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See also: and
U+8ECA, 車
CJK UNIFIED IDEOGRAPH-8ECA

[U+8EC9]
CJK Unified Ideographs
[U+8ECB]
U+F902, 車
CJK COMPATIBILITY IDEOGRAPH-F902

[U+F901]
CJK Compatibility Ideographs
[U+F903]

Translingual[edit]

Stroke order
車-order.gif

Han character[edit]

(radical 159, +0, 7 strokes, cangjie input 十田十 (JWJ), four-corner 50006, composition or ⿻)

  1. Kangxi radical #159, .

Derived characters[edit]

References[edit]

  • KangXi: page 1239, character 1
  • Dai Kanwa Jiten: character 38172
  • Dae Jaweon: page 1712, character 34
  • Hanyu Da Zidian: volume 5, page 3511, character 1
  • Unihan data for U+8ECA

Chinese[edit]

trad.
simp.
Wikipedia has an article on:

Glyph origin[edit]

Historical forms of the character
Shang Western Zhou Spring and Autumn Warring States Shuowen Jiezi (compiled in Han) Liushutong (compiled in Ming)
Bronze inscriptions Oracle bone script Bronze inscriptions Bronze inscriptions Bronze inscriptions Chu Slip and silk script Qin slip script Shizhoupian script Small seal script Transcribed ancient scripts
車-bronze-shang.svg 車-oracle.svg 車-bronze.svg 車-bronze-spring.svg 車-bronze-warring.svg 車-silk.svg 車-slip.svg 車-zhou.svg 車-seal.svg 車-bigseal.svg
Characters in the same phonetic series () (Zhengzhang, 2003) 
Old Chinese
*kʰlja, *kla
*kʰlja
*qʰljaːs
*kʰaːs

Ideogram (指事): it is derived from a pictogram of a carriage seen from above, with the long vertical stroke representing the axle, the central square representing the body of the carriage, and the top and bottom horizontal lines representing the wheels.

Note that (OC *kaːns) (as in left part of (OC *ʔr'ew, *r'ew)) is not derived from .

Pronunciation 1[edit]


Note:
  • ce1 - colloquial;
  • geoi1 - literary.
  • Hakka
  • Min Bei
  • Min Dong
  • Min Nan
  • Wu

  • Rime
    Character
    Reading # 2/2
    Initial () (24)
    Final () (100)
    Tone (調) Level (Ø)
    Openness (開合) Open
    Division () III
    Fanqie
    Reconstructions
    Zhengzhang
    Shangfang
    /t͡ɕʰia/
    Pan
    Wuyun
    /t͡ɕʰia/
    Shao
    Rongfen
    /t͡ɕʰia/
    Edwin
    Pulleyblank
    /cʰia/
    Li
    Rong
    /t͡ɕʰia/
    Wang
    Li
    /t͡ɕʰĭa/
    Bernard
    Karlgren
    /t͡ɕʰi̯a/
    Expected
    Mandarin
    Reflex
    chē
    BaxterSagart system 1.1 (2014)
    Character
    Reading # 1/2
    Modern
    Beijing
    (Pinyin)
    chē
    Middle
    Chinese
    ‹ tsyhæ ›
    Old
    Chinese
    /*[t.qʰ](r)A/
    English chariot

    Notes for Old Chinese notations in the Baxter–Sagart system:

    * Parentheses "()" indicate uncertain presence;
    * Square brackets "[]" indicate uncertain identity, e.g. *[t] as coda may in fact be *-t or *-p;
    * Angle brackets "<>" indicate infix;
    * Hyphen "-" indicates morpheme boundary;

    * Period "." indicates syllable boundary.
    Zhengzhang system (2003)
    Character
    Reading # 1/2
    No. 1311
    Phonetic
    component
    Rime
    group
    Rime
    subdivision
    0
    Corresponding
    MC rime
    Old
    Chinese
    /*kʰlja/

    Definitions[edit]

    1. chariot; cart
    2. land vehicle; (specifically) car (Classifier: ; ; ;  c;  mn)
      /   ―  chē  ―  car
      /   ―  huǒchē  ―  train
    3. machine; instrument (Classifier: )
    4. carry in cart
    5. to machine, to shape with a lathe
    6. to tailor or sew using a sewing machine
      / [Cantonese]  ―  ce1 saam1 [Jyutping]  ―  to sew clothes with a sewing machine
    7. (Cantonese) to drive somebody; to give somebody a ride
      可以地鐵 [Cantonese, trad.]
      可以地铁 [Cantonese, simp.]
      Nei5 ho2 m4 ho2 ji5 ce1 ngo5 heoi3 dei6 tit3 zaam6 aa3? [Jyutping]
      Can you drive me to the MTR station?
    8. (Sichuan) to rotate
    9. (Internet slang) pornography

    Usage notes[edit]

    • (chē) is a collective term for all types of vehicles with wheel(s). Additional morphemes are added in front to specify the type of the vehicle. For example:
      /   ―  chē  ―  car
      /   ―  huǒchē  ―  train
      自行 / 自行  ―  zìxíngchē  ―  bicycle
      嬰兒 / 婴儿  ―  yīng'érchē  ―  pram

    Compounds[edit]

    Pronunciation 2[edit]


    Note: gu1 - Chaoyang, Puning, Huilai.

