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See also: and
U+6BCD, 母
CJK UNIFIED IDEOGRAPH-6BCD

[U+6BCC]
CJK Unified Ideographs
[U+6BCE]

Translingual[edit]

Stroke order
母-order.gif

Han character[edit]

(radical 80, +1, 5 strokes, cangjie input 田卜戈 (WYI), four-corner 77500, composition ⿻⿻𠃋𠃌)

Derived characters[edit]

Descendants[edit]

References[edit]

  • KangXi: page 588, character 25
  • Dai Kanwa Jiten: character 16723
  • Dae Jaweon: page 980, character 32
  • Hanyu Da Zidian: volume 4, page 2380, character 3
  • Unihan data for U+6BCD

Chinese[edit]

simp. and trad.

Glyph origin[edit]

Historical forms of the character
Shang Western Zhou Shuowen Jiezi (compiled in Han) Liushutong (compiled in Ming)
Oracle bone script Bronze inscriptions Small seal script Transcribed ancient scripts
母-oracle.svg 母-bronze.svg 母-seal.svg 母-bigseal.svg
Characters in the same phonetic series () (Zhengzhang, 2003) 
Old Chinese
*mɯːs, *mɯː, *mɯːs
*mlɯːʔ, *mɯːʔ
*hmlɯːʔ
*ʔmɯː, *ʔmɯːʔ
*mɯ
*mɯʔ
*mɯʔ
*mɯʔ
*mɯʔ, *mɯs, *maːʔ
*mɯʔ
*mɯʔ
*mɯs, *mɯːʔ, *mɯːs
*mɯs, *mɯː, *mɯːs
*mrɯʔ, *mrɯŋʔ
*mrɯŋʔ
*mrɯŋʔ
*ma
*mɯː
*mɯː
*mɯː
*mɯːʔ
*mɯːs
*mɯːs, *hmɯːs
*hmɯːs
*hmɯːs
*hmɯːʔ, *hmɯːs
*mrɯl

Pictogram (象形): a woman with breasts with nipples kneeling or standing. In modern form turned on left side. Compare (OC *naʔ, *nas, “woman”), which has developed similarly, but does not include dots for nipples and has lost one breast in the modern form.

Etymology[edit]

From Proto-Sino-Tibetan *mow (woman, female).

Pronunciation[edit]


Note:
  • mō̤ - “female; capital; suffix”;
  • mū - “mother”.
  • Min Nan
  • Note:
    • Xiamen:
      • bú - vernacular;
      • bó͘ - literary.
    • Quanzhou:
      • bú, bó͘ - vernacular;
      • bió - literary.
    • Zhangzhou:
      • bú - vernacular;
      • bó - literary.
    • Taiwan:
      • bó - vernacular;
      • bió/bó͘, bú - literary.
  • (Teochew)
  • Wu
  • Xiang

    • Dialectal data
    Variety Location
    Mandarin Beijing /mu²¹⁴/
    Harbin /mu²¹³/
    Tianjin /mu¹³/
    Jinan /mu⁵⁵/
    Qingdao /mu⁵⁵/
    Zhengzhou /mu⁵³/
    Xi'an /mu⁵³/
    Xining /mv̩⁵³/
    Yinchuan /mu⁵³/
    Lanzhou /mu⁴⁴²/
    Ürümqi /mu⁵¹/
    Wuhan /mu⁴²/
    /moŋ⁴²/
    Chengdu /mu⁵³/
    Guiyang /mu⁴²/
    Kunming /mu⁵³/
    Nanjing /mu²¹²/
    Hefei /mʊ²⁴/
    /məŋ²⁴/
    Jin Taiyuan /mu⁵³/
    Pingyao /mu⁵³/
    Hohhot /mu⁵³/ ~的
    /məʔ⁰/ 外~娘
    Wu Shanghai /mu²³/
    /m̩²³/
    Suzhou /mo⁵⁵/
    Hangzhou /mu⁵³/
    Wenzhou /mu³⁵/
    Hui Shexian /mɔ³⁵/
    /m̩³⁵/
    Tunxi /m̩²⁴/
    Xiang Changsha /mo⁴¹/
    Xiangtan /mo⁴²/
    Gan Nanchang /mu²¹³/
    Hakka Meixian /mu⁴⁴/
    Taoyuan /mu²⁴/
    Cantonese Guangzhou /mou²³/
    Nanning /mu²⁴/
    Hong Kong /mou¹³/
    Min Xiamen (Min Nan) /bɔ⁵³/
    /bu⁵³/
    Fuzhou (Min Dong) /mo³²/
    Jian'ou (Min Bei) /mu²¹/
    Shantou (Min Nan) /bo⁵³/
    Haikou (Min Nan) /mu²¹³/
    /mai²¹³/

