Definition from Wiktionary, the free dictionary
Jump to navigation Jump to search
U+516C, 公
CJK UNIFIED IDEOGRAPH-516C

[U+516B]
CJK Unified Ideographs
[U+516D]

Translingual[edit]

Stroke order
4 strokes
Stroke order
公-order.gif

Han character[edit]

(radical 12, +2, 4 strokes, cangjie input 金戈 (CI), four-corner 80732, composition)

References[edit]

  • KangXi: page 126, character 28
  • Dai Kanwa Jiten: character 1452
  • Dae Jaweon: page 277, character 1
  • Hanyu Da Zidian: volume 1, page 242, character 1
  • Unihan data for U+516C

Chinese[edit]

simp. and trad.
variant forms

Glyph origin[edit]

Historical forms of the character
Shang Western Zhou Shuowen Jiezi (compiled in Han) Liushutong (compiled in Ming)
Oracle bone script Bronze inscriptions Small seal script Transcribed ancient scripts
公-oracle.svg 公-bronze.svg 公-seal.svg 公-bigseal.svg





References:

Mostly from Richard Sears' Chinese Etymology site (authorisation),
which in turn draws data from various collections of ancient forms of Chinese characters, including:

  • Shuowen Jiezi (small seal),
  • Jinwen Bian (bronze inscriptions),
  • Liushutong (Liushutong characters) and
  • Yinxu Jiaguwen Bian (oracle bone script).
Characters in the same phonetic series () (Zhengzhang, 2003) 
Old Chinese
*qroːŋʔ
*kluːnʔ
*kluːnʔ
*kluːnʔ
*kluːnʔ
*sʰloːŋ
*sqʰloːŋs, *sqʰluːŋ, *skʰloŋ, *sqʰloŋ
*sqʰloːŋs, *sqʰloŋ, *sɢloŋ
*kloːŋ
*kloːŋ, *kljoŋ
*qloːŋ
*qloːŋ
*qloːŋ, *qloːŋʔ
*qloːŋ
*qloːŋʔ
*qloːŋʔ
*qloːŋʔ
*qloːŋʔ
*qloːŋs
*sqʰluŋ
*sqʰluŋ
*sqʰluŋ
*sqʰloŋ, *sɢloŋ
*sqʰloŋ
*sqʰloŋ
*sɢloŋ
*sɢloŋ, *sɢloŋs
*sɢloŋs, *loŋ
*kljoŋ
*kljoŋ
*kljoŋ
*kljoŋ
*kljoŋ
*kljoŋ
*kljoŋ, *lon
A from the Longshan culture (also called Black Pottery Culture) [3000 – 1900 BC].

The traditional interpretation as given by Han Feizi is that is a compound of (= (“to deviate; opposite”)) and (original form of (“individual; private”)), i.e. the opposite of “individual”; public. This theory is supported by Sun Yirang and Qiang Kaiyun, despite the somewhat different shape of the top component from .

This is disputed in modern times by Gao Hongjin, who thinks that the on top stands for (“to divide; to distribute”) and the bottom round component of symbolises the general object. thus represents “equally dividing resources so that they are communal”.

Another theory put forth by Zhu Fangpu is that is a pictogram (象形), being the original form of (OC *qloːŋs, “a wide-mouthed round-bottomed jar”), and later borrowed for the meaning of “public”.

Pronunciation[edit]


Note:
  • kang - vernacular;
  • kong - literary.
Note:
  • gang1 - vernacular;
  • gong1 - literary.
  • Wu

