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U+6211, 我
CJK UNIFIED IDEOGRAPH-6211

[U+6210]
CJK Unified Ideographs
[U+6212]

Translingual[edit]

Stroke order
我-order.gif
Taiwanese
stroke order
我-torder.gif

Han character[edit]

(radical 62, +3, 7 strokes, cangjie input 竹手戈 (HQI), four-corner 23550, composition𠂌)

Derived characters[edit]

References[edit]


Chinese[edit]

simp. and trad.

Glyph origin[edit]

Historical forms of the character
Shang Western Zhou Warring States Shuowen Jiezi (compiled in Han) Liushutong (compiled in Ming)
Oracle bone script Bronze inscriptions Chu Slip and silk script Small seal script Transcribed ancient scripts
我-oracle.svg 我-bronze.svg 我-silk.svg 我-seal.svg 我-bigseal.svg
Characters in the same phonetic series () (Zhengzhang, 2003) 
Old Chinese
*ŋaːl
*ŋaːl
*ŋaːl
*ŋaːl
*ŋaːl
*ŋaːl
*ŋaːl
*ŋaːl, *ŋralʔ
*ŋaːl
*ŋaːl
*ŋaːl
*ŋaːl, *ŋaːlʔ
*ŋaːlʔ
*ŋaːlʔ
*ŋaːls
*ŋrals
*ŋral
*ŋral, *ŋralʔ
*ŋral, *ŋralʔ
*ŋralʔ
*ŋralʔ
*ŋralʔ
*ŋralʔ, *hŋral
*ŋrals
*hŋral
*hŋral
*hŋral

A pictogram (象形) of a rake-like tool or weapon (note oracle bone script form); Guo Moruo considers it to be the original character for (OC *ɡral, “a kind of axe or chisel”). It was already borrowed for sound to mean "I" since the oracle bone script.

Folk etymology considers it to be an ideograph of a hand holding a weapon to protect oneself.

Etymology[edit]

From Proto-Sino-Tibetan *ŋa-j ~ ka. Cognate with (OC *ŋaː), Hakka 𠊎 (ngài).

Pronunciation[edit]


Note:
  • ngoi1 - “I; my” (vernacular);
  • ngo4 - “I” (literary);
  • ngoi4 - “we; our”.
  • Gan
  • Hakka
  • Jin
  • Min Bei
  • Min Dong
  • Note:
    • nguāi - vernacular;
    • ngō̤ - literary.
  • Min Nan
  • Note:
    • góa/wá - vernacular;
    • ngó͘ - literary.
    Note:
    • ua2 - vernacular;
    • ngo2 - literary.
  • Wu
  • Xiang

  • Rime
    Character
    Reading # 1/1
    Initial () (31)
    Final () (94)
    Tone (調) Rising (X)
    Openness (開合) Open
    Division () I
    Fanqie
    Reconstructions
    Zhengzhang
    Shangfang
    /ŋɑX/
    Pan
    Wuyun
    /ŋɑX/
    Shao
    Rongfen
    /ŋɑX/
    Edwin
    Pulleyblank
    /ŋaX/
    Li
    Rong
    /ŋɑX/
    Wang
    Li
    /ŋɑX/
    Bernard
    Karlgren
    /ŋɑX/
    Expected
    Mandarin
    Reflex
    ě
    BaxterSagart system 1.1 (2014)
    Character
    Reading # 1/1
    Modern
    Beijing
    (Pinyin)
    Middle
    Chinese
    ‹ ngaX ›
    Old
    Chinese
    /*ŋˤajʔ/
    English we, I

    Notes for Old Chinese notations in the Baxter–Sagart system:

    * Parentheses "()" indicate uncertain presence;
    * Square brackets "[]" indicate uncertain identity, e.g. *[t] as coda may in fact be *-t or *-p;
    * Angle brackets "<>" indicate infix;
    * Hyphen "-" indicates morpheme boundary;