    Rime
    Character
    Reading # 1/1
    Initial () (4)
    Final () (137)
    Tone (調) Rising (X)
    Openness (開合) Open
    Division () I
    Fanqie
    Reconstructions
    Zhengzhang
    Shangfang
    /məuX/
    Pan
    Wuyun
    /məuX/
    Shao
    Rongfen
    /məuX/
    Edwin
    Pulleyblank
    /məwX/
    Li
    Rong
    /muX/
    Wang
    Li
    /məuX/
    Bernard
    Karlgren
    /mə̯uX/
    Expected
    Mandarin
    Reflex
    mǒu
    BaxterSagart system 1.1 (2014)
    Character
    Reading # 1/1
    Modern
    Beijing
    (Pinyin)
    Middle
    Chinese
    ‹ muwX ›
    Old
    Chinese
    /*məʔ/ (? or *mˁoʔ)
    English mother

    Notes for Old Chinese notations in the Baxter–Sagart system:

    * Parentheses "()" indicate uncertain presence;
    * Square brackets "[]" indicate uncertain identity, e.g. *[t] as coda may in fact be *-t or *-p;
    * Angle brackets "<>" indicate infix;
    * Hyphen "-" indicates morpheme boundary;

    * Period "." indicates syllable boundary.
    Zhengzhang system (2003)
    Character
    Reading # 1/1
    No. 9288
    Phonetic
    component
    Rime
    group
    Rime
    subdivision
    0
    Corresponding
    MC rime
    Old
    Chinese
    /*mɯʔ/

    Definitions[edit]

    1. mother
    2. female (animal)
        ―  niú  ―  cow

    Synonyms[edit]

