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Translingual[edit]

Stroke order
我-order.gif
Taiwanese
stroke order
我-torder.gif

Han character[edit]

(radical 62 +3, 7 strokes, cangjie input 竹手戈 (HQI), four-corner 23550, composition𠂌)

Derived characters[edit]

References[edit]


Chinese[edit]

simp. and trad.

Glyph origin[edit]

Historical forms of the character
Oracle bone script Bronze inscriptions Large seal script Small seal script
我-oracle.svg 我-bronze.svg 我-bigseal.svg 我-seal.svg

A Pictogram (象形) of a rake-like tool or weapon, borrowed for sound to mean "me" (note oracle bone script form); considered by some to be an ideograph of a hand (shǒu) holding a weapon () to protect oneself.

Etymology[edit]

From Proto-Sino-Tibetan *ŋa. Cognate with (), (ǎn), 𠊎.

Pronunciation[edit]


Middle Chinese pronunciation (, reconstructed)
Character (), Pronunciation 1/1

Initial: (31)
Final:
Division: I

Openness: Open
Tone: Rising (X)

Fanqie:
Zhengzhang
Shangfang
Bernard
Karlgren
Li
Rong
Pan
Wuyun
Edwin
Pulleyblank
Wang
Li
Shao
Rongfen
/ŋɑX/ /ŋɑX/ /ŋɑX/ /ŋɑX/ /ŋaX/ /ŋɑX/ /ŋɑX/
Old Chinese pronunciation (, reconstructed)
Baxter-Sagart system 1.1 (2014)
Character Modern Beijing
(Pinyin)
Middle Chinese Old Chinese English
‹ ngaX › /*ŋˤajʔ/ we, I

Notes for Old Chinese notations in the Baxter-Sagart system:

  • Parentheses "()" indicate uncertain presence;
  • Square brackets "[]" indicate uncertain identity, e.g. *[t] as coda may in fact be *-t or *-p;
  • Angle brackets "<>" indicate infix;
  • Hyphen "-" indicates morpheme boundary;
  • Period "." indicates syllable boundary.
Zhengzhang system (2003)
Character No. Phonetic
component
Rime
group
Rime
subdivision
Corresponding
MC rime
Old Chinese Notes
13041 1 /*ŋaːlʔ/ 甲金文象兵器,周原卜辭:王以我枚單(殫)兕

Pronoun[edit]

  1. I, me
    認識高興 / 认识高兴  ―  Rènshí nǐ zhēn gāoxìng.  ―  I am pleased to meet you.
    今朝公司事體 [Shanghainese, trad.]
    今朝公司事体 [Shanghainese, simp.]
    [t͡ɕɪɲ⁵⁵ t͡sɔ²¹ kʊŋ⁵⁵ sz̩²¹ ɦiɜ²³ z̻z̩²² tʰi⁴⁴ ŋɯ²³ ɕi⁵³ t͡sɜ³⁴ ləʔ⁵⁵] [IPA]
    Today I have things to do in the company, (so) I'm leaving early (lit. ahead).

See also[edit]

Dialectal synonyms of ("I")
Variety Location Words
Classical Classical
Mandarin Beijing
Chengdu
Xi'an
Hefei
Wuhan
Jinan
Yangzhou
Cantonese Yangjiang
Guangzhou
Taishan
Hong Kong
Gan Nanchang
Hakka Hsinchu (Hailu) 𠊎
Meixian 𠊎
Taiwanese Raoping 𠊎
Liudui (S. Sixian) 𠊎
Miaoli (N. Sixian) 𠊎
Yunlin (Zhao'an) 𠊎
Dongshi (Dabu) 𠊎
Jin Taiyuan
Min Bei Jian'ou
Min Dong Fuzhou
Min Nan Chaozhou
Xiamen
Taipei
Wu Wenzhou
Suzhou
Xiang Changsha
Shuangfeng
Standard Chinese personal pronouns
Person Singular Plural
1st 我們我们 (wǒmen)
inclusive 咱們咱们 (zánmen)
2nd male/indefinite () 你們你们 (nǐmen)
female () 妳們你们 (nǐmen)
deity () 祢們祢们 (nǐmen)
polite (nín) 你們你们 (nǐmen)
您們您们 (nínmen)
3rd male/indefinite () 他們他们 (tāmen)
female () 她們她们 (tāmen)
deity () 祂們祂们 (tāmen)
animal () 牠們它们 (tāmen)
inanimate () 它們它们 (tāmen)

Japanese[edit]

Kanji[edit]

(grade 6 “Kyōiku” kanji)

  1. I, me

Readings[edit]

Compounds[edit]

Etymology 1[edit]

Kanji in this term

Grade: 6
kun'yomi

From Old Japanese.[1] The short form of ‎(ware).

