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U+516C, 公
CJK UNIFIED IDEOGRAPH-516C

[U+516B]
CJK Unified Ideographs
[U+516D]

Translingual[edit]

Stroke order
4 strokes
Stroke order
公-order.gif

Han character[edit]

(radical 12, +2, 4 strokes, cangjie input 金戈 (CI), four-corner 80732, composition)

References[edit]

  • KangXi: page 126, character 28
  • Dai Kanwa Jiten: character 1452
  • Dae Jaweon: page 277, character 1
  • Hanyu Da Zidian (first edition): volume 1, page 242, character 1
  • Unihan data for U+516C

Chinese[edit]

trad.
simp. #
alternative forms

Glyph origin[edit]

Historical forms of the character
Shang Western Zhou Shuowen Jiezi (compiled in Han) Liushutong (compiled in Ming)
Oracle bone script Bronze inscriptions Small seal script Transcribed ancient scripts
公-oracle.svg 公-bronze.svg 公-seal.svg 公-bigseal.svg





References:

Mostly from Richard Sears' Chinese Etymology site (authorisation),
which in turn draws data from various collections of ancient forms of Chinese characters, including:

  • Shuowen Jiezi (small seal),
  • Jinwen Bian (bronze inscriptions),
  • Liushutong (Liushutong characters) and
  • Yinxu Jiaguwen Bian (oracle bone script).
A from the Longshan culture (also called Black Pottery Culture) [3000 – 1900 BC].

The traditional interpretation as given by Han Feizi is that is a compound of (= (“to deviate; opposite”)) and (original form of (“individual; private”)), i.e. the opposite of “private” — “public”. This theory is supported by Sun Yirang and Qiang Kaiyun, despite the somewhat different shape of the bottom component from .

This is disputed in modern times by Gao Hongjin, who thinks that the on top stands for (“to divide; to distribute”) and the bottom round component symbolises a generic object. thus represents “equally dividing resources so that they are communal”.

Another theory put forth by Zhu Fangpu is that is a pictogram (象形), being the original form of (OC *qloːŋs, “a wide-mouthed round-bottomed jar”), and later borrowed for the meanings of “public” and “male of older generation or higher rank”.

Etymology[edit]

"fair; impartial; public"
From Sino-Tibetan; cognate with Tibetan གུང (gung), དགུང (dgung, middle), considering that "middle" may be semantically associated with "balance" (Schuessler, 2007).
"male of older generation or higher rank; duke; male (of animals)"
This word has been connected to (OC *qloːŋ) (Wang, 1982; Unger, 1999; Baxter and Sagart, 2017). Baxter and Sagart (2017) also includes (OC *t-qoŋ, “husband's father”) in this word family.
STEDT provisionally sets up Proto-Sino-Tibetan *kaŋ (father; grandfather; honorific), also comparing it to ; compare Drung kangkang (grandpa), vkang ((my/our) grandfather), Burmese ခင် (hkang), as in မိခင် (mi.hkang, mother), ဖခင် (hpa.hkang, father). Alternatively, STEDT also compares it with Proto-Sino-Tibetan *gaŋ (penis; male), whence (OC *ɡʷɯŋ, “male”), but considers it less probable.
Schuessler (2007) suggests a Mon-Khmer origin; compare Khmer ឡូញ (louñ, title of an unidentified rank or function) and Old Khmer khloñ (head, chief) (whence ខ្លោង (khlaong)). Compare also Thai ลุง (lung), from Proto-Tai *luŋᴬ (parent's older brother), which may also be from Mon-Khmer. Tibetan [script needed] (khong) ~ [script needed] (gong, final syllable in dignitaries' name) may be borrowed from Chinese.

Pronunciation[edit]


Note:
  • kang - vernacular;
  • kong - literary.
Note:
  • gang1 - vernacular;
  • gong1 - literary.
  • Wu
  • Xiang

    • Dialectal data
    Variety Location
    Mandarin Beijing /kuŋ⁵⁵/
    Harbin /kuŋ⁴⁴/
    Tianjin /kuŋ²¹/
    Jinan /kuŋ²¹³/
    Qingdao /kəŋ²¹³/
    Zhengzhou /kuŋ²⁴/
    Xi'an /kuŋ²¹/
    Xining /kuə̃⁴⁴/
    Yinchuan /kuŋ⁴⁴/
    Lanzhou /kũn³¹/
    Ürümqi /kuŋ⁴⁴/
    Wuhan /koŋ⁵⁵/
    Chengdu /koŋ⁵⁵/
    Guiyang /koŋ⁵⁵/
    Kunming /koŋ/
    Nanjing /koŋ³¹/
    Hefei /kəŋ²¹/
    Jin Taiyuan /kuəŋ¹¹/
    Pingyao /kuŋ¹³/
    Hohhot /kũŋ³¹/
    Wu Shanghai /koŋ⁵³/
    Suzhou /koŋ⁵⁵/
    Hangzhou /koŋ³³/
    Wenzhou /koŋ³³/
    Hui Shexian /kuʌ̃³¹/
    Tunxi /kan¹¹/
    Xiang Changsha /koŋ³³/
    Xiangtan /kən³³/
    Gan Nanchang /kuŋ⁴²/
    Hakka Meixian /kuŋ⁴⁴/
    Taoyuan /kuŋ²⁴/
    Cantonese Guangzhou /koŋ⁵³/
    Nanning /kuŋ⁵⁵/
    Hong Kong /kuŋ⁵⁵/
    Min Xiamen (Min Nan) /kiɔŋ⁵⁵/
    /kaŋ⁵⁵/
    Fuzhou (Min Dong) /kuŋ⁴⁴/
    Jian'ou (Min Bei) /kɔŋ⁵⁴/
    Shantou (Min Nan) /koŋ³³/
    /kaŋ³³/
    Haikou (Min Nan) /koŋ²³/
    /kaŋ²³/