    Rime
    Character
    Reading # 1/2
    Initial () (28)
    Final () (22)
    Tone (調) Level (Ø)
    Openness (開合) Open
    Division () III
    Fanqie
    Reconstructions
    Zhengzhang
    Shangfang
    /kɨʌ/
    Pan
    Wuyun
    /kiɔ/
    Shao
    Rongfen
    /kiɔ/
    Edwin
    Pulleyblank
    /kɨə̆/
    Li
    Rong
    /kiɔ/
    Wang
    Li
    /kĭo/
    Bernard
    Karlgren
    /ki̯wo/
    Expected
    Mandarin
    Reflex
    BaxterSagart system 1.1 (2014)
    Character
    Reading # 2/2
    Modern
    Beijing
    (Pinyin)
    Middle
    Chinese
    ‹ kjo ›
    Old
    Chinese
    /*C.q(r)a/
    English chariot

    Notes for Old Chinese notations in the Baxter–Sagart system:

    * Parentheses "()" indicate uncertain presence;
    * Square brackets "[]" indicate uncertain identity, e.g. *[t] as coda may in fact be *-t or *-p;
    * Angle brackets "<>" indicate infix;
    * Hyphen "-" indicates morpheme boundary;

    * Period "." indicates syllable boundary.
    Zhengzhang system (2003)
    Character
    Reading # 2/2
    No. 1315
    Phonetic
    component
    Rime
    group
    Rime
    subdivision
    0
    Corresponding
    MC rime
    Old
    Chinese
    /*kla/

    Definitions[edit]

    1. (Chinese chess) chariot; rook
    Coordinate terms[edit]

    Compounds[edit]


    Japanese[edit]

    Kanji[edit]

    (grade 1 “Kyōiku” kanji)

    1. vehicle

    Readings[edit]

    Compounds[edit]

    Etymology 1[edit]

    Kanji in this term
    しゃ
    Grade: 1
    on’yomi

    From Middle Chinese (MC t͡ɕʰia).

    Pronunciation[edit]

    Counter[edit]

    (hiragana しゃ, rōmaji -sha)

    1. used to count vehicles

    Affix[edit]

    (hiragana しゃ, rōmaji sha)

    1. vehicle
      韓国 (かんこく) (しゃ)
      kankokusha
      South Korean vehicle
    2. train car
      Synonym: 車両
       (じょ) (せい) (せん) (よう) (しゃ)
      josei-sen'yō-sha
      car for women only

    Etymology 2[edit]

    Kanji in this term
    くるま
    Grade: 1
    kun’yomi

    From Old Japanese. Appears in the Man'yōshū completed some time after 759 CE, with the ideographic spelling .[1]

    Assuming an initial meaning of wheel, may be a compound of くる (kuru, related to spinning or rotating, as in 繰る (kuru, to spin (as in thread)), (kuru, hinge), くるくる (kurukuru, spinningly, round and round), 転めく (kurumeku, to spin round and round, to rotate; to be dizzy)) +‎ (ma, a suffix added to various parts of speech to form an indeclinable word indicating state).

    Pronunciation[edit]

    Noun[edit]

    (counter , hiragana くるま, rōmaji kuruma)

    1. a car, an automobile, a carriage, a cart
    2. a wheel, a caster
    3. something wheel-shaped
    4. a style of (mon, family crest)
    5. short for various terms:
      1. short for 車海老 (kuruma ebi): a prawn
      2. short for 車懸 (kuruma-gakari): “wheel formation”, a battle tactic where units attack in staged waves in order to prevent the opponent from resting
      3. short for 肩車 (kata-guruma): riding on one's shoulders, piggyback
      4. short for 手車 (te-guruma): a handcart, a wheelbarrow
      5. short for 車座 (kuruma za): sitting in a circle
    6. (obsolete) during the Edo period, in the red-light district in Ōsaka, a prostitute whose services cost four (monme) and three (bun) (possibly in reference to the cost of a carriage ride)
    Derived terms[edit]

    References[edit]

    1. ^ c. 759, Man'yōshū (book 4, poem 694), text here
    2. ^ 2006, 大辞林 (Daijirin), Third Edition (in Japanese), Tōkyō: Sanseidō, →ISBN
    3. ^ 1998, NHK日本語発音アクセント辞典 (NHK Japanese Pronunciation Accent Dictionary) (in Japanese), Tōkyō: NHK, →ISBN
    • 1988, 国語大辞典(新装版) (Kokugo Dai Jiten, Revised Edition) (in Japanese), Tōkyō: Shogakukan

    Korean[edit]

    Etymology 1[edit]

    Hanja[edit]

    (eumhun 수레 (sure cha))

    1. cart; wheeled machinery

    Compounds[edit]

    Etymology 1[edit]

    Hanja[edit]

    (eumhun 수레 (sure geo))

    1. cart; wheeled machinery

    Compounds[edit]


    Vietnamese[edit]

    Han character[edit]

    (xa, xe, xế)

    1. This term needs a translation to English. Please help out and add a translation, then remove the text {{rfdef}}.

    Compounds[edit]