Pronunciation[edit]

Alternative forms[edit]

Pronoun[edit]

‎(hiragana , romaji wa)

  1. first-person personal pronoun: I, me
    • c. late 9th – mid-10th century, Taketori Monogatari
      「[...]が丈たち竝ぶまで養ひたてまつりたる我子を、なに人が迎へきこえん。まさに許さんや」と言ひて、[...]
    • c. 1001–1014, Genji Monogatari (Kiritsubo)
      かしこき御蔭をば、たのみきこえながら、貶めきずを求め給ふ人はおほく、がみはかよわく、物はかなきありさまにて、中々なる物思ひをぞし給ふ。
    • c. 1001–1014, Genji Monogatari (Utsusemi)
      女どち、のどやかなる夕闇の、道たどたどしげなるまぎれに、が車にてゐてたてまつる。
Usage notes[edit]

In modern Japanese, most often encountered in fossilized phrases in combination with the Old Japanese possessive particle ‎(ga), such as 我が儘 ‎(wagamama, selfish; selfishness, literally just as I like) or 我が国 ‎(wagakuni, my country, my homeland; (by extension) Japan).

Etymology 2[edit]

Kanji in this term
われ
Grade: 6
kun'yomi

From Old Japanese.[1] Appears to be ‎(wa, see above) +‎ ‎(-re), a nominalizing suffix also seen in terms such as これ ‎(kore, this) and ‎(dare, who).

The long form of ‎(wa).

Pronunciation[edit]

Alternative forms[edit]

Pronoun[edit]

‎(hiragana われ, romaji ware)

  1. first person personal pronoun: I, me, oneself
    • c. 759, Man'yōshū (book 14, poem #3384)
      可都思加能 麻末能手兒奈乎 麻許登可聞 和礼尓余須等布 麻末乃弖胡奈乎
    • c. late 9th – mid-10th century, Taketori Monogatari
      この人々、あるときは竹取を呼び出て「娘をにたべ」と、ふし拝み、手をすりのたまへど[...]
    • c. late 9th – mid-10th century, Taketori Monogatari
      「[...]わが丈たち竝ぶまで養ひたてまつりたる我子を、なに人が迎へきこえん。まさに許さんや」と言ひて、「われこそ死なめ」とて[...]
    • c. 1001–1014, Genji Monogatari (Utsusemi)
      紀の守のいもうとも、こなたにあるか。われに、垣間見せさせよ
    • 16031604, Nippo Jisho
      Vare. ワレ (我) 私. また, おまえ. 本来の正しい言い方ではないが、下賎な者と話したり, 人を軽しめたりする時に用いる.
  2. second person personal pronoun; you
    • 16031604, Nippo Jisho (page 679)
      Vare. ワレ (我) 私. また, おまえ. 本来の正しい言い方ではないが、下賎な者と話したり, 人を軽しめたりする時に用いる.
Usage notes[edit]

In modern Japanese, most often encountered in the plural forms 我等 ‎(warera) and 我我 ‎(wareware, we, us).

Etymology 3[edit]

Kanji in this term
わぬ
Grade: 6
kun'yomi

Old Japanese. Ancient eastern dialect. Cognate with ‎(ware).[1]

Obsolete.

Pronunciation[edit]

Alternative forms[edit]

Pronoun[edit]

‎(hiragana わぬ, romaji wanu)

  1. (obsolete) first person personal pronoun: I, me, oneself
    • c. 759, Man'yōshū (book 14, poem #3476)
      宇倍兒奈波 和奴尓故布奈毛 多刀都久能 努賀奈敝由家婆 故布思可流奈母 或本歌末句曰 奴我奈敝由家杼 和奴賀由乃敝波
    • c. 759, Man'yōshū (book 20, poem #4358)
      於保伎美乃 美許等加志古美 伊弖久礼婆 和努等里都伎弖 伊比之古奈波毛

Etymology 4[edit]

Kanji in this term
わろ
Grade: 6
kun'yomi

/waro2//waro/

Old Japanese. Ancient eastern dialect. Likely a compound of ‎(wa, see above) +‎ ‎(-ro, Old Japanese suffix indicating affection).

Obsolete.

