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Translingual[edit]

Etymology[edit]

Pictogram (象形): the sun () sinking into the horizon ( + ).

Both the top and bottom were originally 艹 "grass" — the bottom was later distorted into 大. The original meaning was "dusk," later borrowed for an abstract word. The character uses the original meaning.

Han character[edit]

(radical 140 +7, 13 strokes, cangjie input 廿日大 (TAK), four-corner 44430, composition)

  1. not, do not, is not, cannot, unable to
  2. negative
  3. A surname​.

Derived characters[edit]

References[edit]

  • KangXi: page 1035, character 13
  • Dai Kanwa Jiten: character 31078
  • Dae Jaweon: page 1494, character 13
  • Hanyu Da Zidian: volume 5, page 3217, character 15
  • Unihan data for U+83AB

Chinese[edit]

simp. and trad.

Pronunciation[edit]


Dialectal pronunciations ()
Variety Location
Mandarin Beijing /mo⁵¹/
Harbin /mɤ⁵³/
Tianjin /mo⁵³/
Jinan /mə²¹/
Qingdao /mə⁴²/
Zhengzhou /mo²⁴/
Xi'an /mo²¹/
Xining /mɔ⁴⁴/
Yinchuan /muə¹³/
Lanzhou /mə¹³/
Ürümqi /mɤ²¹³/
Wuhan /mo²¹³/
Chengdu /mo³¹/
Guiyang /mo²¹/
Kunming /mo³¹/
Nanjing /moʔ⁵/
Hefei /mɐʔ⁵/
Jin Taiyuan /maʔ²/
Pingyao /mʌʔ⁵³/
Hohhot /maʔ⁴³/
Wu Shanghai /moʔ¹/
Suzhou /noʔ³/
Hangzhou /moʔ²/
Wenzhou /mo²¹³/
Hui Shexian /mɔʔ²¹/
Tunxi /mo¹¹/
Xiang Changsha /mo²⁴/
Xiangtan /mo²⁴/
Gan Nanchang /mɔʔ²/
/mɵʔ²/
Hakka Meixian /mok̚⁵/
Taoyuan /mok̚⁵⁵/
Cantonese Guangzhou /mɔk̚²/
Nanning /mɔk̚²²/
Hong Kong /mɔk̚²/
Min Xiamen (Min Nan) /bɔk̚⁵/
Fuzhou (Min Dong) /moʔ⁵/
Jian'ou (Min Bei) /mz̩²⁴/
Shantou (Min Nan) /mok̚⁵/
Haikou (Min Nan) /vo³³/ 不要
/mo³³/
Middle Chinese pronunciation (, reconstructed)
Character (), Pronunciation 1/1

Initial: (4)
Final: (103)
Tone: Checked (Ø)

Openness: Open
Division: I
Fanqie:

Expected Mandarin reflex: mò
Zhengzhang
Shangfang
Pan
Wuyun
Shao
Rongfen
Edwin
Pulleyblank
Li
Rong
Wang
Li
Bernard
Karlgren
/mɑk̚/ /mɑk̚/ /mɑk̚/ /mak̚/ /mɑk̚/ /mɑk̚/ /mɑk̚/
Old Chinese pronunciation (, reconstructed)
Baxter-Sagart system 1.1 (2014)
Character Modern Beijing
(Pinyin)
Middle Chinese Old Chinese English
‹ mak › /*mˤak/ there is no X such that X
‹ mak › /*mˤak/ deliberate (v.) (loan)

Notes for Old Chinese notations in the Baxter-Sagart system:

  • Parentheses "()" indicate uncertain presence;
  • Square brackets "[]" indicate uncertain identity, e.g. *[t] as coda may in fact be *-t or *-p;
  • Angle brackets "<>" indicate infix;
  • Hyphen "-" indicates morpheme boundary;
  • Period "." indicates syllable boundary.
Zhengzhang system (2003)
Character No. Phonetic
component
Rime
group
Rime
subdivision
Corresponding
MC rime
Old Chinese Notes
9252 0 /*maːɡ/

Definitions[edit]

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Synonyms[edit]

See also[edit]

References[edit]


Japanese[edit]

Kanji[edit]

(“Jinmeiyō” kanji used for names)

  1. This entry needs a definition. Please add one, then remove {{defn}}.

Readings[edit]


Korean[edit]

Hanja[edit]

‎(mak, mo) (hangeul , , revised mak, mo, McCune-Reischauer mak, mo, Yale mak, mo)

  1. This entry needs a definition. Please add one, then remove {{defn}}.

Vietnamese[edit]

Han character[edit]

(mạc)

  1. This entry needs a definition. Please add one, then remove {{defn}}.