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See also: , , and

Translingual[edit]

Han character[edit]

(radical 30 +5, 8 strokes, cangjie input 竹木口 (HDR), four-corner 26900, composition)

Descendants[edit]

References[edit]

  • KangXi: page 185, character 1
  • Dai Kanwa Jiten: character 3490
  • Dae Jaweon: page 404, character 3
  • Hanyu Da Zidian: volume 1, page 602, character 1
  • Unihan data for U+548C

Chinese[edit]

simp. and trad.
alt. forms

Glyph origin[edit]

Ancient simplification of .

Pronunciation 1[edit]


Middle Chinese pronunciation (, reconstructed)
Character (), Pronunciation 1/2

Initial: (33)
Final: (95)
Tone: Level (Ø)

Openness: Closed
Division: I
Fanqie:

Expected Mandarin reflex: huó
Zhengzhang
Shangfang
Pan
Wuyun
Shao
Rongfen
Edwin
Pulleyblank
Li
Rong
Wang
Li
Bernard
Karlgren
/ɦuɑ/ /ɦuɑ/ /ɣuɑ/ /ɦwa/ /ɣuɑ/ /ɣuɑ/ /ɣuɑ/
Old Chinese pronunciation (, reconstructed)
Baxter-Sagart system 1.1 (2014)
Character Modern Beijing
(Pinyin)
Middle Chinese Old Chinese English
‹ hwa › /*[ɢ]ˤoj/ harmonious

Notes for Old Chinese notations in the Baxter-Sagart system:

  • Parentheses "()" indicate uncertain presence;
  • Square brackets "[]" indicate uncertain identity, e.g. *[t] as coda may in fact be *-t or *-p;
  • Angle brackets "<>" indicate infix;
  • Hyphen "-" indicates morpheme boundary;
  • Period "." indicates syllable boundary.
Zhengzhang system (2003)
Character No. Phonetic
component
Rime
group
Rime
subdivision
Corresponding
MC rime
Old Chinese Notes
4932 3 /*ɡoːl/

Definitions[edit]

  1. peaceful; harmonious
    •   ―  píng  ―  peace, peaceful
  2. gentle; kind
  3. warm; temperate
  4. sum; total
    •   ―  Wǔ jiā sì de shì jiǔ.  ―  The sum of 5 and 4 is 9.
  5. to make peace; to become reconciled
  6. (chess) to tie
  7. (music) An ancient mouth organ similar to the sheng, but smaller; no longer used.
  8. Japanese
    •   ―    ―  kimono, Japanese traditional clothing
  9. A surname​. He

Pronunciation 2[edit]


Definitions[edit]

  1. and
      ―    ―  me and you
  2. with
See also[edit]
Dialectal synonyms of ("and")
Variety Location Words
Classical Classical
Mandarin Beijing
Taiwan
Cantonese Guangzhou 同埋
Hong Kong 同埋
Taishan 同埋
Hakka Miaoli (N. Sixian)
Liudui (S. Sixian)
Hsinchu (Hailu)
Dongshi (Dabu)
Taiwanese Raoping
Yunlin (Zhao'an)
Min Nan Quanzhou
Xiamen
Zhangzhou
Taipei
Malaysia
Chaozhou
Wu Wenzhou

Pronunciation 3[edit]

Middle Chinese pronunciation (, reconstructed)
Character (), Pronunciation 2/2

Initial: (33)
Final: (95)
Tone: Departing (H)

Openness: Closed
Division: I
Fanqie:

Expected Mandarin reflex: huò
Zhengzhang
Shangfang
Pan
Wuyun
Shao
Rongfen
Edwin
Pulleyblank
Li
Rong
Wang
Li
Bernard
Karlgren
/ɦuɑH/ /ɦuɑH/ /ɣuɑH/ /ɦwaH/ /ɣuɑH/ /ɣuɑH/ /ɣuɑH/
Old Chinese pronunciation (, reconstructed)
Baxter-Sagart system 1.1 (2014)
Character Modern Beijing
(Pinyin)
Middle Chinese Old Chinese English
‹ hwaH › /*[ɢ]ˤoj-s/ tune (instruments); respond in singing

Notes for Old Chinese notations in the Baxter-Sagart system:

  • Parentheses "()" indicate uncertain presence;
  • Square brackets "[]" indicate uncertain identity, e.g. *[t] as coda may in fact be *-t or *-p;
  • Angle brackets "<>" indicate infix;
  • Hyphen "-" indicates morpheme boundary;
  • Period "." indicates syllable boundary.
Zhengzhang system (2003)
Character No. Phonetic
component
Rime
group
Rime
subdivision
Corresponding
MC rime
Old Chinese Notes
4937 3 /*ɡoːls/

Definitions[edit]