    * Period "." indicates syllable boundary.
    Zhengzhang system (2003)
    Character
    Reading # 1/1
    No. 13041
    Phonetic
    component
    Rime
    group
    Rime
    subdivision
    1
    Corresponding
    MC rime
    Old
    Chinese
    /*ŋaːlʔ/
    Notes

    Definitions[edit]

    1. I; me; my
      認識高興 / 认识高兴  ―  Rènshí nǐ zhēn gāoxìng.  ―  I am pleased to meet you.
      哥哥每天上班遲到 [MSC, trad.]
      哥哥每天上班迟到 [MSC, simp.]
      gēge měitiān shàngbān dōu chídào. [Pinyin]
      My brother is late for work everyday.
      今朝公司事體 [Shanghainese, trad.]
      今朝公司事体 [Shanghainese, simp.]
      [t͡ɕɪɲ⁵⁵ t͡sɔ²¹ kʊŋ⁵⁵ sz̩²¹ ɦiɜ³³  z̻z̩²² tʰi⁴⁴ ŋv̩ʷ²³ ɕi⁵³ t͡sɜ³³ ləʔ⁴⁴] [IPA]
      Today I have things to do in the company, (so) I'm leaving early (lit. ahead).
    2. (literary, formal or dialectal) we; us; our
      /   ―  guó  ―  our country
        ―  shì  ―  our city
    3. (Can we verify(+) this sense?) a weapon
    4. to stubbornly hold to one's own opinion
    5. to kill
    6. tilted
    7. A surname​.

    Synonyms[edit]

    Dialectal synonyms of (“I”) [map]
    Variety Location Words
    Classical Chinese
    Formal (Written Standard Chinese)
    Mandarin Beijing
    Taiwan
    Jinan
    Xi'an
    Wuhan
    Chengdu
    Yangzhou
    Hefei
    Cantonese Guangzhou
    Hong Kong
    Taishan
    Yangjiang
    Gan Nanchang
    Hakka Meixian 𠊎
    Miaoli (N. Sixian) 𠊎
    Liudui (S. Sixian) 𠊎
    Hsinchu (Hailu) 𠊎
    Dongshi (Dabu) 𠊎
    Zhuolan (Raoping) 𠊎
    Yunlin (Zhao'an) 𠊎
    Jin Taiyuan
    Min Bei Jian'ou
    Min Dong Fuzhou
    Min Nan Xiamen
    Quanzhou
    Zhangzhou
    Taipei
    Kaohsiung
    Philippines (Manila)
    Chaozhou
    Wu Shanghai 阿拉
    Suzhou
    Wenzhou
    Ningbo 我儂像我
    Xiang Changsha
    Shuangfeng
    Dialectal synonyms of 我們 (“we”) [map]
    Variety Location Words
    Classical Chinese 吾儕我等我曹我輩
    Formal (Written Standard Chinese) 我們
    Mandarin Beijing 我們
    Taiwan 我們
    Tianjin 我們
    Harbin 我們
    Jinan 我們俺們俺這伙
    Muping
    Luoyang 我們俺們
    Jiedian 我的
    Xi'an 俺的
    Xining 我們
    Xuzhou
    Yinchuan 卬們
    Lanzhou 我們
    Ürümqi 我們
    Wuhan 我們
    Chengdu 我們
    Guiyang 我們
    Liuzhou 我們
    Yangzhou 我們我輩兒
    Nanjing 我們
    Hefei 我們
    Nantong 我恁
    Malaysia 我們
    Singapore 我們
    Cantonese Guangzhou 我哋
    Hong Kong 我哋
    Dongguan 我哋
    Taishan
    Yangjiang
    Kuala Lumpur 我哋
    Gan Nanchang 我個俚我等我們
    Lichuan 我多
    Pingxiang 我俚巷俚
    Hakka Meixian 𠊎等人𠊎兜人
    Xingning 𠊎兜人
    Huidong 𠊎兜人
    Qujiang 𠊎俚
    Changting 𠊎儕們𠊎儕
    Pingyu 𠊎等人𠊎兜
    Wuping 𠊎等人
    Ninghua 𠊎人𠊎多人
    Yudu 𠊎底
    Ruijin 𠊎班人
    Shicheng 𠊎郎人
    Shangyou 𠊎子人
    Miaoli (N. Sixian) 𠊎兜𠊎等𠊎兜人𠊎兜儕𠊎這兜
    Liudui (S. Sixian) 𠊎等𠊎等人
    Hsinchu (Hailu) 𠊎兜𠊎等𠊎兜人𠊎兜儕
    Dongshi (Dabu) 吾等吾這兜吾這兜人
    Zhuolan (Raoping) 𠊎兜𠊎等𠊎兜人𠊎兜儕
    Yunlin (Zhao'an) 𠊎人
    Senai 吾兜
    Huizhou Jixi 我人
    Jin Taiyuan 我們俺們
    Xinzhou 俺們
    Min Bei Jian'ou 我人我伙人
    Min Dong Fuzhou 我各儂
    Fuqing 儂家儂家各儂
    Min Nan Xiamen
    Quanzhou
    Zhangzhou
    Taipei
    Kaohsiung
    Tainan
    Taichung
    Hsinchu
    Lukang
    Sanxia
    Yilan
    Kinmen
    Magong
    Penang 我儂
    Singapore 我儂
    Philippines (Manila)
    Chaozhou
    Haifeng 阮儂
    Haikou 我儂
    Leizhou 我儂
    Puxian Min Putian 我輩
    Xianyou 我輩
    Pinghua Nanning 我哋
    Wu Shanghai 阿拉我伲 dated dated
    Suzhou
    Hangzhou 我們
    Wenzhou 我倈
    Chongming 我俚
    Danyang 我己
    Jinhua 我浪
    Tangxi 我道
    Ningbo 阿拉
    Xiang Changsha 我們
    Shuangfeng 我俚卬俚
    Loudi 我俺