    Rime
    Character
    Reading # 1/1
    Initial () (28)
    Final () (1)
    Tone (調) Level (Ø)
    Openness (開合) Open
    Division () I
    Fanqie
    Reconstructions
    Zhengzhang
    Shangfang
    /kuŋ/
    Pan
    Wuyun
    /kuŋ/
    Shao
    Rongfen
    /kuŋ/
    Edwin
    Pulleyblank
    /kəwŋ/
    Li
    Rong
    /kuŋ/
    Wang
    Li
    /kuŋ/
    Bernard
    Karlgren
    /kuŋ/
    Expected
    Mandarin
    Reflex
    gōng
    BaxterSagart system 1.1 (2014)
    Character
    Reading # 1/2 2/2
    Modern
    Beijing
    (Pinyin)
    gōng gōng
    Middle
    Chinese
    ‹ kuwng › ‹ kuwng ›
    Old
    Chinese
    /*C.qˁoŋ/ /*C.qˁoŋ/
    English impartial, just; public father; prince

    Notes for Old Chinese notations in the Baxter–Sagart system:

    * Parentheses "()" indicate uncertain presence;
    * Square brackets "[]" indicate uncertain identity, e.g. *[t] as coda may in fact be *-t or *-p;
    * Angle brackets "<>" indicate infix;
    * Hyphen "-" indicates morpheme boundary;

    * Period "." indicates syllable boundary.
    Zhengzhang system (2003)
    Character
    Reading # 1/1
    No. 4092
    Phonetic
    component
    Rime
    group
    Rime
    subdivision
    0
    Corresponding
    MC rime
    Old
    Chinese
    /*kloːŋ/

    Definitions[edit]

    1. public; communal
      Antonym: ()
    2. fair; equitable
    3. to make public; to announce
    4. international; universal
        ―  gōnghǎi  ―  international waters
        ―  gōng  ―  kilometer
        ―  gōngchǐ  ―  meter
    5. duke
    6. (of animals) male
      Antonym: ()
      /   ―  gōng  ―  rooster
    7. (honorific) old man or a man of high status
    8. grandfather
    9. father-in-law (husband's father)
        ―  gōng  ―  parents-in-law (husband's parents)
    10. A surname​.

    Compounds[edit]

    Descendants[edit]

    Sino-Xenic ():
    • Japanese: (こう) (, duke)
    • Korean: (, gong, “duke”)
    • Vietnamese: công (, duke)

    Others:

    • Mongolian: гүн (gün)
    • Manchu: ᡤᡠᠩ (gung)
    • Thai: กง (gong, grandfather) (said by Chinese race)

    Japanese[edit]

    Kanji[edit]

    (grade 2 “Kyōiku” kanji)

    Readings[edit]

    Compounds[edit]

    Etymology 1[edit]

    (This etymology is missing or incomplete. Please add to it, or discuss it at the Etymology scriptorium. Particularly: “大家, 大宅?”)

    Pronunciation[edit]

    Noun[edit]

    (おおやけ) (ōyake (historical kana おほやけ)

    1. official, governmental

    Etymology 2[edit]

    From Middle Chinese (MC kuŋ).

    Pronunciation[edit]

    Noun[edit]

    (こう) (

    1. (honorific) a European sovereign prince
      モナコ(こう)
      Monako Kō
      the Prince of Monaco
      ウェールズ(こう)チャールズ
      Wēruzu Kō Chāruzu
      Charles, Prince of Wales
    2. (honorific) a duke
      エディンバラ(こう)フィリップ(おう)(はい)
      Edinbara Kō Firippu Ōhai
      Prince Philip, Duke of Edinburgh
    3. (familiar) used as suffix to denote familiarity with or disdain for someone or an animal
      • 1997 September 1 [Oct 10 1996], Fujiko F. Fujio, “どこかでだれかが の(まき) [Anyone, Anywhere]”, in エスパー魔美 [Esper Mami], volume 1 (fiction), 4th edition, Tokyo: Shogakukan, →ISBN, page 245:
        マミ(こう)‼どこへいったんだ。しようがないなあ‼モデルという(じゅう)(よう)なしごとを、こづかいかせぎぐらいにしか、かんがえていないんだから。
        Mami ‼ Doko e itta n da. Shiyō ga nai nā‼ Moderu to iu jūyō na shigoto o, kozukai kasegigurai ni shika, kangaete inai n da kara.
        Mami‼ Where the hell’d she go? This is unacceptable‼ She treats serious modeling as nothing but a way to get pocket money.

    Etymology 3[edit]

    Pronoun[edit]

    (きみ) (kimi

    1. Alternative form of

    References[edit]

    1. 1.0 1.1 2006, 大辞林 (Daijirin), Third Edition (in Japanese), Tōkyō: Sanseidō, →ISBN

    Korean[edit]

    Hanja[edit]

    (eumhun 공평할 (gongpyeonghal gong))

    1. This term needs a translation to English. Please help out and add a translation, then remove the text {{rfdef}}.

    Vietnamese[edit]

    Han character[edit]

    : Hán Nôm readings: công

    1. This term needs a translation to English. Please help out and add a translation, then remove the text {{rfdef}}.