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Translingual[edit]

-
simp. and trad.
Stroke order
我-bw.png
Stroke order
我-order.gif
Taiwanese
stroke order
我-torder.gif

Etymology[edit]

我-oracle.svg 我-bronze.svg 我-bigseal.svg 我-seal.svg
Oracle bone script Bronze inscriptions Large seal script Small seal script

A Pictogram (象形) of a rake-like tool or weapon, borrowed for sound to mean "me" (note oracle bone script form).

Han character[edit]

(radical 62 +3, 7 strokes, cangjie input 竹手戈 (HQI), four-corner 23550, composition𠂌)

Derived characters[edit]

References[edit]


Chinese[edit]

-
simp. and trad.

Etymology[edit]

From Proto-Sino-Tibetan *ŋa. Cognate with , , 𠊎.

Pronunciation[edit]


Middle Chinese pronunciation (, reconstructed)
Character (我), Pronunciation 1/1

Initial: 疑 (31)
Final: 歌
Division: I

Openness: Open
Tone: Rising (X)

Fanqie: 五可切
Zhengzhang
Shangfang
Bernard
Karlgren
Li
Rong
Pan
Wuyun
Edwin
Pulleyblank
Wang
Li
Shao
Rongfen
/ŋɑX/ /ŋɑX/ /ŋɑX/ /ŋɑX/ /ŋaX/ /ŋɑX/ /ŋɑX/
Old Chinese pronunciation (, reconstructed)
Baxter-Sagart system 1.1 (2014)
Character Modern Beijing
(Pinyin)
Middle Chinese Old Chinese English
‹ ngaX › /*ŋˤajʔ/ we, I

Notes for Old Chinese notations in the Baxter-Sagart system:

  • Parentheses "()" indicate uncertain presence;
  • Square brackets "[]" indicate uncertain identity, e.g. *[t] as coda may in fact be *-t or *-p;
  • Angle brackets "<>" indicate infix;
  • Hyphen "-" indicates morpheme boundary;
  • Period "." indicates syllable boundary.
Zhengzhang system (2003)
Character No. Phonetic
component
Rime
group
Rime
subdivision
Corresponding
MC rime
Old Chinese Notes
13041 1 /*ŋaːlʔ/ 甲金文象兵器,周原卜辭:王以我枚單(殫)兕

Pronoun[edit]

  1. I, me
    認識高興 [MSC, trad.]
    认识高兴 [MSC, simp.]
    Rènshí nǐ zhēn gāoxīng. [Pinyin]
    I am pleased to meet you.
    今朝公司事體 [Shanghainese, trad.]
    今朝公司事体 [Shanghainese, simp.]
    Today I have things to do in the company, (so) I'm leaving early (lit. ahead).

See also[edit]


Japanese[edit]

Kanji[edit]

(grade 6 “Kyōiku” kanji)

  1. I, me

Readings[edit]

Compounds[edit]

Etymology 1[edit]

Kanji in this term

Grade: 6
kun'yomi

From Old Japanese.[1] The short form of (ware).

Pronunciation[edit]

Alternative forms[edit]

Pronoun[edit]

(hiragana , romaji wa)

  1. first-person personal pronoun: I, me
    • c. late 9th – mid-10th century, Taketori Monogatari
      「[...]が丈たち竝ぶまで養ひたてまつりたる我子を、なに人が迎へきこえん。まさに許さんや」と言ひて、[...]
    • c. 1001–1014, Genji Monogatari (Kiritsubo)
      かしこき御蔭をば、たのみきこえながら、貶めきずを求め給ふ人はおほく、がみはかよわく、物はかなきありさまにて、中々なる物思ひをぞし給ふ。
    • c. 1001–1014, Genji Monogatari (Utsusemi)
      女どち、のどやかなる夕闇の、道たどたどしげなるまぎれに、が車にてゐてたてまつる。
Usage notes[edit]

In modern Japanese, most often encountered in fossilized phrases in combination with the Old Japanese possessive particle (ga), such as 我が儘 (wagamama, selfish; selfishness, literally just as I like) or 我が国 (wagakuni, my country, my homeland; (by extension) Japan).

