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See also: 𤣩, 𡈼, , , and
U+738B, 王
CJK UNIFIED IDEOGRAPH-738B

[U+738A]
CJK Unified Ideographs
[U+738C]
王 U+2F929, 王
CJK COMPATIBILITY IDEOGRAPH-2F929
獺
[U+2F928]
CJK Compatibility Ideographs Supplement 㺬
[U+2F92A]

Translingual[edit]

Stroke order
0 strokes
Stroke order (Japan)
0 strokes
Stroke order
王-order.gif

Han character[edit]

(radical 96, +0, 4 strokes, cangjie input 一土 (MG), four-corner 10104, composition)

  1. Shuōwén Jiězì radical №5

Derived characters[edit]

References[edit]

  • KangXi: page 727, character 2
  • Dai Kanwa Jiten: character 20823
  • Dae Jaweon: page 1137, character 1
  • Hanyu Da Zidian (first edition): volume 2, page 1099, character 10
  • Unihan data for U+738B

Chinese[edit]

simp. and trad.
alternative forms 𠙻
Wikipedia has articles on:

Glyph origin[edit]

Historical forms of the character
Shang Western Zhou Spring and Autumn Warring States Shuowen Jiezi (compiled in Han) Liushutong (compiled in Ming)
Bronze inscriptions Oracle bone script Bronze inscriptions Bronze inscriptions Bronze inscriptions Chu Slip and silk script Qin slip script Ancient script Small seal script Transcribed ancient scripts
王-bronze-shang.svg 王-oracle.svg 王-bronze.svg 王-bronze-spring.svg 王-bronze-warring.svg 王-silk.svg 王-slip.svg 王-ancient.svg 王-seal.svg 王-bigseal.svg





References:

Mostly from Richard Sears' Chinese Etymology site (authorisation),
which in turn draws data from various collections of ancient forms of Chinese characters, including:

  • Shuowen Jiezi (small seal),
  • Jinwen Bian (bronze inscriptions),
  • Liushutong (Liushutong characters) and
  • Yinxu Jiaguwen Bian (oracle bone script).

The traditional interpretation is that the three horizontal strokes represent Heaven, Man and Earth. The vertical stroke is the king, the one who connects them together. Older representation of the character shows a man like or above a horizontal stroke.

The modern interpretation is that the character is a pictogram (象形) of either an axe or a crown, one of two symbols of the king's power. A ceremonial axe was kept near the throne, and was used for performing rituals in ancient China.

Compare the unrelated (“jade”) and (“master”).

Etymology 1[edit]

Uncertain. There are many proposed etymologies:

Pronunciation[edit]


Note: hêng5 - surname.

Rime
Character
Reading # 1/2
Initial () (35)
Final () (106)
Tone (調) Level (Ø)
Openness (開合) Closed
Division () III
Fanqie
Reconstructions
Zhengzhang
Shangfang
/ɦʉɐŋ/
Pan
Wuyun
/ɦʷiɐŋ/
Shao
Rongfen
/ɣiuɑŋ/
Edwin
Pulleyblank
/ɦuaŋ/
Li
Rong
/ɣiuaŋ/
Wang
Li
/ɣĭwaŋ/
Bernard
Karlgren
/iwaŋ/
Expected
Mandarin
Reflex
wáng
Expected
Cantonese
Reflex
wong4
BaxterSagart system 1.1 (2014)
Character
Reading # 1/2
Modern
Beijing
(Pinyin)
wáng
Middle
Chinese
‹ hjwang ›
Old
Chinese
/*ɢʷaŋ/
English king

Notes for Old Chinese notations in the Baxter–Sagart system:

* Parentheses "()" indicate uncertain presence;
* Square brackets "[]" indicate uncertain identity, e.g. *[t] as coda may in fact be *-t or *-p;
* Angle brackets "<>" indicate infix;
* Hyphen "-" indicates morpheme boundary;

* Period "." indicates syllable boundary.
Zhengzhang system (2003)
Character
Reading # 1/2
No. 12742
Phonetic
component
Rime
group
Rime
subdivision
0
Corresponding
MC rime
Old
Chinese
/*ɢʷaŋ/

Definitions[edit]

  1. king; monarch; prince
  2. champion
      ―  wáng  ―  chess champion
      ―  quánwáng  ―  boxing champion
  3. grand; great
  4. (of feudal monarchs) to see the emperor
  5. a surname​: Wang; Wong; Ong; Heng
Descendants[edit]
Sino-Xenic ():
  • Japanese: (おう) (ō)
  • Okinawan:  (をー) ()
  • Korean: (, wang)
  • Vietnamese: vương ()

Others:

Compounds[edit]

Etymology 2[edit]

(OC *ɢʷaŋ) with a denominalizing *-s suffix (Schuessler, 2007; Baxter and Sagart, 2014).

Pronunciation[edit]



Rime
Character
Reading # 2/2
Initial () (35)
Final () (106)
Tone (調) Departing (H)
Openness (開合) Closed
Division () III
Fanqie
Reconstructions
Zhengzhang
Shangfang
/ɦʉɐŋH/
Pan
Wuyun
/ɦʷiɐŋH/
Shao
Rongfen
/ɣiuɑŋH/
Edwin
Pulleyblank
/ɦuaŋH/
Li
Rong
/ɣiuaŋH/
Wang
Li
/ɣĭwaŋH/
Bernard
Karlgren
/iwaŋH/
Expected
Mandarin
Reflex
wàng
Expected
Cantonese
Reflex
wong6
BaxterSagart system 1.1 (2014)
Character
Reading # 2/2
Modern
Beijing
(Pinyin)
wàng
Middle
Chinese
‹ hjwangH ›
Old
Chinese
/*ɢʷaŋ-s/
English be king

Notes for Old Chinese notations in the Baxter–Sagart system:

* Parentheses "()" indicate uncertain presence;
* Square brackets "[]" indicate uncertain identity, e.g. *[t] as coda may in fact be *-t or *-p;
* Angle brackets "<>" indicate infix;
* Hyphen "-" indicates morpheme boundary;

* Period "." indicates syllable boundary.
Zhengzhang system (2003)
Character
Reading # 2/2
No. 12746
Phonetic
component
Rime
group
Rime
subdivision
0
Corresponding
MC rime
Old
Chinese
/*ɢʷaŋs/

Definitions[edit]

  1. to reign; to rule, to be a king
  2. Alternative form of (wàng, “flourishing; prosperous”).

