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Translingual[edit]

Stroke order
士-order.gif

Etymology[edit]

Historical forms of the character
Oracle bone script Bronze inscriptions Bamboo and silk script Large seal script Small seal script
士-oracle.svg 士-bronze.svg 士-silk.svg 士-bigseal.svg 士-seal.svg

Also simplified from , as in .

Han character[edit]

(radical 33 +0, 3 strokes, cangjie input 十一 (JM), four-corner 40100, composition)

  1. Kangxi radical №33
  2. Shuōwén Jiězì radical №9

References[edit]

  • KangXi: page 242, character 38
  • Dai Kanwa Jiten: character 5638
  • Dae Jaweon: page 482, character 38
  • Hanyu Da Zidian: volume 1, page 416, character 1
  • Unihan data for U+58EB

Chinese[edit]

simp. and trad.

Pronunciation[edit]

Dialectal pronunciations ()
Variety Location
Mandarin Beijing /ʂʐ̩⁵¹/
Harbin /ʂʐ̩⁵³/
Tianjin /sz̩⁵³/
Jinan /ʂʐ̩²¹/
Qingdao /ʂʐ̩⁴²/
Zhengzhou /ʂʐ̩³¹²/
Xi'an /sz̩⁴⁴/
Xining /sz̩²¹³/
Yinchuan /ʂʐ̩¹³/
Lanzhou /ʂʐ̩¹³/
Ürümqi /sz̩²¹³/
Wuhan /sz̩³⁵/
Chengdu /sz̩¹³/
Guiyang /sz̩²¹³/
Kunming /sz̩²¹²/
Nanjing /sz̩⁴⁴/
Hefei /sz̩⁵³/
Jin Taiyuan /sz̩⁴⁵/
Pingyao /sz̩³⁵/
Hohhot /sz̩⁵⁵/
Wu Shanghai /zz̩¹³/
Suzhou /zz̩³¹/
Hangzhou /zz̩¹³/
Wenzhou /zz̩³⁵/
Hui Shexian /sz̩²²/
Tunxi /sz̩¹¹/
Xiang Changsha /sz̩⁵⁵/
Xiangtan /sz̩⁵⁵/
Gan Nanchang /sz̩²¹/
Hakka Meixian /sz̩⁵³/
Taoyuan /sï⁵⁵/
Cantonese Guangzhou /si²²/
Nanning /sz̩²²/
Hong Kong /si²²/
Min Xiamen (Min Nan) /su²²/
Fuzhou (Min Dong) /søy²⁴²/
Jian'ou (Min Bei) /su⁴⁴/
Shantou (Min Nan) /sɯ³⁵/
Haikou (Min Nan) /si³³/
Middle Chinese pronunciation (, reconstructed)
Character (), Pronunciation 1/1

Initial: (20)
Final: (19)
Tone: Rising (X)

Openness: Open
Division: III
Fanqie:

Expected Mandarin reflex: zhì
Zhengzhang
Shangfang
Pan
Wuyun
Shao
Rongfen
Edwin
Pulleyblank
Li
Rong
Wang
Li
Bernard
Karlgren
/d͡ʒɨX/ /ɖ͡ʐɨX/ /d͡ʒieX/ /ɖ͡ʐɨX/ /d͡ʒiəX/ /d͡ʒĭəX/ /ɖ͡ʐʱiX/
Old Chinese pronunciation (, reconstructed)
Baxter-Sagart system 1.1 (2014)
Character Modern Beijing
(Pinyin)
Middle Chinese Old Chinese English
shì ‹ dzriX › /*[m-s-]rəʔ/ officer; gentleman

Notes for Old Chinese notations in the Baxter-Sagart system:

  • Parentheses "()" indicate uncertain presence;
  • Square brackets "[]" indicate uncertain identity, e.g. *[t] as coda may in fact be *-t or *-p;
  • Angle brackets "<>" indicate infix;
  • Hyphen "-" indicates morpheme boundary;
  • Period "." indicates syllable boundary.
Zhengzhang system (2003)
Character No. Phonetic
component
Rime
group
Rime
subdivision
Corresponding
MC rime
Old Chinese Notes
11511 0 /*zrɯʔ/

Noun[edit]

  1. scholar
    博士 (bóshì), 院士 (yuànshì)
  2. soldier
    士兵 (shìbīng)
  3. commendable person, honorific title
    女士 (nǚshì), 人士 (rénshì)
  4. specialist
    護士护士 (hùshì), 助產士助产士
  5. bachelor (in ancient China)
  6. an official rank in ancient China

Proper noun[edit]

  1. A surname​.

Usage notes[edit]

  • In modern Chinese, is only used in compounds. It is found as individual character only in idioms.
  • is also used as a phonetic in foreign names.
    威士忌 (wēishìjì, “whiskey”), 巴士 (bāshì, “bus”)
Compounds[edit]

References[edit]


Japanese[edit]

Kanji[edit]

(grade 4 “Kyōiku” kanji)

Readings[edit]

Compounds[edit]

Kanji in this term

Grade: 4
on'yomi

Pronunciation[edit]

Noun[edit]

‎(hiragana , romaji shi)

  1. samurai, warrior

Suffix[edit]

‎(hiragana , romaji -shi)

  1. person with a certain qualification.
    弁護 (べんご) ()
    bengoshi
    a lawyer
    会計 (かいけい) ()
    kaikeishi
    an accountant

References[edit]

  1. ^ 2006, 大辞林 (Daijirin), Third Edition (in Japanese), Tōkyō: Sanseidō, ISBN 4-385-13905-9
  2. ^ 1998, NHK日本語発音アクセント辞典 (NHK Japanese Pronunciation Accent Dictionary) (in Japanese), Tōkyō: NHK, ISBN 978-4-14-011112-3

Korean[edit]

Hanja[edit]

‎(sa) (hangeul , revised sa, McCune-Reischauer sa)

  1. This entry needs a definition. Please add one, then remove {{defn}}.

Vietnamese[edit]

Han character[edit]

(, sãi, sõi, sỡi)

  1. This entry needs a definition. Please add one, then remove {{defn}}.

References[edit]