    • Dialectal data
    Variety Location
    Mandarin Beijing /kuŋ⁵⁵/
    Harbin /kuŋ⁴⁴/
    Tianjin /kuŋ²¹/
    Jinan /kuŋ²¹³/
    Qingdao /kəŋ²¹³/
    Zhengzhou /kuŋ²⁴/
    Xi'an /kuŋ²¹/
    Xining /kuə̃⁴⁴/
    Yinchuan /kuŋ⁴⁴/
    Lanzhou /kũn³¹/
    Ürümqi /kuŋ⁴⁴/
    Wuhan /koŋ⁵⁵/
    Chengdu /koŋ⁵⁵/
    Guiyang /koŋ⁵⁵/
    Kunming /koŋ/
    Nanjing /koŋ³¹/
    Hefei /kəŋ²¹/
    Jin Taiyuan /kuəŋ¹¹/
    Pingyao /kuŋ¹³/
    Hohhot /kũŋ³¹/
    Wu Shanghai /koŋ⁵³/
    Suzhou /koŋ⁵⁵/
    Hangzhou /koŋ³³/
    Wenzhou /koŋ³³/
    Hui Shexian /kuʌ̃³¹/
    Tunxi /kan¹¹/
    Xiang Changsha /koŋ³³/
    Xiangtan /kən³³/
    Gan Nanchang /kuŋ⁴²/
    Hakka Meixian /kuŋ⁴⁴/
    Taoyuan /kuŋ²⁴/
    Cantonese Guangzhou /koŋ⁵³/
    Nanning /kuŋ⁵⁵/
    Hong Kong /kuŋ⁵⁵/
    Min Xiamen (Min Nan) /kiɔŋ⁵⁵/
    /kaŋ⁵⁵/
    Fuzhou (Min Dong) /kuŋ⁴⁴/
    Jian'ou (Min Bei) /kɔŋ⁵⁴/
    Shantou (Min Nan) /koŋ³³/
    /kaŋ³³/
    Haikou (Min Nan) /koŋ²³/
    /kaŋ²³/

    Rime
    Character
    Reading # 1/1
    Initial () (28)
    Final () (1)
    Tone (調) Level (Ø)
    Openness (開合) Open
    Division () I
    Fanqie
    Reconstructions
    Zhengzhang
    Shangfang
    /kuŋ/
    Pan
    Wuyun
    /kuŋ/
    Shao
    Rongfen
    /kuŋ/
    Edwin
    Pulleyblank
    /kəwŋ/
    Li
    Rong
    /kuŋ/
    Wang
    Li
    /kuŋ/
    Bernard
    Karlgren
    /kuŋ/
    Expected
    Mandarin
    Reflex
    gōng
    BaxterSagart system 1.1 (2014)
    Character
    Reading # 1/2 2/2
    Modern
    Beijing
    (Pinyin)
    gōng gōng
    Middle
    Chinese
    ‹ kuwng › ‹ kuwng ›
    Old
    Chinese
    /*C.qˁoŋ/ /*C.qˁoŋ/
    English impartial, just; public father; prince

    Notes for Old Chinese notations in the Baxter–Sagart system:

    * Parentheses "()" indicate uncertain presence;
    * Square brackets "[]" indicate uncertain identity, e.g. *[t] as coda may in fact be *-t or *-p;
    * Angle brackets "<>" indicate infix;
    * Hyphen "-" indicates morpheme boundary;

    * Period "." indicates syllable boundary.
    Zhengzhang system (2003)
    Character
    Reading # 1/1
    No. 4092
    Phonetic
    component
    Rime
    group
    Rime
    subdivision
    0
    Corresponding
    MC rime
    Old
    Chinese
    /*kloːŋ/

    Definitions[edit]

    1. public; communal
      Antonyms: ()
    2. fair; equitable
    3. duke
    4. (unit) of the International System
        ―  gōng  ―  kilometer
        ―  gōngchǐ  ―  meter
    5. (of animals) male
      Antonyms: ()

    Compounds[edit]


    Japanese[edit]

    Kanji[edit]

    (grade 2 “Kyōiku” kanji)

    Readings[edit]

    Compounds[edit]

    Noun[edit]

    (hiragana おおやけ, rōmaji ōyake, historical hiragana おほやけ)

    1. official, governmental

    (hiragana こう, rōmaji )

    1. prince, duke

    Pronoun[edit]

    (hiragana きみ, rōmaji kimi)

    1. Alternative form of

    Korean[edit]

    Hanja[edit]

    (eumhun 공평할 (gongpyeonghal gong))

    1. This term needs a translation to English. Please help out and add a translation, then remove the text {{rfdef}}.

    Vietnamese[edit]

    Han character[edit]

    (công)

    1. This term needs a translation to English. Please help out and add a translation, then remove the text {{rfdef}}.