    Dialectal synonyms of 媽媽 (“mum (face-to-face)”) [map]
    Variety Location Words
    Formal (Written Standard Chinese) 母親
    Mandarin Beijing 媽媽
    Taiwan 媽媽
    Tianjin 媽媽
    Harbin 媽媽
    Shenyang 媽媽
    Jinan 媽媽
    Muping
    Luoyang 媽兒
    Jiedian
    Ronghe
    Xi'an
    Xining 阿媽媽媽姆媽
    Xuzhou 媽媽大兒
    Yinchuan
    Lanzhou
    Ürümqi 媽媽阿娘 Hui阿娘子 used with minorities
    Wuhan 姆媽媽媽
    Chengdu 媽媽
    Guiyang
    Liuzhou 阿媽
    Kunming
    Yangzhou 媽媽姆媽
    Nanjing 姆媽
    Hefei 媽爺
    Cantonese Guangzhou 阿媽媽媽
    Hong Kong 媽咪阿媽媽媽
    Dongguan 阿媽阿奶阿姐媽媽 childish媽咪 childish
    Hong Kong (Weitou) 阿媽阿奶
    Taishan
    Yangjiang 阿媽阿娘
    Xinyi 阿媽
    Nanning 媽媽阿媽
    Kuala Lumpur 阿媽媽咪
    Gan Nanchang 姆媽
    Lichuan 姆媽
    Pingxiang 姆媽
    Hakka Meixian 阿姆阿嫲
    Xingning 阿媽
    Qujiang 阿姆
    Xiaosanjiang 阿姆阿嬸
    Changting 姆媽姆娓
    Pingyu
    Wuping 姆姆依呀
    Liancheng
    Ninghua 姆媽
    Yudu 媽媽
    Ruijin 姆媽
    Shicheng 姆媽
    Shangyou
    Miaoli (N. Sixian) 阿姆
    Liudui (S. Sixian) 阿姆姆媽
    Hsinchu (Hailu) 阿姆
    Dongshi (Dabu) 阿姆
    Zhuolan (Raoping) 阿姆
    Yunlin (Zhao'an) 阿依
    Hong Kong 阿媽
    Sabah 阿姆
    Senai 阿媽
    Singkawang 阿姆
    Huizhou Jixi
    Jin Taiyuan
    Xinzhou 波哇波波呀呀波呀
    Min Bei Jian'ou 依呀媽媽
    Min Dong Fuzhou 依媽依奶
    Fuqing 依奶媽媽依娜
    Matsu 依奶
    Min Nan Xiamen 阿母阿母仔母仔阿媽阿娘
    Quanzhou 阿母母仔阿娘
    Zhangzhou 阿母母仔
    Taipei 阿母阿娘媽媽
    Kaohsiung 卡桑阿母仔
    Tainan 歐卡桑阿母俺娘仔娘嬭
    Taichung 媽媽阿母
    Hsinchu 媽媽阿娘阿母
    Lukang 阿母阿娘姨仔
    Sanxia 阿母阿娘姨仔
    Yilan 阿母阿娘
    Kinmen 俺娘仔
    Magong 阿母
    Penang 阿母阿媽媽媽
    Singapore 阿母
    Chaozhou 阿媽阿娘阿姈
    Haifeng 媽媽
    Johor Bahru 阿媽媽媽
    Haikou 阿媽阿姐阿娘 dated阿嫂 dated
    Leizhou dated
    Pinghua Nanning 阿媼 dated
    Wu Shanghai 媽媽姆媽
    Suzhou 姆媽
    Hangzhou 姆媽媽媽
    Wenzhou 阿媽阿奶
    Chongming 姆媽
    Danyang
    Jinhua 姆媽
    Ningbo 阿姆姆媽
    Xiang Changsha 媽媽姆媽娘老子
    Shuangfeng 姆媽
    Loudi 依爺姆媽娘老子
    Dialectal synonyms of 媽媽 (“mum (non-face-to-face)”) [map]
    Variety Location Words
    Formal (Written Standard Chinese) 母親
    Mandarin Beijing 媽媽
    Taiwan 媽媽
    Tianjin 媽媽
    Harbin 媽媽
    Shenyang 媽媽
    Jinan 媽媽
    Muping
    Jiedian
    Ronghe
    Xi'an
    Xining 阿媽媽媽姆媽
    Xuzhou 媽媽大兒
    Yinchuan
    Lanzhou 老媽
    Ürümqi 老娘
    Wuhan 姆媽媽媽老娘黎山老 slang孟子見 dated slang
    Chengdu 媽媽
    Guiyang 老媽 humorous
    Liuzhou 阿媽娘老老媽子
    Kunming 媽媽
    Yangzhou 媽媽姆媽老娘
    Nanjing 姆媽
    Hefei 媽爺
    Nantong 娘嬭
    Cantonese Guangzhou 老母
    Hong Kong 老母老媽子阿媽媽咪
    Dongguan 阿媽阿奶阿姐老母老乸 Changping媽媽 childish媽咪 childish
    Hong Kong (Weitou) 老母阿奶
    Taishan
    Yunfu 老母
    Yangjiang 阿奶
    Xinyi 老母
    Nanning 老乸
    Kuala Lumpur 老媽子
    Gan Nanchang 姆媽
    Lichuan 家母
    Pingxiang 姆媽娘老子
    Hakka Meixian 哀仔
    Xingning 哀哩阿媽
    Huidong 阿姆
    Qujiang 哀子
    Xiaosanjiang 阿姆
    Changting 哀哩
    Pingyu 哀子
    Wuping 哀哩
    Liancheng
    Ninghua 姆媽
    Ruijin 乳子
    Shicheng
    Shangyou 姐佬
    Miaoli (N. Sixian) 哀仔
    Liudui (S. Sixian) 哀仔
    Hsinchu (Hailu) 哀仔
    Dongshi (Dabu)
    Zhuolan (Raoping) 哀仔
    Yunlin (Zhao'an)
    Hong Kong 阿姆
    Senai 吾媽
    Singkawang
    Huizhou Jixi
    Jin Taiyuan 媽媽
    Xinzhou 波波
    Min Bei Jian'ou
    Min Dong Fuzhou 娘嬭
    Fuqing 娘嬭
    Matsu 娘嬭
    Min Nan Xiamen 老母娘嬭阿娘
    Quanzhou 老母阿娘
    Zhangzhou 老母娘嬭
    Taipei 老母
    Kaohsiung 老母
    Tainan 老母
    Taichung 老母媽媽
    Hsinchu 老母
    Lukang 老母
    Sanxia 老母
    Yilan 老母
    Kinmen 老母俺母
    Magong 老母
    Penang 老母
    Singapore 老母
    Chaozhou 阿嬡
    Shantou
    Haifeng 媽媽
    Johor Bahru 我媽
    Haikou
    Leizhou 尼母尼姨 dated
    Pinghua Nanning 老娘阿媼 dated
    Wu Shanghai
    Suzhou 姆媽
    Hangzhou 姆媽媽媽
    Wenzhou 阿媽阿奶
    Chongming
    Danyang
    Jinhua
    Ningbo 阿娘
    Xiang Changsha 媽媽姆媽娘老子
    Shuangfeng 姆媽
    Loudi 依爺姆媽娘老子