    Compounds[edit]

    See also[edit]

    Standard Chinese personal pronouns
    Person Singular Plural
    1st 我們我们 (wǒmen)
    inclusive 咱們咱们 (zánmen)
    2nd male/indefinite () 你們你们 (nǐmen)
    female () 妳們你们 (nǐmen)
    deity () 祢們祢们 (nǐmen)
    polite (nín) 你們你们 (nǐmen)
    您們您们 (nínmen)
    3rd male/indefinite () 他們他们 (tāmen)
    female () 她們她们 (tāmen)
    deity () 祂們祂们 (tāmen)
    animal () 牠們它们 (tāmen)
    inanimate () 它們它们 (tāmen)

    Japanese[edit]

    Kanji[edit]

    (grade 6 “Kyōiku” kanji)

    1. I, me

    Readings[edit]

    Compounds[edit]

    Etymology 1[edit]

    Kanji in this term

    Grade: 6
    kun’yomi

    From Old Japanese.[1] The short form of (ware).

    Pronunciation[edit]

    Alternative forms[edit]

    Pronoun[edit]

    (hiragana , rōmaji wa)

    1. first-person personal pronoun: I, me
      • c. late 9th – mid-10th century, Taketori Monogatari
        「[...]が丈たち竝ぶまで養ひたてまつりたる我子を、なに人が迎へきこえん。まさに許さんや」と言ひて、[...]
      • c. 1001–1014, Genji Monogatari (Kiritsubo)
        かしこき御蔭をば、たのみきこえながら、貶めきずを求め給ふ人はおほく、がみはかよわく、物はかなきありさまにて、中々なる物思ひをぞし給ふ。
      • c. 1001–1014, Genji Monogatari (Utsusemi)
        女どち、のどやかなる夕闇の、道たどたどしげなるまぎれに、が車にてゐてたてまつる。
    Usage notes[edit]

    In modern Japanese, most often encountered in fossilized phrases in combination with the Old Japanese possessive particle (ga), such as 我が儘 (wagamama, selfish; selfishness, literally just as I like) or 我が国 (wagakuni, my country, my homeland; (by extension) Japan).

