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See also: 𧰼 and
U+8C61, 象
CJK UNIFIED IDEOGRAPH-8C61

[U+8C60]
CJK Unified Ideographs
[U+8C62]

Translingual[edit]

Stroke order
Stroke order in simplified Chinese
象-bw.png
Japanese
Simplified
Traditional

Alternative forms[edit]

Han character[edit]

(radical 152, +5 in traditional Chinese, Japanese and Korean, 豕+4 in simplified Chinese, 12 strokes in traditional Chinese, Japanese and Korean, 11 strokes in simplified Chinese, cangjie input 弓日心人 (NAPO), four-corner 27232, composition𧰨(GV) or ⿳𫩏𧰨(HT) or ⿸⿳𫩏⿹⿱丿⿱丿丿⿺丿(JK))

References[edit]

  • KangXi: page 1195, character 21
  • Dai Kanwa Jiten: character 36372
  • Dae Jaweon: page 1658, character 1
  • Hanyu Da Zidian (first edition): volume 6, page 3611, character 9
  • Unihan data for U+8C61

Chinese[edit]

simp. and trad.
Wikipedia has articles on:
  • (Written Standard Chinese?)
  • (Cantonese)
  • (Gan)

Glyph origin[edit]

Historical forms of the character
Shang Western Zhou Shuowen Jiezi (compiled in Han) Liushutong (compiled in Ming)
Oracle bone script Bronze inscriptions Small seal script Transcribed ancient scripts
象-oracle.svg 象-bronze.svg 象-seal.svg 象-bigseal.svg

Pictogram (象形) - pictographic representation of an elephant. represents the trunk, 𫩏 represents the head, and 𧰨 represents the body.

Etymology 1[edit]

This character is used to represent two semantic fields ‘elephant; tusk’ and ‘to outline; to depict; to delineate; to represent; to resemble; to map’. Both fields are found from the earliest layers of the edited literature onwards, whereas only the first meaning is amply attested in oracle bone inscriptions.

Traditionally, the two senses are treated as related, with the sense of ‘to depict; to resemble’ considered a derivative of the sense of ‘elephant’. The derivation from the ‘elephant’ meaning to the ‘likeness’ meaning is explained in Han Feizi [ca. 221 BCE]: “Men rarely see living elephants. As they come by the skeleton of a dead elephant, they imagine its living form according to its features. Therefore it comes to pass that whatever people use for imagining the real is called .”

Modern etymology studies on Old Chinese have challenged this opinion.

As for the ‘elephant; tusk’ sense, this is a widely used area word in East and Southeast Asia. Literature opinions differ on the origin and immediate relationship of this Chinese word; some (e.g. Schuessler, 2007) believe the Chinese form is a loanword from a Southern language, since it is unlikely that peoples all over Southeast Asia and the Himalayan foothills would borrow a word from Northern China to denote an indigenous animal. Others believe the direction of borrowing is reversed (i.e. Tai-Kadai borrowing from Chinese), and that Chinese should be compared with Tibetan གླང (glang), གླང་ཆེན (glang chen, elephant) arising from a common Proto-Sino-Tibetan *glaŋ (ox, bull; elephant), which may ultimately have an Austroasiatic origin (Behr, 2004). The second viewpoint is supported by the early attestation of this character and the archaeological findings of the historical ranges of elephants. However, Schuessler disputes that second viewpoint and links ST *glaŋ to (OC *klaːŋ, “ox, bull”).

See below for a tentative borrowing history of the various forms of this general area word.

Pronunciation[edit]


Note:
  • chhiūⁿ/chhiǔⁿ/chhiōⁿ - vernacular;
  • siōng/sióng/siǒng/chhiāng - literary.
  • (Teochew)
    • Peng'im: ciên6 / cion6 / siang6
    • Pe̍h-ōe-jī-like: tshiĕⁿ / tshiŏⁿ / siăng
    • Sinological IPA (key): /t͡sʰĩẽ³⁵/, /t͡sʰĩõ³⁵/, /siaŋ³⁵/
Note:
  • ciên6 - Chaozhou (“elephant”);
  • cion6 - Shantou (“elephant”);
  • siang6 - other senses.
  • Wu
  • Xiang

    Rime
    Character
    Reading # 1/1
    Initial () (17)
    Final () (105)
    Tone (調) Rising (X)
    Openness (開合) Open
    Division () III
    Fanqie
    Reconstructions
    Zhengzhang
    Shangfang
    /zɨɐŋX/
    Pan
    Wuyun
    /ziɐŋX/
    Shao
    Rongfen
    /ziɑŋX/
    Edwin
    Pulleyblank
    /zɨaŋX/
    Li
    Rong
    /ziaŋX/
    Wang
    Li
    /zĭaŋX/
    Bernard
    Karlgren
    /zi̯aŋX/
    Expected
    Mandarin
    Reflex
    xiàng
    BaxterSagart system 1.1 (2014)
    Character
    Reading # 1/1
    Modern
    Beijing
    (Pinyin)
    xiàng
    Middle
    Chinese
    ‹ zjangX ›
    Old
    Chinese
    /*s-[d]aŋʔ/
    English elephant

    Notes for Old Chinese notations in the Baxter–Sagart system:

    * Parentheses "()" indicate uncertain presence;
    * Square brackets "[]" indicate uncertain identity, e.g. *[t] as coda may in fact be *-t or *-p;
    * Angle brackets "<>" indicate infix;
    * Hyphen "-" indicates morpheme boundary;