    Compounds[edit]


    Japanese[edit]

    Kanji[edit]

    (grade 2 “Kyōiku” kanji)

    Readings[edit]

    Compounds[edit]

    Usage notes[edit]

    In isolation, the character has 5 strokes in modern Japanese – it is not simplified. In shinjitai compound characters, such as or , it is simplified to 4 strokes, as , but this simplification is not used in isolation. In hyōgaiji characters such as , however, the component is not simplified.

    Alternative forms[edit]

    Etymology 1[edit]

    Kanji in this term
    はは
    Grade: 2
    kun’yomi

    Old Japanese. /haha/: */papa//fafa//fawa//fafa//haha/

    Medial /f/ [ɸ] regularly changes to /w/ [ɰᵝ], resulting in /fawa//hawa/, the expected final form; see hawa below. This form first appears in the Heian period. However, likely due to spelling influence or reduplication associations, the earlier /fafa/ resurfaced in the late 16th century towards the end of the Muromachi period, with both forms seen until recent times, when hawa falls into disuse.[1] Initial /f-/ [ɸ] regularly becomes [h], resulting in modern [ha̠ha̠].

    Pronunciation[edit]

    Noun[edit]

    (hiragana はは, rōmaji haha)

    1. (humble) mother
      • 931938, Wamyō Ruijushō, book 1, page 116:
        母 尔雅云、母爲妣、卑履反、去聲之重、和名波々、日本紀私記云、以路波
      • 16031604, Nippo Jisho (page 196)
        Fafa. l, faua. ハハ. または、ハワ(母) 母.
    Usage notes[edit]

    Only ever used to refer to one's own mother when speaking to someone else. Still widely used in modern Japanese.

    Antonyms[edit]
    Derived terms[edit]

    Etymology 2[edit]

    Kanji in this term
    はわ
    Grade: 2
    kun’yomi

    From Old Japanese. See etymology for haha above for details.

    Pronunciation[edit]

    Noun[edit]

    (hiragana はわ, rōmaji hawa)

    1. (humble) mother
      • 16031604, Nippo Jisho (page 213)
        Faua. ハワ (母) 母親.
      • 16031604, Nippo Jisho (page 196)
        Fafa. l, faua. ハハ. または、ハワ(母) 母.
      • 16031604, Nippo Jisho (page 71)
        Caca. カカ (かか) Faua (母)に同じ. 母. これは子供の言葉である. また、尊敬すべき婦人、あるいは、年長で一家の主婦のような婦人の意に取られる.
      • 16031604, Nippo Jisho (page 60)
        Bogui. ボギ (母儀) Faua (母)に同じ. 母.
    Usage notes[edit]

    Obsolete in mainstream Japanese. May persist in dialects.

    Etymology 3[edit]

    Kanji in this term

    Grade: 2
    kun’yomi

    Old Japanese. Possibly an abbreviation of haha, or possibly the original form.

    Pronunciation[edit]

    Noun[edit]

    (hiragana , rōmaji ha)

    1. (obsolete) mother
      • 931938, Wamyō Ruijushō, book 1, page 116:
        母 尔雅云、母爲妣、卑履反、去聲之重、和名波々、日本紀私記云、以路
    Usage notes[edit]

    Not found in isolation, only found in compounds. Obsolete and unused in modern Japanese.

    Derived terms[edit]

    Etymology 4[edit]

    Kanji in this term
    あも
    Grade: 2
    kun’yomi

    From Old Japanese. Obsolete and unused in modern Japanese. Already falling into disuse by the writing of the Man'yōshū in 759, where it is only found in pieces written in eastern dialects.[1] Possibly cognate with Korean 엄마 (eomma, mother), 어머니 (eomeoni, mother).