    Etymology 2[edit]

    Kanji in this term
    われ
    Grade: 6
    kun’yomi

    From Old Japanese.[1] Appears to be (wa, see above) +‎ (re), a nominalizing suffix also seen in terms such as これ (kore, this) and (dare, who).

    The long form of (wa).

    Pronunciation[edit]

    Alternative forms[edit]

    Pronoun[edit]

    (hiragana われ, rōmaji ware)

    1. first person personal pronoun: I, me, oneself
      • c. 759, Man'yōshū (book 14, poem 3384)
        可都思加能 麻末能手兒奈乎 麻許登可聞 和礼尓余須等布 麻末乃弖胡奈乎
      • c. late 9th – mid-10th century, Taketori Monogatari
        この人々、あるときは竹取を呼び出て「娘をにたべ」と、ふし拝み、手をすりのたまへど[...]
      • c. late 9th – mid-10th century, Taketori Monogatari
        「[...]わが丈たち竝ぶまで養ひたてまつりたる我子を、なに人が迎へきこえん。まさに許さんや」と言ひて、「われこそ死なめ」とて[...]
      • c. 1001–1014, Genji Monogatari (Utsusemi)
        紀の守のいもうとも、こなたにあるか。われに、垣間見せさせよ
      • 16031604, Nippo Jisho
        Vare. ワレ (我) 私. また, おまえ. 本来の正しい言い方ではないが、下賎な者と話したり, 人を軽しめたりする時に用いる.
    2. second person personal pronoun; you
      • 16031604, Nippo Jisho (page 679)
        Vare. ワレ (我) 私. また, おまえ. 本来の正しい言い方ではないが、下賎な者と話したり, 人を軽しめたりする時に用いる.
    Usage notes[edit]

    In modern Japanese, most often encountered in the plural forms 我等 (warera) and 我我 (wareware, we, us).

    Etymology 3[edit]

    Kanji in this term
    わぬ
    Grade: 6
    kun’yomi

    Old Japanese. Ancient eastern dialect. Cognate with (ware).[1]

    Obsolete.

    Pronunciation[edit]

    Alternative forms[edit]

    Pronoun[edit]

    (hiragana わぬ, rōmaji wanu)

    1. (obsolete) first person personal pronoun: I, me, oneself
      • c. 759, Man'yōshū (book 14, poem 3476)
        宇倍兒奈波 和奴尓故布奈毛 多刀都久能 努賀奈敝由家婆 故布思可流奈母 或本歌末句曰 奴我奈敝由家杼 和奴賀由乃敝波
      • c. 759, Man'yōshū (book 20, poem 4358)
        於保伎美乃 美許等加志古美 伊弖久礼婆 和努等里都伎弖 伊比之古奈波毛

    Etymology 4[edit]

    Kanji in this term
    わろ
    Grade: 6
    kun’yomi

    /waro2/ invalid IPA characters (2)/waro/

    Old Japanese. Ancient eastern dialect. Likely a compound of (wa, see above) +‎ (ro, Old Japanese suffix indicating affection).

    Obsolete.

    Pronunciation[edit]

    Alternative forms[edit]

    Pronoun[edit]

    (hiragana わろ, rōmaji waro)

    1. (obsolete) first person personal pronoun: I, me, oneself
      • c. 759, Man'yōshū (book 20, poem 4343)
        和呂多比波 多比等於米保等 已比尓志弖 古米知夜須良牟 和加美可奈志母

    Etymology 5[edit]

    Kanji in this term

    Grade: 6
    kun’yomi

    Old Japanese. The short form of (are).

    Obsolete. Fell into disuse in roughly the Heian period,[1][2] when it was replaced by wa (see above).

