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U+6211, 我
CJK UNIFIED IDEOGRAPH-6211

[U+6210]
CJK Unified Ideographs
[U+6212]
Commons:Category
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Translingual[edit]

Stroke order
7 strokes
Stroke order
我-order.gif
Stroke order
(Taiwan)
我-torder.gif

Han character[edit]

(radical 62, +3, 7 strokes, cangjie input 竹手戈 (HQI), four-corner 23550, composition𠂌)

Derived characters[edit]

Descendants[edit]

References[edit]

  • KangXi: page 412, character 1
  • Dai Kanwa Jiten: character 11545
  • Hanyu Da Zidian (first edition): volume 2, page 1401, character 2
  • Unihan data for U+6211

Further reading[edit]


Chinese[edit]

simp. and trad.
alternative forms

Glyph origin[edit]

Historical forms of the character
Shang Western Zhou Warring States Shuowen Jiezi (compiled in Han) Liushutong (compiled in Ming)
Oracle bone script Bronze inscriptions Chu Slip and silk script Small seal script Transcribed ancient scripts
我-oracle.svg 我-bronze.svg 我-silk.svg 我-seal.svg 我-bigseal.svg

A pictogram (象形) of a rake-like tool or weapon (note the oracle bone script form); Guo Moruo considers it to be the original character for (OC *ɡral, “a kind of axe or chisel”). It was already borrowed for sound to mean "I" since the oracle bone script.

Folk etymology considers it to be an ideograph of a hand () holding a weapon () to protect oneself.

Some have suggested a contrast with , interpreting the latter as a weapon with tip pointing outward. (Can this(+) etymology be sourced?)

Etymology[edit]

From Proto-Sino-Tibetan *ŋa-j ~ ka. Cognate with (OC *ŋaː), Hakka 𠊎 (ngài).

Pronunciation[edit]


Note:
  • ngoi1 - vernacular (“I; my”);
  • ngo4 - literary (“I”);
  • ngoi4 - “we; our”.
  • Gan
  • Hakka
  • Jin
  • Min Bei
  • Min Dong
  • Note:
    • nguāi - vernacular;
    • ngō̤ - literary.
  • Min Nan
  • Note:
    • góa/óa - vernacular;
    • ngó͘ - literary.
    Note:
    • ua2 - vernacular;
    • ngo2 - literary.
  • Wu
  • Xiang

    Rime
    Character
    Reading # 1/1
    Initial () (31)
    Final () (94)
    Tone (調) Rising (X)
    Openness (開合) Open
    Division () I
    Fanqie
    Reconstructions
    Zhengzhang
    Shangfang
    /ŋɑX/
    Pan
    Wuyun
    /ŋɑX/
    Shao
    Rongfen
    /ŋɑX/
    Edwin
    Pulleyblank
    /ŋaX/
    Li
    Rong
    /ŋɑX/
    Wang
    Li
    /ŋɑX/
    Bernard
    Karlgren
    /ŋɑX/
    Expected
    Mandarin
    Reflex
    ě
    BaxterSagart system 1.1 (2014)
    Character
    Reading # 1/1
    Modern
    Beijing
    (Pinyin)
    Middle
    Chinese
    ‹ ngaX ›
    Old
    Chinese
    /*ŋˁajʔ/
    English we, I

    Notes for Old Chinese notations in the Baxter–Sagart system:

    * Parentheses "()" indicate uncertain presence;
    * Square brackets "[]" indicate uncertain identity, e.g. *[t] as coda may in fact be *-t or *-p;
    * Angle brackets "<>" indicate infix;
    * Hyphen "-" indicates morpheme boundary;

    * Period "." indicates syllable boundary.
    Zhengzhang system (2003)
    Character
    Reading # 1/1
    No. 13041
    Phonetic
    component
    Rime
    group
    Rime
    subdivision
    1
    Corresponding
    MC rime
    Old
    Chinese
    /*ŋaːlʔ/
    Notes

    Definitions[edit]

