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See also: 日月
U+660E, 明
CJK UNIFIED IDEOGRAPH-660E

[U+660D]
CJK Unified Ideographs
[U+660F]

Translingual[edit]

Stroke order
0 strokes

Han character[edit]

(radical 72, +4, 8 strokes, cangjie input 日月 (AB), four-corner 67020, composition)

References[edit]

  • KangXi: page 491, character 12
  • Dai Kanwa Jiten: character 13805
  • Dae Jaweon: page 852, character 18
  • Hanyu Da Zidian (first edition): volume 2, page 1491, character 8
  • Unihan data for U+660E

Chinese[edit]

simp. and trad.
alternative forms


𤰾
𣇱

Glyph origin[edit]

Historical forms of the character
Shang Western Zhou Warring States Shuowen Jiezi (compiled in Han) Liushutong (compiled in Ming)
Oracle bone script Bronze inscriptions Chu Slip and silk script Ancient script Small seal script Transcribed ancient scripts
明-oracle.svg 明-bronze.svg 明-silk.svg 明-ancient.svg 明-seal.svg 明-bigseal.svg

Ideogrammic compound (會意): (sun) + (moon) – the sun just rising and the moon not yet set – dawn (天明). Alternatively, it may be interpreted as two bright celestial bodies – bright. This form was already found in the oracle bone script and was prevalent throughout the eras.

Three other forms were found in the oracle bone script:

  • < (window) + – the moon shining through a window – moonlight. This form was also prevalent in the ancient scripts and was considered to be the standard form in Shuowen. See this form's entry for its historical forms.
  • < (eye) + – bright eyes. This form was rarely attested, so it is still uncertain whether this form is actually equivalent to . It reappeared in the bamboo script of the Qin dynasty, but this was probably a corruption of .
  • 𤰾 < + – probably a corruption of the above forms.

Etymology[edit]

Of either Proto-Sino-Tibetan origin, compare

Or from Austroasiatic, cognate with (OC *raŋs, “bright”) (Schuessler, 2007). For more see (OC *raŋs).

(OC *mraŋ, *mraːŋs, “covenant”) is a derivative (Schuessler, 2007).

“Akira”
Orthographic borrowing from Japanese (あきら) (akira).

Pronunciation[edit]


Note: míngr - "tomorrow".
Note:
  • mìn - literary;
  • miàng, màng - vernacular.
  • Jin
  • Min Bei
  • Min Dong
  • Note:
    • màng - vernacular;
    • mìng - literary.
  • Min Nan
  • Note:
    • bêng - literary;
    • bîn, miâ - vernacular;
    • mê/mêe/mî/môa/mâ - vernacular (limited, e.g. 明年).
  • Wu
  • Note:
    • 3men - vernacular;
    • 3min - literary.
  • Xiang

    Rime
    Character
    Reading # 1/1
    Initial () (4)
    Final () (111)
    Tone (調) Level (Ø)
    Openness (開合) Open
    Division () III
    Fanqie
    Reconstructions
    Zhengzhang
    Shangfang
    /mˠiæŋ/
    Pan
    Wuyun
    /mᵚiaŋ/
    Shao
    Rongfen
    /miaŋ/
    Edwin
    Pulleyblank
    /miajŋ/
    Li
    Rong
    /miɐŋ/
    Wang
    Li
    /mĭɐŋ/
    Bernard
    Karlgren
    /mi̯ɐŋ/
    Expected
    Mandarin
    Reflex
    míng
    BaxterSagart system 1.1 (2014)
    Character
    Reading # 1/1
    Modern
    Beijing
    (Pinyin)
    míng
    Middle
    Chinese
    ‹ mjæng ›
    Old
    Chinese
    /*mraŋ/
    English bright

    Notes for Old Chinese notations in the Baxter–Sagart system:

    * Parentheses "()" indicate uncertain presence;
    * Square brackets "[]" indicate uncertain identity, e.g. *[t] as coda may in fact be *-t or *-p;
    * Angle brackets "<>" indicate infix;
    * Hyphen "-" indicates morpheme boundary;

    * Period "." indicates syllable boundary.
    Zhengzhang system (2003)
    Character
    Reading # 1/1
    No. 9188
    Phonetic
    component
    Rime
    group
    Rime
    subdivision
    0
    Corresponding
    MC rime
    Old
    Chinese
    /*mraŋ/

