwa) (hangeul , revised hwa, McCune–Reischauer hwa, Yale hwa)

    1. harmony, peace
    2. get together

    Noun[edit]

    (hwa) (hangeul )

    1. A free reed mouth organ with 13 bamboo pipes used in ancient times

    Compounds[edit]


    Vietnamese[edit]

    Han character[edit]

    (hoà, hoạ)

    1. This term needs a translation to English. Please help out and add a translation, then remove the text {{rfdef}}.

    Readings[edit]

    References[edit]

    • Thiều Chửu : Hán Việt Tự Điển Hà Nội 1942
    • Trần Văn Chánh: Từ Điển Hán Việt NXB Trẻ, Ho Chi Minh Ville, 1999
    • Vũ Văn Kính: Đại Tự Điển Chữ Nôm, NXB Văn Nghệ, Ho Chi Minh Ville, 1999