    1. I; me; my
      認識高興 / 认识高兴  ―  Rènshí nǐ zhēn gāoxìng.  ―  I am pleased to meet you.
      哥哥每天上班遲到 [MSC, trad.]
      哥哥每天上班迟到 [MSC, simp.]
      gēge měitiān shàngbān dōu chídào. [Pinyin]
      My brother is late for work everyday.
      今朝公司事體 [Shanghainese, trad.]
      今朝公司事体 [Shanghainese, simp.]
      [t͡ɕɪɲ⁵⁵ t͡sɔ²¹ kʊŋ⁵⁵ sz̩²¹ ɦiɜ³³  z̻z̩²² tʰi⁴⁴ ŋv̩ʷ²³ ɕi⁵³ t͡sɜ³³ ləʔ⁴⁴] [IPA]
      Today I have things to do in the company, (so) I'm leaving early (lit. ahead).
    2. (literary, formal or dialectal) we; us; our
      /   ―  guó  ―  our country
        ―  shì  ―  our city
    3. to stubbornly hold to one's own opinion
    4. to kill
    5. tilted
    6. A surname​.

    Synonyms[edit]

    edit

    See also[edit]

    Standard Chinese personal pronouns
    Person Singular Plural
    1st () 我們我们 (wǒmen)
    inclusive 咱們咱们 (zánmen)
    2nd male/indefinite () 你們你们 (nǐmen)
    female () 妳們你们 (nǐmen)
    deity () 祢們祢们 (nǐmen)
    polite (nín) 你們你们 (nǐmen)
    您們您们 (nínmen)
    3rd male/indefinite () 他們他们 (tāmen)
    female () 她們她们 (tāmen)
    deity () 祂們祂们 (tāmen)
    animal () 牠們它们 (tāmen)
    inanimate () 它們它们 (tāmen)

    Compounds[edit]

    Descendants[edit]

    Sino-Xenic ():
    • Japanese: () (ga)
    • Korean: (, a)
    • Vietnamese: ngã ()

    Others:

    References[edit]


    Japanese[edit]

    Kanji[edit]

    (grade 6 “Kyōiku” kanji)

    Readings[edit]

    Compounds[edit]

    Etymology 1[edit]

    Kanji in this term
    われ
    Grade: 6
    kun’yomi
    Alternative spellings

    From Old Japanese,[1] as the long form of (wa) below.

    Compound of (wa, see below) +‎ (-re, nominalizing suffix).

    Pronunciation[edit]

    Pronoun[edit]

    (われ) (ware

    1. first person singular pronoun: I, me, oneself
    2. second person singular pronoun: you
    Usage notes[edit]

    In modern Japanese, most often encountered in the plural forms 我等 (warera) and 我我 (wareware, we, us).

    Derived terms[edit]
    See also[edit]

    Etymology 2[edit]

    Kanji in this term

    Grade: 6
    kun’yomi
    Alternative spellings

    From Old Japanese (wa).[1]

    Pronunciation[edit]

    Pronoun[edit]

    () (wa

    1. first-person personal pronoun: I, me
    Usage notes[edit]

    In modern Japanese, most often encountered in fossilized phrases in combination with the Old Japanese possessive particle (ga), such as 我が儘 (wagamama, selfish; selfishness, literally just as I like) or 我が国 (wagakuni, my country, my homelandJapan).

    Derived terms[edit]
    See also[edit]

    Etymology 3[edit]

    Kanji in this term
    わ(が)
    Grade: 6
    kun’yomi
    For pronunciation and definitions of – see 我が.
    (This term, , is an alternative spelling of the above terms.)

    (The following entry is uncreated: 我が.)

    Etymology 4[edit]

    Kanji in this term

    Grade: 6
    kun’yomi
    For pronunciation and definitions of – see the following entry.
    H
    [pronoun] (obsolete) first-person personal pronoun: I, me
    Alternative spellings
    ,
    (This term, , is an alternative spelling of the above term.)

    Etymology 5[edit]

    Kanji in this term
    あれ
    Grade: 6
    kun’yomi
    For pronunciation and definitions of – see the following entry.
    あれ
    [pronoun] (obsolete) first-person personal pronoun: I, me
    Alternative spellings
    ,
    (This term, , is an alternative spelling of the above term.)

    Etymology 6[edit]

    Kanji in this term

    Grade: 6
    on’yomi

    From Middle Chinese (MC ŋɑX).

    The Buddhist senses are a translation of Sanskrit आत्मन् (ātman, self).