    Pronunciation[edit]

    Noun[edit]

    (hiragana あも, rōmaji amo)

    1. (obsolete) mother
      • c. 759, Man'yōshū (book 20, poem 4376)
        多妣由岐尓 由久等之良受弖 阿母志々尓 己等麻乎佐受弖 伊麻叙久夜之氣
      • c. 759, Man'yōshū (book 20, poem 4377)
        阿母刀自母 多麻尓母賀母夜 伊多太伎弖 美都良乃奈可尓 阿敝麻可麻久母
      • c. 759, Man'yōshū (book 20, poem 4378)
        都久比夜波 須具波由氣等毛 阿母志々可 多麻乃須我多波 和須例西奈布母
      • c. 759, Man'yōshū (book 20, poem 4383)
        都乃久尓乃 宇美能奈伎佐尓 布奈餘曽比 多志埿毛等伎尓 阿母我米母我母
    Derived terms[edit]

    Etymology 5[edit]

    Kanji in this term
    おも
    Grade: 2
    kun’yomi

    From Old Japanese. Obsolete and unused in modern Japanese. Appears to be an alteration from amo above.

    Pronunciation[edit]

    Noun[edit]

    (hiragana おも, rōmaji omo)

    1. (obsolete) mother
      • c. 759, Man'yōshū (book 20, poem 4386)
        和加々都乃 以都母等夜奈枳 以都母々々々 於母加古比須々 奈理麻之都之母
      • c. 759, Man'yōshū (book 20, poem 4401)
        可良己呂武 須宗尓等里都伎 奈苦古良乎 意伎弖曽伎怒也 意母奈之尓志弖
      • c. 759, Man'yōshū (book 20, poem 4402)
        知波夜布留 賀美乃美佐賀尓 奴佐麻都里 伊波布伊能知波 意毛知々我多米
    2. a woman who breastfeeds and raises a child in place of a parent: a wet nurse
      • c. 759, Man'yōshū (book 12, poem 2925)
        緑児之 為社乳母者 求云 乳飲哉君之 於毛求覧
    Derived terms[edit]
    Synonyms[edit]
    • (wet nurse): 乳母 (うば, ​uba)

    Etymology 6[edit]

    Kanji in this term
    かか
    Grade: 2
    kun’yomi

    Unknown. One theory holds that this is a corrupted and abbreviated form of 御方様 (okatasama), a term to refer to or address someone else's wife (now extremely formal, but much more everyday in the Edo period), possibly influenced by children's speech:

    /okatasama//katasama//kakasama//kaka/

    Pronunciation[edit]

    Noun[edit]

    (hiragana かか, rōmaji kaka)

    1. (childish) mommy, mummy
      • 16031604, Nippo Jisho (page 71)
        Caca. カカ (かか) Faua (母)に同じ. 母. これは子供の言葉である. また、尊敬すべき婦人、あるいは、年長で一家の主婦のような婦人の意に取られる.
    2. (obsolete) wife
      Seen in the Edo period among the lower socioeconomic classes. Used to refer both to one's own wife when talking to others, and to refer to someone else's wife.[1]
    Derived terms[edit]

    Etymology 7[edit]

    Kanji in this term
    かあ
    Grade: 2
    kun’yomi

    Alteration of kaka[1]: /kaka//-kka//kaː/

    Pronunciation[edit]

    Noun[edit]

    (hiragana かあ, rōmaji )

    1. mother
    Usage notes[edit]

    Almost never seen in isolation. Most commonly seen with honorific prefix o- and honorific suffix -san, as お母さん (​okāsan).

    Derived terms[edit]

    References[edit]

    1. 1.0 1.1 1.2 1.3 1988, 国語大辞典(新装版) (Kokugo Dai Jiten, Revised Edition) (in Japanese), Tōkyō: Shogakukan
    2. ^ 2006, 大辞林 (Daijirin), Third Edition (in Japanese), Tōkyō: Sanseidō, →ISBN
    3. ^ 1998, NHK日本語発音アクセント辞典 (NHK Japanese Pronunciation Accent Dictionary) (in Japanese), Tōkyō: NHK, →ISBN

    Korean[edit]

    Hanja[edit]

    (mo)

    • Eumhun:
      • Sound (hangeul): (revised: mo, McCune–Reischauer: mo, Yale: mo)
      • Name (hangeul): 어미 (revised: eomi, McCune–Reischauer: ŏmi, Yale: emi)
    1. This term needs a translation to English. Please help out and add a translation, then remove the text {{rfdef}}.

    Vietnamese[edit]

    Han character[edit]

    (mẫu, mẹ)

    1. This term needs a translation to English. Please help out and add a translation, then remove the text {{rfdef}}.