  1. (literary) to make sounds in concert with; to echo
      ―    ―  to second, to echo
      ―  chàng  ―  antiphon, sung reply
    /   ―  yìng  ―  to echo, to correspond
      ―  chóu  ―  to respond to a poem with a poem

Pronunciation 4[edit]


Definitions[edit]

  1. (literary) to stir; to mix
    /   ―  jiǎohuo  ―  to stir, to mix
    /   ―  huò miàn  ―  to knead dough
      ―  hùnhuò  ―  mixture, amalgame
      ―  róuhuò/hé  ―  to knead

Pronunciation 5[edit]

Definitions[edit]

  1. (literary) to have a winning hand (at mahjong etc)
      ―  pái  ―  to win in mahjong

Pronunciation 6[edit]

Definitions[edit]

  1. warm
      ―  nuǎnhuo  ―  warm
    /   ―  wēnhuo  ―  warm, lukewarm

Compounds[edit]


Japanese[edit]

Wikipedia has an article on:

Wikipedia

Kanji[edit]

(grade 3 “Kyōiku” kanji)

Readings[edit]

Compounds[edit]

Etymology 1[edit]

Kanji in this term

Grade: 3
on'yomi

From Middle Chinese ‎(hwa, harmonious).

The “Japan” sense appears during the reign of Empress Genmei (707–715), as this character was chosen as a homophone with a more favorable meaning to replace the previous character ‎(wa) then in use as the kanji name for Japan[1] (see the etymology at 大和 (やまと) ‎(Yamato) for more details). The “Japan” sense was usually read with a kun'yomi of yamato, until some time in the Muromachi period, when the kan'on reading of Wa became more common.[2]

Pronunciation[edit]

Noun[edit]

‎(hiragana , romaji wa)

  1. peace, harmony
  2. (arithmetic) sum

See also[edit]

Proper noun[edit]

‎(hiragana , romaji Wa)

  1. Japan, Japanese, Nippo-
     ()露辞典 (ろじてん)
    Wa-Ro jiten
    Japanese-Russian dictionary
     () (しょく)
    washoku
    Japanese-style food, Japanese cuisine
     () (しつ)
    washitsu
    a Japanese-style room with tatami flooring and usually sliding doors
Usage notes[edit]

Often used as a prefix to form compounds, as in the usage examples above.

Etymology 2[edit]

Kanji in this term
やまと
Grade: 3
kun'yomi

Appears during the reign of Empress Genmei (707–715), as this character was chosen as a homophone with a more favorable meaning to replace the previous character ‎(wa) then in use as the kanji name for Japan[1] (see the etymology at 大和 (やまと) ‎(Yamato) for more details). The “Japan” sense was usually read with a kun'yomi of Yamato, until some time in the Muromachi period, when the kan'on reading of Wa became more common.[2]

In modern Japanese, the Yamato reading is more commonly spelled 大和.

Pronunciation[edit]

Alternative forms[edit]

Proper noun[edit]

‎(hiragana やまと, romaji Yamato)

  1. 大和: Japan, Japanese

Etymology 3[edit]

Kanji in this term
Grade: 3
Irregular

Used as ateji in various names.

Proper noun[edit]

‎(hiragana のどか, romaji Nodoka)

  1. A male given name

References[edit]

  1. 1.0 1.1 1.2 2006, 大辞林 (Daijirin), Third Edition (in Japanese), Tōkyō: Sanseidō, ISBN 4-385-13905-9
  2. 2.0 2.1 1988, 国語大辞典(新装版) (Kokugo Dai Jiten, Revised Edition) (in Japanese), Tōkyō: Shogakukan
  3. ^ 1998, NHK日本語発音アクセント辞典 (NHK Japanese Pronunciation Accent Dictionary) (in Japanese), Tōkyō: NHK, ISBN 978-4-14-011112-3

Korean[edit]

Hanja[edit]

‎(hwa) (hangeul , revised hwa, McCune-Reischauer hwa, Yale hwa)

  1. This entry needs a definition. Please add one, then remove {{defn}}.

Noun[edit]

‎(hwa) ‎(hangeul )

  1. A free reed mouth organ with 13 bamboo pipes used in ancient times

Vietnamese[edit]

Han character[edit]

(hoà, hoạ)

  1. This entry needs a definition. Please add one, then remove {{defn}}.

Readings[edit]

References[edit]

  • Thiều Chửu : Hán Việt Tự Điển Hà Nội 1942
  • Trần Văn Chánh: Từ Điển Hán Việt NXB Trẻ, Ho Chi Minh Ville, 1999
  • Vũ Văn Kính: Đại Tự Điển Chữ Nôm, NXB Văn Nghệ, Ho Chi Minh Ville, 1999