    Definitions[edit]

    1. bright; light; brilliant
        ―  míngyuè  ―  splendid moon
    2. clear; limpid (transparent; light-conducting; not obscured)
      几淨 / 几净  ―  chuāngmíngjījìng  ―  a neat place (literally, "the window is clear, the desk is clean")
    3. manifest; apparent (easily seen, perceived, or detected)
      /   ―  míngxiǎn  ―  obvious
      /   ―  míngliǎo  ―  apparent; simple and clear
      明明  ―  míngmíng  ―  clearly
    4. vision; sight (the ability to see)
        ―  shīmíng  ―  to be blind; to lose eyesight
    5. (of vision) acute; sharp; keen
      耳聰目 / 耳聪目  ―  ěrcōngmùmíng  ―  sharp at hearing and vision
    6. (figuratively) intellect; knowledge; judgement; discernment; sensibility
      /   ―  míng  ―  ignorance; avijjā
    7. (figuratively) intelligent; sensible; informed; wise
        ―  míngzhì  ―  wise; sensible
    8. to understand
      /   ―  jiǎngmíng  ―  to explain
      一定出聲 [Cantonese, trad.]
      一定出声 [Cantonese, simp.]
      nei5 m4 ming4 jat1 ding6 jiu3 ceot1 seng1. [Jyutping]
      If you don't understand you must speak up.
      真係唔係點解(……) [Cantonese, trad.]
      真系唔系点解(……) [Cantonese, simp.]
      ngo5 zan1 hai6 m4 hai6 hou2 ming4 dim2 gaai2 (......) [Jyutping]
      I really don't get why (…)
    9. tomorrow
    10. next; following
        ―  míngnián  ―  next year or the following year
    11. (~朝) Ming dynasty
    12. A surname​, listed as #111 on the Baijiaxing
    13. () (Chinese linguistics) the Middle Chinese initial of (MC mˠiæŋ)
    14. (Should we delete(+) this sense?) An orthographic borrowing of the Japanese male given name [Term?], Akira

    See also[edit]

    Dynasties (朝代) in Chinese history
    Name Time period Divisions
    Xia
    (~朝, ~代)
    2070 – 1600 B.C.E.
    Shang
    (~朝, ~代)
    (~朝, ~代)
    1600 – 1046 B.C.E.
    Zhou
    (~朝, ~代)
    1046 – 256 B.C.E. Western Zhou
    西周
    Eastern Zhou
    東周东周
    Spring and Autumn period
    春秋
    Warring States period
    戰國战国
    Qin
    (~朝, ~代)
    221 – 206 B.C.E.
    Han
    (~朝, ~代)
    206 B.C.E. – 220 C.E. Western Han
    西漢西汉
    Xin
    (~朝)
    Eastern Han
    東漢东汉
    Three Kingdoms
    三國三国
    220 – 280 C.E. Wei
    Shu
    Wu
    Jin
    (~朝, ~代)
    265 – 420 C.E. Western Jin
    西晉西晋
    Eastern Jin
    東晉东晋
    Southern and Northern dynasties
    南北朝
    420 – 589 C.E. Northern dynasties
    北朝
    Northern Wei
    北魏
    Western Wei
    西魏
    Eastern Wei
    東魏东魏
    Northern Zhou
    北周
    Northern Qi
    北齊北齐
    Southern dynasties
    南朝
    Liu Song
    劉宋刘宋
    Southern Qi
    南齊南齐
    Liang
    (~朝, ~代)
    Chen
    (~朝, ~代)
    Sui
    (~朝, ~代)
    581 – 618 C.E.
    Tang
    (~朝, ~代)
    618 – 907 C.E.
    Five Dynasties and Ten Kingdoms
    五代十國五代十国
    907 – 960 C.E.
    Liao
    (~朝, ~代)
    907 – 1125 C.E.
    Song
    (~朝, ~代)
    960 – 1279 C.E. Northern Song
    北宋
    Southern Song
    南宋
    Western Xia
    西夏
    1038 – 1227 C.E.
    Jin
    (~朝, ~代)
    1115 – 1234 C.E.
    Western Liao
    西遼西辽
    1124 – 1218 C.E.
    Yuan
    (~朝, ~代)
    1271 – 1368 C.E.
    Ming
    (~朝, ~代)
    1368 – 1644 C.E.
    Qing
    (~朝, ~代)
    1636 – 1912 C.E.