Compounds[edit]

References[edit]


Japanese[edit]

Kanji[edit]

(grade 1 “Kyōiku” kanji)

Readings[edit]

Etymology 1[edit]

Kanji in this term
おう
Grade: 1
on’yomi
Japanese Wikipedia has an article on:
Wikipedia ja

/wau//wɔː/ → */woː//oː/

From Middle Chinese (MC ɦʉɐŋ).

Pronunciation[edit]

Noun[edit]

(おう) (ōわう (wau)?

  1. a king, especially one who is not East Asian or was East Asian in pre-imperial times
    (えつ)(おう)(こう)(せん)Etsuō KōsenKing Goujian of Yue
  2. an East Asian queen regnant
    (しん)()()(おう)Shingi Waōthe pro-Wei Queen of Wa
    (ちょう)(おう)Chō Ōthe Trưng Queen
    (ぜん)(とく) ((じょ))(おう)Zentoku (Jo)ōQueen Seondeok
  3. an East Asian prince under an emperor
    (こう)(どう)(おう)Kōdō ŌPrince Hưng Đạo
  4. a Japanese prince's son (such princes include 親王 (shinnō) or (ō) themselves)
Usage notes[edit]
  • An East Asian queen regnant (except in Korea) has the same title as a king, not specifically a “queen (regnant)” like in European languages. Similarly, an empress regnant has the same title as an emperor.
See also[edit]

Affix[edit]

(おう) (ōわう (wau)?

  1. king
Derived terms[edit]

Etymology 2[edit]

Kanji in this term
こきし
Grade: 1
Irregular
Kanji in this term
こにきし
Grade: 1
Irregular
Alternative spelling
国主

From Old Japanese, apparently from Baekje 鞬吉支 (*k(j)ə-n kici).

Noun[edit]

(コニキシ) or (コキシ) (konikishi or kokishi

  1. (archaic) an ancient Korean king
    百済(くだらの)(こにきし)Kudara no KonikishiKing of Baekje

References[edit]

  1. ^ 2006, 大辞林 (Daijirin), Third Edition (in Japanese), Tōkyō: Sanseidō, →ISBN
  2. ^ 1998, NHK日本語発音アクセント辞典 (NHK Japanese Pronunciation Accent Dictionary) (in Japanese), Tōkyō: NHK, →ISBN

Korean[edit]

Etymology[edit]

From Middle Chinese (MC ɦʉɐŋ).

Historical Readings
Dongguk Jeongun Reading
Dongguk Jeongun, 1448 ᅌᅪᇰ (Yale: ngwàng)
Middle Korean
Text Eumhun
Gloss (hun) Reading
Hunmong Jahoe, 1527[2] 님〯굼〮 (Yale: nǐmkwúm) 와ᇰ (Yale: wàng)
Gwangju Cheonjamun, 1575 긔ᄌᆞ (Yale: kuyco) (Yale: wang)

Pronunciation[edit]

Hanja[edit]

Korean Wikisource has texts containing the hanja:

Wikisource

(eumhun 임금 (imgeum wang))

  1. Hanja form? of (king; monarch).

Compounds[edit]

References[edit]

  • 국제퇴계학회 대구경북지부 (國際退溪學會 大邱慶北支部) (2007). Digital Hanja Dictionary, 전자사전/電子字典. [3]

Okinawan[edit]

Kanji[edit]

(grade 1 “Kyōiku” kanji)

Readings[edit]

Etymology[edit]

From Middle Chinese (MC ɦʉɐŋ).

Pronunciation[edit]

Noun[edit]

(hiragana をー, rōmaji )

  1. a king
  2. a East Asian queen regnant
  3. a East Asian sovereign prince

Usage notes[edit]

  • An East Asian queen regnant (except in Korea) has the same title as a king, not specifically a “queen (regnant)” like in European languages. Similarly, an empress regnant has the same title as an emperor.

See also[edit]

Affix[edit]

(hiragana をー, rōmaji )

  1. king

Derived terms[edit]

References[edit]

  • ヲー” in Okinawa Center of Language Study, Shuri-Naha Dialect Dictionary.

Old Japanese[edit]

Etymology[edit]

From Baekje 鞬吉支 (*k(j)ə-n kici).

Noun[edit]

(*ko2niki1si) (kana こにきし)

  1. an ancient Korean king

Descendants[edit]

  • Japanese: (konikishi, kokishi), in modern Japanese dictionaries

Vietnamese[edit]

Han character[edit]

: Hán Việt readings: vương (()(phương)(thiết))[1][2][3][4][5], vượng[5]
: Nôm readings: vương[1][2][3][4][5][6], vướng[1][7][5]

  1. Hán tự form of vương (king).
  2. Hán tự form of Vương (surname; male given name).
  3. Nôm form of vướng (to be entangled in; to be involved in).
  4. Hán tự form of vượng (to reign).

Compounds[edit]

References[edit]