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See also: and
U+8CB7, 買
CJK UNIFIED IDEOGRAPH-8CB7

[U+8CB6]
CJK Unified Ideographs
[U+8CB8]

Translingual[edit]

Han character[edit]

(radical 154, +5, 12 strokes, cangjie input 田中月山金 (WLBUC), four-corner 60806, composition)

Descendants[edit]

References[edit]

  • KangXi: page 1206, character 21
  • Dai Kanwa Jiten: character 36708
  • Dae Jaweon: page 1669, character 9
  • Hanyu Da Zidian (first edition): volume 6, page 3633, character 7
  • Unihan data for U+8CB7

Chinese[edit]

trad.
simp.
alternative forms 𧹒

Glyph origin[edit]

Historical forms of the character
Shang Spring and Autumn
Bronze inscriptions Bronze inscriptions
買-bronze-shang.svg 買-bronze-spring.svg

Ideogrammic compound (會意):  (net) +  (money cowrie).

Baxter and Sagart (2014) consider it to be a phono-semantic compound (形聲): abbreviated phonetic  (*rˤaj) + semantic  (money cowrie).

Etymology[edit]

Possibly from Proto-Sino-Tibetan *g/m/s-laj ~ *r/s-lej ~ *b-rej (to buy; to barter); compare Proto-Karen *breᴬ (to buy), Proto-Bodo-Garo *prai¹ (to buy), Tibetan རྗེ (rje, to exchange; to barter) (Schuessler, 2007; Sagart, 1999, 2011). Benedict (1967, 1972) considers this allofam to be a result of borrowing from Austro-Tai *(m)baḷi several times into Sino-Tibetan languages.

Alternatively, Haudricourt and Strecker (1991) consider and to be borrowed from Hmong-Mien, which may have a family of verbs related to possession: *mɛjX (to buy, corresponding to ), *mɛjH (to buy, corresponding to ), *ʔ-mɛj (to grasp), *n-mɛj (to have) (Ratliff, 2010). However, Sagart (1995) argues that the direction of borrowing is more likely to be from Chinese to Hmong-Mien because Hmong-Mien does not seem to have a suffix that would give rise to the tone in the word for “to buy”. In addition to these two ways of relating the Chinese word to Hmong-Mien, Ratliff (2010) proposes common inheritance as a third option and maintains that more evidence is needed to determine which of the three explanations are correct.

Pronunciation[edit]


Note:
  • mā̤ - vernacular;
  • māi - literary.
  • Min Nan
  • Note:
    • bóe/bé - vernacular;
    • mái - literary.
  • Wu
  • Xiang

    • Dialectal data
    Variety Location
    Mandarin Beijing /mai²¹⁴/
    Harbin /mai²¹³/
    Tianjin /mai¹³/
    Jinan /mɛ⁵⁵/
    Qingdao /mɛ⁵⁵/
    Zhengzhou /mai⁵³/
    Xi'an /mai⁵³/
    Xining /mɛ⁵³/
    Yinchuan /mɛ⁵³/
    Lanzhou /mɛ⁴⁴²/
    Ürümqi /mai⁵¹/
    Wuhan /mai⁴²/
    Chengdu /mai⁵³/
    Guiyang /mai⁴²/
    Kunming /mæ⁵³/
    Nanjing /mae²¹²/
    Hefei /me̞²⁴/
    Jin Taiyuan /mai⁵³/
    Pingyao /mæ⁵³/
    Hohhot /mɛ⁵³/
    Wu Shanghai /ma²³/
    Suzhou /mɑ³¹/
    Hangzhou /me̞⁵³/
    Wenzhou /ma³⁵/
    Hui Shexian /ma³⁵/
    Tunxi /ma²⁴/
    Xiang Changsha /mai⁴¹/
    Xiangtan /mai⁴²/
    Gan Nanchang /mai²¹³/
    Hakka Meixian /mai⁴⁴/
    Taoyuan /mɑi²⁴/
    Cantonese Guangzhou /mai²³/
    Nanning /mai²⁴/
    Hong Kong /mai¹³/
    Min Xiamen (Min Nan) /mai⁵³/
    /bue⁵³/
    Fuzhou (Min Dong) /mɛ³²/
    Jian'ou (Min Bei) /mai²¹/
    Shantou (Min Nan) /boi⁵³/
    Haikou (Min Nan) /mai²¹³/ ~办
    /vɔi²¹³/

    Rime
    Character
    Reading # 1/1
    Initial () (4)
    Final () (31)
    Tone (調) Rising (X)
    Openness (開合) Open
    Division () II
    Fanqie
    Reconstructions
    Zhengzhang
    Shangfang
    /mˠɛX/
    Pan
    Wuyun
    /mᵚæX/
    Shao
    Rongfen
    /mæiX/
    Edwin
    Pulleyblank
    /maɨjX/
    Li
    Rong
    /mɛX/
    Wang
    Li
    /maiX/
    Bernard
    Karlgren
    /maiX/
    Expected
    Mandarin
    Reflex
    mǎi
    BaxterSagart system 1.1 (2014)
    Character
    Reading # 1/1
    Modern
    Beijing
    (Pinyin)
    mǎi
    Middle
    Chinese
    ‹ meaX ›
    Old
    Chinese
    /*mˁrajʔ/
    English buy

    Notes for Old Chinese notations in the Baxter–Sagart system:

    * Parentheses "()" indicate uncertain presence;
    * Square brackets "[]" indicate uncertain identity, e.g. *[t] as coda may in fact be *-t or *-p;
    * Angle brackets "<>" indicate infix;
    * Hyphen "-" indicates morpheme boundary;

    * Period "." indicates syllable boundary.
    Zhengzhang system (2003)
    Character
    Reading # 1/1
    No. 8727
    Phonetic
    component
    Rime
    group
    Rime
    subdivision
    0
    Corresponding
    MC rime
    Old
    Chinese
    /*mreːʔ/

    Definitions[edit]

    1. to buy; to purchase
      /   ―  mǎi le liàng xīn chē.  ―  I bought a new car.
    2. to bribe
    3. to persuade
    4. A surname​.

    Antonyms[edit]

    • (to buy): (mài, “to sell”)

    Compounds[edit]

    Descendants[edit]

    • Hmong-Mien: *mɛjX (to buy)

    Further reading[edit]


    Japanese[edit]

    Kanji[edit]

    (grade 2 “Kyōiku” kanji)

    1. to buy

    Readings[edit]

    Compounds[edit]

    Antonyms[edit]

    Derived terms[edit]


    Korean[edit]

    Hanja[edit]

    (eumhun (sal mae))

    1. Hanja form? of (buy).

    Vietnamese[edit]

    Han character[edit]

    (mãi, mạy, mảy, mấy, mới, mái, mải, với)

    1. This term needs a translation to English. Please help out and add a translation, then remove the text {{rfdef}}.