    Pronunciation[edit]

    Noun[edit]

    () (ga

    1. the ego, self
    2. self-righteousness
    3. (Buddhism) obstinacy
      Antonym: 無我 (muga)
    4. (Hinduism) atman
      Synonym: アートマン (ātoman)
    Derived terms[edit]

    Affix[edit]

    () (ga

    1. self, oneself, myself
    2. egotism, selfishness
    3. (Buddhism) atman

    Derived terms[edit]

    References[edit]

    1. 1.0 1.1 1988, 国語大辞典(新装版) (Kokugo Dai Jiten, Revised Edition) (in Japanese), Tōkyō: Shogakukan
    2. 2.0 2.1 2.2 2006, 大辞林 (Daijirin), Third Edition (in Japanese), Tōkyō: Sanseidō, →ISBN
    3. 3.0 3.1 1998, NHK日本語発音アクセント辞典 (NHK Japanese Pronunciation Accent Dictionary) (in Japanese), Tōkyō: NHK, →ISBN

    Korean[edit]

    Etymology[edit]

    From Middle Chinese (MC ŋɑX). Recorded as Middle Korean 아〯 (Yale: a) in Hunmong Jahoe (訓蒙字會 / 훈몽자회), 1527.

    Hanja[edit]

    Korean Wikisource has texts containing the hanja:

    Wikisource

    (eumhun (na a))

    1. (literary) Hanja form? of (I; me).

    Compounds[edit]

    References[edit]

    • 국제퇴계학회 대구경북지부 (國際退溪學會 大邱慶北支部) (2007). Digital Hanja Dictionary, 전자사전/電子字典. [2]

    Okinawan[edit]

    Kanji[edit]

    (grade 6 “Kyōiku” kanji)

    Readings[edit]


    Old Japanese[edit]

    Alternative forms[edit]

    Etymology 1[edit]

    From Proto-Japonic *wa.

    Pronoun[edit]

    (wa) (kana )

    1. first-person personal pronoun: I, me
    Citations[edit]

    For quotations of use of this term, see Citations:我.

    Derived terms[edit]
    Descendants[edit]
    • Japanese: (wa)

    Etymology 2[edit]

    From (wa, see above) +‎ (-re, thing, nominalizing suffix).

    Pronoun[edit]

    (ware) (kana われ)

    1. first-person personal pronoun: I, me, oneself
    Citations[edit]

    For quotations of use of this term, see Citations:我.

    Descendants[edit]
    • Japanese: (ware)

    Etymology 3[edit]

    Likely a compound of (wa, see above) +‎ (-ro, suffix indicating affection).

    Pronoun[edit]

    (waro2) (kana わろ)

    1. (regional, Southern Eastern Old Japanese) first person singular pronoun: I, me
    Citations[edit]

    For quotations of use of this term, see Citations:我.

    Etymology 4[edit]

    Cognate with (ware) above.[1]

    Pronoun[edit]

    (wanu) (kana わぬ)

    1. (regional, Northern Eastern Old Japanese) first person personal pronoun: I, me, oneself
    Citations[edit]

    For quotations of use of this term, see Citations:我.

    Etymology 5[edit]

    (This etymology is missing or incomplete. Please add to it, or discuss it at the Etymology scriptorium.)

    Pronoun[edit]

    Lua error: not enough memory

    1. Lua error: not enough memory: I, me
    Citations[edit]

    For quotations of use of this term, see [[Citations:我#Lua error: not enough memory|Citations:我]].

    Derived terms[edit]
    • Lua error: not enough memory
    Descendants[edit]
    • Lua error: not enough memory

    Etymology 6[edit]

    From Lua error: not enough memory.

    Pronoun[edit]

    Lua error: not enough memory

    1. Lua error: not enough memory: I, me
    Citations[edit]

    For quotations of use of this term, see [[Citations:我#Lua error: not enough memory|Citations:我]].

    Descendants[edit]
    • Lua error: not enough memory

    References[edit]

    1. ^ 1988, Lua error: not enough memory (Kokugo Dai Jiten, Revised Edition) (in Japanese), Tōkyō: Shogakukan

    Vietnamese[edit]

    Han character[edit]

    Lua error: not enough memory

    1. Hán tự form of Lua error: not enough memory.
    2. Nôm form of Lua error: not enough memory.
    3. Nôm form of Lua error: not enough memory.

    Compounds[edit]

    References[edit]