    Pronunciation[edit]

    Alternative forms[edit]

    Pronoun[edit]

    (hiragana , rōmaji a)

    1. (obsolete) first-person personal pronoun: I, me
      • c. 759, Man'yōshū (book 14, poem 3456)
        宇都世美能 夜蘇許登乃敝波 思気久等母 安良蘇比可祢弖 乎許登奈須那
      • c. 759, Man'yōshū (book 14, poem 3457)
        宇知日佐須 美夜能和我世波 夜麻登女乃 比射麻久其登尓 乎和須良須奈
      • c. 759, Man'yōshū (book 14, poem 3458)
        奈勢能古夜 等里乃乎加恥志 奈可太乎礼 乎祢思奈久与 伊久豆君麻弖尓
      • c. 759, Man'yōshū (book 14, poem 3471)
        思麻良久波 祢都追母安良牟乎 伊米能未尓 母登奈見要都追 乎祢思奈久流
      • c. 1001–1014, Genji Monogatari (Yūgao)
        が君、生き出で給へ。いと、いみじき目な見せ給ひそ

    Etymology 6[edit]

    Kanji in this term
    あれ
    Grade: 6
    kun’yomi

    The long form of (a). Compound of (a, see above) +‎ (re), a nominalizing suffix also seen in terms such as これ (kore, this) and (dare, who).

    Obsolete. Fell into disuse in roughly the Heian period,[2] when it was replaced by ware (see above).

    Pronunciation[edit]

    Alternative forms[edit]

    Pronoun[edit]

    (hiragana あれ, rōmaji are)

    1. (obsolete) first-person personal pronoun: I, me
      • c. 759, Man'yōshū (book 5, poem 808)
        多都乃麻乎 阿礼波毛等米牟 阿遠尓与志 奈良乃美夜古迩 許牟比等乃多仁
      • c. 759, Man'yōshū (book 14, poem 3361)
        安思我良能 乎弖毛許乃母尓 佐須和奈乃 可奈流麻之豆美 許呂安礼比毛等久
      • c. 759, Man'yōshū (book 15, poem 3585)
        和伎母故我 之多尓毛伎余等 於久理多流 許呂母能比毛乎 安礼等可米也母
      • c. 759, Man'yōshū (book 17, poem 3932)
        須麻比等乃 海辺都祢佐良受 夜久之保能 可良吉恋乎母 安礼波須流香物
      • c. 759, Man'yōshū (book 18, poem 4058)
        多知婆奈能 登乎能多知婆奈 夜都代尓母 安礼波和須礼自 許乃多知婆奈乎
      • c. 759, Man'yōshū (book 20, poem 4298)
        霜上尓 安良礼多婆之里 伊夜麻之尓 安礼波麻為許牟 年緒奈我久 古今未詳
      • c. 1001–1014, Genji Monogatari (Yume no Ukihashi)
        [...]と、聞こえ動かして、几帳のもとに、おし寄せたてまつりたれば、あれにもあらず、居給へるけはい[...]

    Etymology 7[edit]

    Kanji in this term

    Grade: 6
    on’yomi

    From Middle Chinese (ngaX).

    Pronunciation[edit]

    Noun[edit]

    (hiragana , rōmaji ga)

    1. ego
    Derived terms[edit]

    References[edit]

    1. 1.0 1.1 1.2 1.3 1988, 国語大辞典(新装版) (Kokugo Dai Jiten, Revised Edition) (in Japanese), Tōkyō: Shogakukan
    2. 2.0 2.1 2.2 2.3 2.4 2006, 大辞林 (Daijirin), Third Edition (in Japanese), Tōkyō: Sanseidō, →ISBN
    3. 3.0 3.1 1998, NHK日本語発音アクセント辞典 (NHK Japanese Pronunciation Accent Dictionary) (in Japanese), Tōkyō: NHK, →ISBN

    Korean[edit]

    Hanja[edit]

    (eumhun (na a))

    1. I, me

    Vietnamese[edit]

    Han character[edit]

    Pronoun[edit]

    1. Hán tự form of ngã, ngả, “I (old)”

    References[edit]