    Compounds[edit]

    Descendants[edit]

    Sino-Xenic ():
    • Japanese: (みょう) (myō); (めい) (mei); (みん) (Min)
    • Korean: (, Myeong)
    • Vietnamese: minh ()

    References[edit]


    Japanese[edit]

    Kanji[edit]

    (grade 2 “Kyōiku” kanji)

    Readings[edit]

    Compounds[edit]

    Etymology 1[edit]

    Kanji in this term
    めい
    Grade: 2
    kan’on

    From Middle Chinese (MC mˠiæŋ).

    The 漢音 (kan'on, literally Han sound) reading, so likely a later borrowing from Middle Chinese.

    Affix[edit]

    (めい) (mei

    1. bright, brightening
    2. clarifying, understanding
    3. brighten, enlighten
    4. open to the world
    5. deity, god
    Derived terms[edit]

    Noun[edit]

    (めい) (mei

    1. brightness
    2. insight
    3. eyesight, vision

    Etymology 2[edit]

    Kanji in this term
    みょう
    Grade: 2
    goon

    /mʲau//mʲɔː//mʲoː/

    From Middle Chinese (MC mˠiæŋ).

    The 呉音 (goon, literally Wu sound) reading, so likely the earlier borrowing from Middle Chinese.

    The Buddhist senses are a translation of Sanskrit विद्या (vidyā, knowledge, wisdom).[1]

    Affix[edit]

    (みょう) (myōみやう (myau)?

    1. bright
    2. light, lamp
    3. clarifying
    4. passing to the next in time
    5. graceful, respectful
    6. (Buddhism) passing of knowledge, scholarship, or study
    Derived terms[edit]

    Noun[edit]

    (みょう) (myōみやう (myau)?

    1. (Buddhism) knowledge or wisdom that dispels the darkness of ignorance and brings to the realization of truth
    2. (Buddhism) an esoteric mantra

    Adnominal[edit]

    (みょう) (myōみやう (myau)?

    1. this coming...

    Etymology 3[edit]

    Kanji in this term
    みん
    Grade: 2
    tōon
    Japanese Wikipedia has an article on:
    Wikipedia ja
    English Wikipedia has an article on:
    Wikipedia

    From Mandarin (míng).

    The 唐音 (tōon, literally Tang sound), so likely this reading was borrowed from around the Song dynasty.

    Proper noun[edit]

    (みん) (Min

    1. the Ming dynasty (1368-1644)
    Derived terms[edit]

    Etymology 4[edit]

    Kanji in this term
    さや
    Grade: 2
    Irregular
    For pronunciation and definitions of – see the following entry.
    さや
    [adverb] , :
    Alternative spellings
    ,
    (This term, , is an alternative spelling of the above term.)

    Etymology 5[edit]

    Kanji in this term
    あき(ら)
    Grade: 2
    nanori

    Nominalization of the stem of adjective 明らか (akiraka, clear, visible).

    Proper noun[edit]

    (あきら) (Akira

    1. a male given name

    References[edit]

    1. ^ 1995, 大辞泉 (Daijisen) (in Japanese), Tōkyō: Shogakukan, →ISBN

    Korean[edit]

    Hanja[edit]

    (eumhun 밝을 (balgeul myeong))

    1. Hanja form? of (bright).

    Kunigami[edit]

    Kanji[edit]


    Miyako[edit]

    Kanji[edit]


    Okinawan[edit]

    Kanji[edit]

    (grade 2 “Kyōiku” kanji)

    Readings[edit]

    Compounds[edit]


    Vietnamese[edit]

    Han character[edit]

    : Hán Việt readings: minh ((mi)(binh)(thiết))[1][2][3]
    : Nôm readings: mừng[1][2][3][4][5], minh[2][5], mầng[2][5], miêng[3][5], mênh[3]

    1. Hán tự form of minh (bright; clear).
    2. Hán tự form of Minh (given name).
    3. Nôm form of mừng.

    Compounds[edit]

    References[edit]


    Yaeyama[edit]

    Kanji[edit]


    Yonaguni[edit]

    Kanji[edit]