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See also: , , and
U+548C, 和
CJK UNIFIED IDEOGRAPH-548C

[U+548B]
CJK Unified Ideographs
[U+548D]

Translingual[edit]

Stroke order
8 strokes
Stroke order
和-order.gif

Han character[edit]

(radical 30, +5, 8 strokes, cangjie input 竹木口 (HDR), four-corner 26900, composition)

Derived characters[edit]

Descendants[edit]

References[edit]

  • KangXi: page 185, character 1
  • Dai Kanwa Jiten: character 3490
  • Dae Jaweon: page 404, character 3
  • Hanyu Da Zidian (first edition): volume 1, page 602, character 1
  • Unihan data for U+548C

Chinese[edit]

simp. and trad.
alternative forms

Glyph origin[edit]

Historical forms of the character
Western Zhou Warring States Shuowen Jiezi (compiled in Han)
Bronze inscriptions Chu Slip and silk script Qin slip script Small seal script
龢-bronze.svg 咊-silk.svg 和-slip.svg 咊-seal.svg

Phono-semantic compound (形聲, OC *ɡoːl, *ɡoːls): phonetic  (OC *ɡoːl) + semantic  (mouth) – harmony.

Etymology[edit]

(This etymology is missing or incomplete. Please add to it, or discuss it at the Etymology scriptorium. Particularly: “see talk”)

“and; with”
Zhao (2018) suggests that hàn and hài are contractions of 還有还有 (háiyǒu).
“Japanese”
Orthographic borrowing from Japanese (やまと) (Yamato).
“Nodoka”
Orthographic borrowing from Japanese (のどか) (Nodoka).

Pronunciation 1[edit]


Note:
  • hô/hô͘ - literary;
  • hê/hêr/hôe - vernacular.
Note:
  • hua5 - literary;
  • huê5 - vernacular (used in 和尚).
  • Wu
  • Xiang

    Rime
    Character
    Reading # 1/2
    Initial () (33)
    Final () (95)
    Tone (調) Level (Ø)
    Openness (開合) Closed
    Division () I
    Fanqie
    Reconstructions
    Zhengzhang
    Shangfang
    /ɦuɑ/
    Pan
    Wuyun
    /ɦuɑ/
    Shao
    Rongfen
    /ɣuɑ/
    Edwin
    Pulleyblank
    /ɦwa/
    Li
    Rong
    /ɣuɑ/
    Wang
    Li
    /ɣuɑ/
    Bernard
    Karlgren
    /ɣuɑ/
    Expected
    Mandarin
    Reflex
    huó
    BaxterSagart system 1.1 (2014)
    Character
    Reading # 1/2
    Modern
    Beijing
    (Pinyin)
    Middle
    Chinese
    ‹ hwa ›
    Old
    Chinese
    /*[ɢ]ˁoj/
    English harmonious

    Notes for Old Chinese notations in the Baxter–Sagart system:

    * Parentheses "()" indicate uncertain presence;
    * Square brackets "[]" indicate uncertain identity, e.g. *[t] as coda may in fact be *-t or *-p;
    * Angle brackets "<>" indicate infix;
    * Hyphen "-" indicates morpheme boundary;

    * Period "." indicates syllable boundary.
    Zhengzhang system (2003)
    Character
    Reading # 1/2
    No. 4932
    Phonetic
    component
    Rime
    group
    Rime
    subdivision
    3
    Corresponding
    MC rime
    Old
    Chinese
    /*ɡoːl/

    Definitions[edit]

    1. peaceful; harmonious
      •   ―  píng  ―  peace, peaceful
    2. gentle; kind
    3. warm; temperate
    4. sum; total
      •   ―  Wǔ jiā sì de shì jiǔ.  ―  The sum of 5 and 4 is 9.
    5. to make peace; to become reconciled
    6. (chess) to tie
    7. (music) An ancient mouth organ similar to the sheng, but smaller; no longer used.
    8. Japanese
      •   ―    ―  kimono, Japanese traditional clothing
    9. A surname​. He
    10. Nodoka (a Japanese unisex given name)

    Compounds[edit]

    Descendants[edit]

    • Thai: ฮั้ว (húua)

    Pronunciation 2[edit]


    Definitions[edit]

    1. and
        ―    ―  me and you
    2. with
    Synonyms[edit]

    Pronunciation 3[edit]



    Rime
    Character
    Reading # 2/2
    Initial () (33)
    Final () (95)
    Tone (調) Departing (H)
    Openness (開合) Closed
    Division () I
    Fanqie
    Reconstructions
    Zhengzhang
    Shangfang
    /ɦuɑH/
    Pan
    Wuyun
    /ɦuɑH/
    Shao
    Rongfen
    /ɣuɑH/
    Edwin
    Pulleyblank
    /ɦwaH/
    Li
    Rong
    /ɣuɑH/
    Wang
    Li
    /ɣuɑH/
    Bernard
    Karlgren
    /ɣuɑH/
    Expected
    Mandarin
    Reflex
    huò
    BaxterSagart system 1.1 (2014)
    Character
    Reading # 2/2
    Modern
    Beijing
    (Pinyin)
    Middle
    Chinese
    ‹ hwaH ›
    Old
    Chinese
    /*[ɢ]ˁoj-s/
    English tune (instruments); respond in singing

    Notes for Old Chinese notations in the Baxter–Sagart system:

    * Parentheses "()" indicate uncertain presence;
    * Square brackets "[]" indicate uncertain identity, e.g. *[t] as coda may in fact be *-t or *-p;
    * Angle brackets "<>" indicate infix;
    * Hyphen "-" indicates morpheme boundary;

    * Period "." indicates syllable boundary.
    Zhengzhang system (2003)
    Character
    Reading # 2/2
    No. 4937
    Phonetic
    component
    Rime
    group
    Rime
    subdivision
    3
    Corresponding
    MC rime
    Old
    Chinese
    /*ɡoːls/

    Definitions[edit]

    1. to make sounds in concert with; to echo
        ―    ―  to second, to echo
        ―  chàng  ―  antiphon, sung reply
      /   ―  yìng  ―  to echo, to correspond
        ―  chóu  ―  to respond to a poem with a poem

    Compounds[edit]

    Pronunciation 4[edit]


    Definitions[edit]

    1. to mix with water to make something stick together; to knead
      /   ―  huómiàn  ―  to knead dough

    Compounds[edit]

    Pronunciation 5[edit]


    Note: gwo3 - variant pronunciation for the classifier.
    Note: classifier.