    * Period "." indicates syllable boundary.
    Zhengzhang system (2003)
    Character
    Reading # 1/1
    No. 13664
    Phonetic
    component
    Rime
    group
    Rime
    subdivision
    0
    Corresponding
    MC rime
    Old
    Chinese
    /*ljaŋʔ/

    Definitions[edit]

    象 (1)
    (Chinese Chess) 象 (3)

    1. elephant (Classifier: m)
    2. ivory; tusk
      Synonym: 象牙 (xiàngyá)
        ―  xiàngchuáng  ―  ivory-decorated bed
    3. (xiangqi) elephant (on the black side)
      Synonym: (xiāng)
    4. symbol; emblem
      /   ―  xiàngzhēng  ―  symbol
    5. shape; figure
    6. appearance; phenomenon
      /   ―  xiànxiàng  ―  phenomenon
        ―  jǐngxiàng  ―  scene
    7. (traditional Chinese medicine) complexion
        ―  bìngxiàng  ―  disease signs and symptoms
    8. image; picture; portrait
    9. sign; indication
    10. imagination
    11. law; legislation
    12. principle
    13. calendar
    14. to imitate; to follow the example of
    15. to trace; to outline; to depict
    16. to resemble
      形字  ―  xiàngxíngzì  ―  pictographic character
    17. like; similar to
    18. (historical) Synonym of 南蠻南蛮 (Nánmán), a vague designation for "southern barbarians"
    19. () (historical) Xiang, a commandery of Han China
    20. A surname​.
    Synonyms[edit]
    • (elephant):
    • (like):
    edit
    Coordinate terms[edit]

    Compounds[edit]

    Descendants[edit]

    Sino-Xenic ():
    • Japanese: (ぞう) (); (しょう) (shō)
    • Vietnamese: tượng ()

    Others:

    Etymology 2[edit]

    For pronunciation and definitions of – see (“picture; image; figure; statue; figure; sculpture; etc.”).
    (This character, , is the former (1964-1986) first-round simplified form of .)
    Notes:

    Usage notes[edit]

    • was the official simplified form of only until 1986.

    References[edit]


    Japanese[edit]

    Kanji[edit]

    (grade 4 “Kyōiku” kanji)

    Readings[edit]

    Etymology 1[edit]

    Japanese Wikipedia has an article on:
    Wikipedia ja
    English Wikipedia has an article on:
    Wikipedia
    (, kisa): an Asian elephant.
    Kanji in this term
    ぞう
    Grade: 5
    on’yomi

    /zau//zɔː//zoː/

    From Middle Chinese (zjangX, elephant; image, resemblance). Compare modern Cantonese reading zoeng6.

    The goon reading, so likely the initial borrowing.

    Pronunciation[edit]

    Noun[edit]

    (ぞう) ( (counter , historical kana ざう)

    1. elephant
    Derived terms[edit]

    Etymology 2[edit]

    Kanji in this term
    しょう
    Grade: 5
    on’yomi

    /sjau//sjɔː//ɕɔː//ɕoː/

    From Middle Chinese (zjangX, elephant; image, resemblance). Compare modern Min Nan reading siōng or Mandarin xiàng.

    The kan'on reading, so likely a later borrowing.

    Pronunciation[edit]

    Noun[edit]

    (しょう) (shō (historical kana しやう)

    1. likeness, appearance
    Derived terms[edit]

    Etymology 3[edit]

    Kanji in this term
    きさ
    Grade: 5
    Irregular

    From Old Japanese. Cognate with (kisa, wood grain), from the way that ivory also has a grain.[3]

    Pronunciation[edit]

    • (Irregular reading)

    Noun[edit]

    (きさ) (kisa

    1. (obsolete) elephant
      • 931938, Minamoto no Shitagō, Wamyō Ruijushō (book 7, page 52)
        象 [...] 岐佐 [...] 獣名、似水牛、大耳、長鼻、眼細、牙長者也
        elephant, a kind of beast, looks like water buffalo, having big ears, long nose, slender eyes and long teeth
      • 970-999, Utsubo Monogatari (Toshikage)
        それより西を行ケば、虎狼ひと山さワぐ所有り。キサ出デてその山をこしつ。
        (please add an English translation of this quote)

    References[edit]

    1. 1.0 1.1 2006, 大辞林 (Daijirin), Third Edition (in Japanese), Tōkyō: Sanseidō, →ISBN
    2. ^ 1998, NHK日本語発音アクセント辞典 (NHK Japanese Pronunciation Accent Dictionary) (in Japanese), Tōkyō: NHK, →ISBN
    3. ^ 1988, 国語大辞典(新装版) (Kokugo Dai Jiten, Revised Edition) (in Japanese), Tōkyō: Shogakukan

    Korean[edit]

    Etymology[edit]

    From Middle Chinese (MC zɨɐŋX). Recorded as Middle Korean 샤ᇰ〮 (Yale: syang) in Hunmong Jahoe (訓蒙字會 / 훈몽자회), 1527.

    Hanja[edit]

    Korean Wikisource has texts containing the hanja:

    Wikisource

    (eumhun 코끼리 (kokkiri sang))

    1. Hanja form? of (elephant).
    2. Hanja form? of (shape; figure; appearance).

    Compounds[edit]

    References[edit]

    • 국제퇴계학회 대구경북지부 (國際退溪學會 大邱慶北支部) (2007). Digital Hanja Dictionary, 전자사전/電子字典. [1]

    Vietnamese[edit]

    Han character[edit]

    : Hán Nôm readings: tượng

    1. This term needs a translation to English. Please help out and add a translation, then remove the text {{rfdef}}.