Pronunciation[edit]

Alternative forms[edit]

Pronoun[edit]

‎(hiragana わろ, romaji waro)

  1. (obsolete) first person personal pronoun: I, me, oneself
    • c. 759, Man'yōshū (book 20, poem #4343)
      和呂多比波 多比等於米保等 已比尓志弖 古米知夜須良牟 和加美可奈志母

Etymology 5[edit]

Kanji in this term

Grade: 6
kun'yomi

Old Japanese. The short form of ‎(are).

Obsolete. Fell into disuse in roughly the Heian period,[1][2] when it was replaced by wa (see above).

Pronunciation[edit]

Alternative forms[edit]

Pronoun[edit]

‎(hiragana , romaji a)

  1. (obsolete) first-person personal pronoun: I, me
    • c. 759, Man'yōshū (book 14, poem #3456)
      宇都世美能 夜蘇許登乃敝波 思気久等母 安良蘇比可祢弖 乎許登奈須那
    • c. 759, Man'yōshū (book 14, poem #3457)
      宇知日佐須 美夜能和我世波 夜麻登女乃 比射麻久其登尓 乎和須良須奈
    • c. 759, Man'yōshū (book 14, poem #3458)
      奈勢能古夜 等里乃乎加恥志 奈可太乎礼 乎祢思奈久与 伊久豆君麻弖尓
    • c. 759, Man'yōshū (book 14, poem #3471)
      思麻良久波 祢都追母安良牟乎 伊米能未尓 母登奈見要都追 乎祢思奈久流
    • c. 1001–1014, Genji Monogatari (Yūgao)
      が君、生き出で給へ。いと、いみじき目な見せ給ひそ

Etymology 6[edit]

Kanji in this term
あれ
Grade: 6
kun'yomi

The long form of ‎(a). Compound of ‎(a, see above) +‎ ‎(re), a nominalizing suffix also seen in terms such as これ ‎(kore, this) and ‎(dare, who).

Obsolete. Fell into disuse in roughly the Heian period,[2] when it was replaced by ware (see above).

Pronunciation[edit]

Alternative forms[edit]

Pronoun[edit]

‎(hiragana あれ, romaji are)

  1. (obsolete) first-person personal pronoun: I, me
    • c. 759, Man'yōshū (book 5, poem #808)
      多都乃麻乎 阿礼波毛等米牟 阿遠尓与志 奈良乃美夜古迩 許牟比等乃多仁
    • c. 759, Man'yōshū (book 14, poem #3361)
      安思我良能 乎弖毛許乃母尓 佐須和奈乃 可奈流麻之豆美 許呂安礼比毛等久
    • c. 759, Man'yōshū (book 15, poem #3585)
      和伎母故我 之多尓毛伎余等 於久理多流 許呂母能比毛乎 安礼等可米也母
    • c. 759, Man'yōshū (book 17, poem #3932)
      須麻比等乃 海辺都祢佐良受 夜久之保能 可良吉恋乎母 安礼波須流香物
    • c. 759, Man'yōshū (book 18, poem #4058)
      多知婆奈能 登乎能多知婆奈 夜都代尓母 安礼波和須礼自 許乃多知婆奈乎
    • c. 759, Man'yōshū (book 20, poem #4298)
      霜上尓 安良礼多婆之里 伊夜麻之尓 安礼波麻為許牟 年緒奈我久 古今未詳
    • c. 1001–1014, Genji Monogatari (Yume no Ukihashi)
      [...]と、聞こえ動かして、几帳のもとに、おし寄せたてまつりたれば、あれにもあらず、居給へるけはい[...]

Etymology 7[edit]

Kanji in this term

Grade: 6
on'yomi

From Middle Chinese ‎(ngaX).

Pronunciation[edit]

Noun[edit]

‎(hiragana , romaji ga)

  1. ego
Derived terms[edit]

References[edit]

  1. 1.0 1.1 1.2 1.3 1988, 国語大辞典(新装版) (Kokugo Dai Jiten, Revised Edition) (in Japanese), Tōkyō: Shogakukan
  2. 2.0 2.1 2.2 2.3 2.4 2006, 大辞林 (Daijirin), Third Edition (in Japanese), Tōkyō: Sanseidō, ISBN 4-385-13905-9
  3. 3.0 3.1 1998, NHK日本語発音アクセント辞典 (NHK Japanese Pronunciation Accent Dictionary) (in Japanese), Tōkyō: NHK, ISBN 978-4-14-011112-3

Korean[edit]

Hanja[edit]

‎(a) (hangeul , revised a, McCune-Reischauer a, Yale a)

  1. This entry needs a definition. Please add one, then remove {{defn}}.

Vietnamese[edit]

Han character[edit]

Pronoun[edit]

  1. Hán tự form of ngã, ngả, "I (old)"

References[edit]