    Definitions[edit]

    1. to mix (usually substances in powder or grain form)
      /   ―  jiǎohuo  ―  to stir, to mix
    2. to add water to make something less thick
    3. Classifier for the number of rinses when washing clothes.
    4. Classifier for the number of times a dose of traditional Chinese medicine is boiled.

    Compounds[edit]

    Pronunciation 6[edit]


    Definitions[edit]

    1. to have a winning hand (at mahjong etc)
        ―  pái  ―  to win in mahjong

    Compounds[edit]

    Pronunciation 7[edit]


    Definitions[edit]

    1. warm
        ―  nuǎnhuo  ―  warm
      /   ―  wēnhuo  ―  warm, lukewarm

    Compounds[edit]


    Japanese[edit]

    English Wikipedia has an article on:
    Wikipedia

    Kanji[edit]

    (grade 3 “Kyōiku” kanji)

    Readings[edit]

    Compounds[edit]

    Etymology 1[edit]

    Kanji in this term

    Grade: 3
    on’yomi

    From Middle Chinese (hwa, harmonious).

    The “Japan” sense appears during the reign of Empress Genmei (707–715), as this character was chosen as a homophone with a more favorable meaning to replace the previous character () (Wa) then in use as the kanji name for Japan[1] (see the etymology at 大和(やまと) (Yamato) for more details). The “Japan” sense was usually read with a kun'yomi of yamato, until some time in the Muromachi period, when the kan'on reading of Wa became more common.[2]

    Pronunciation[edit]

    Noun[edit]

    () (wa

    1. peace, harmony, tranquillity, serenity.
    2. (arithmetic) sum
      Antonym: (sa) (difference)

    See also[edit]

    Affix[edit]

    () (wa

    1. Japan, Japanese, Nippo-
      ()()()(てん)
      Wa-Ro jiten
      Japanese-Russian dictionary
      ()(しょく)
      washoku
      Japanese-style food, Japanese cuisine
      ()(しつ)
      washitsu
      a Japanese-style room with tatami flooring and usually sliding doors

    Etymology 2[edit]

    Kanji in this term
    やまと
    Grade: 3
    kun’yomi

    Appears during the reign of Empress Genmei (707–715), as this character was chosen as a homophone with a more favorable meaning to replace the previous character () (Wa) then in use as the kanji name for Japan[1] (see the etymology at 大和(やまと) (Yamato) for more details). The “Japan” sense was usually read with a kun'yomi of Yamato, until some time in the Muromachi period, when the kan'on reading of Wa became more common.[2]

    In modern Japanese, the Yamato reading is more commonly spelled 大和.

    Proper noun[edit]

    For pronunciation and definitions of – see the following entry.
    大和やまと
    [proper noun] a town in the Shikinoshimo district in the Yamato Province of Japan, generally equivalent to modern Tenri area
    [proper noun] A city in Kanagawa Prefecture
    [proper noun] one of the old provinces that made up Japan, generally equivalent to modern Nara prefecture
    [proper noun] the country of Japan
    Alternative spellings
    ,
    (This term, , is an alternative spelling of the above term.)

    Etymology 3[edit]

    Kanji in this term
    のど
    Grade: 3
    kun’yomi
    For pronunciation and definitions of – see the following entry.
    のどS
    [adjective] (archaic) tranquil; calm; quiet; peaceful
    (This term, , is an alternative spelling of the above term.)

    Etymology 4[edit]

    Kanji in this term
    のどか
    Grade: 3
    Irregular

    Used as ateji in various names.

    Proper noun[edit]

    (のどか) (Nodoka

    1. A unisex given name

    References[edit]

    1. 1.0 1.1 1.2 2006, 大辞林 (Daijirin), Third Edition (in Japanese), Tōkyō: Sanseidō, →ISBN
    2. 2.0 2.1 1988, 国語大辞典(新装版) (Kokugo Dai Jiten, Revised Edition) (in Japanese), Tōkyō: Shogakukan
    3. ^ 1998, NHK日本語発音アクセント辞典 (NHK Japanese Pronunciation Accent Dictionary) (in Japanese), Tōkyō: NHK, →ISBN

    Korean[edit]

    Hanja[edit]

    (hwa) (hangeul , revised hwa, McCune–Reischauer hwa, Yale hwa)

    1. harmony, peace
    2. get together

    Noun[edit]

    (hwa) (hangeul )

    1. A free reed mouth organ with 13 bamboo pipes used in ancient times

    Compounds[edit]


    Vietnamese[edit]

    Han character[edit]

    (hoà, hoạ)

    1. This term needs a translation to English. Please help out and add a translation, then remove the text {{rfdef}}.

    Readings[edit]

    References[edit]

    • Thiều Chửu : Hán Việt Tự Điển Hà Nội 1942
    • Trần Văn Chánh: Từ Điển Hán Việt NXB Trẻ, Ho Chi Minh Ville, 1999
    • Vũ Văn Kính: Đại Tự Điển Chữ Nôm, NXB Văn Nghệ, Ho Chi Minh Ville, 1999