Etymology 2[edit]

Kanji in this term
われ
Grade: 6
kun'yomi

From Old Japanese.[1] Appears to be (wa, see above) +‎ (-re), a nominalizing suffix also seen in terms such as これ (kore, this) and (dare, who).

The long form of (wa).

Pronunciation[edit]

Alternative forms[edit]

Pronoun[edit]

(hiragana われ, romaji ware)

  1. first person personal pronoun: I, me, oneself
    • c. 759, Man'yōshū (book 14, poem #3384)
      可都思加能 麻末能手兒奈乎 麻許登可聞 和礼尓余須等布 麻末乃弖胡奈乎
    • c. late 9th – mid-10th century, Taketori Monogatari
      この人々、あるときは竹取を呼び出て「娘をにたべ」と、ふし拝み、手をすりのたまへど[...]
    • c. late 9th – mid-10th century, Taketori Monogatari
      「[...]わが丈たち竝ぶまで養ひたてまつりたる我子を、なに人が迎へきこえん。まさに許さんや」と言ひて、「われこそ死なめ」とて[...]
    • c. 1001–1014, Genji Monogatari (Utsusemi)
      紀の守のいもうとも、こなたにあるか。われに、垣間見せさせよ
    • 16031604, Nippo Jisho
      Vare. ワレ (我) 私. また, おまえ. 本来の正しい言い方ではないが、下賎な者と話したり, 人を軽しめたりする時に用いる.
  2. second person personal pronoun; you
    • 16031604, Nippo Jisho (page 679)
      Vare. ワレ (我) 私. また, おまえ. 本来の正しい言い方ではないが、下賎な者と話したり, 人を軽しめたりする時に用いる.
Usage notes[edit]

In modern Japanese, most often encountered in the plural forms 我等 (warera) and 我我 (wareware, we, us).

Etymology 3[edit]

Kanji in this term
わぬ
Grade: 6
kun'yomi

Old Japanese. Ancient eastern dialect. Cognate with (ware).[1]

Obsolete.

Pronunciation[edit]

Alternative forms[edit]

Pronoun[edit]

(hiragana わぬ, romaji wanu)

  1. (obsolete) first person personal pronoun: I, me, oneself
    • c. 759, Man'yōshū (book 14, poem #3476)
      宇倍兒奈波 和奴尓故布奈毛 多刀都久能 努賀奈敝由家婆 故布思可流奈母 或本歌末句曰 奴我奈敝由家杼 和奴賀由乃敝波
    • c. 759, Man'yōshū (book 20, poem #4358)
      於保伎美乃 美許等加志古美 伊弖久礼婆 和努等里都伎弖 伊比之古奈波毛

Etymology 4[edit]

Kanji in this term
わろ
Grade: 6
kun'yomi

/waro2//waro/

Old Japanese. Ancient eastern dialect. Likely a compound of (wa, see above) +‎ (-ro, Old Japanese suffix indicating affection).

Obsolete.

Pronunciation[edit]

Alternative forms[edit]

Pronoun[edit]

(hiragana わろ, romaji waro)

  1. (obsolete) first person personal pronoun: I, me, oneself
    • c. 759, Man'yōshū (book 20, poem #4343)
      和呂多比波 多比等於米保等 已比尓志弖 古米知夜須良牟 和加美可奈志母

Etymology 5[edit]

Kanji in this term

Grade: 6
kun'yomi

Old Japanese. The short form of (are).

Obsolete. Fell into disuse in roughly the Heian period,[1][2] when it was replaced by wa (see above).

Pronunciation[edit]

Alternative forms[edit]

Pronoun[edit]

(hiragana , romaji a)

  1. (obsolete) first-person personal pronoun: I, me
    • c. 759, Man'yōshū (book 14, poem #3456)
      宇都世美能 夜蘇許登乃敝波 思気久等母 安良蘇比可祢弖 乎許登奈須那
    • c. 759, Man'yōshū (book 14, poem #3457)
      宇知日佐須 美夜能和我世波 夜麻登女乃 比射麻久其登尓 乎和須良須奈
    • c. 759, Man'yōshū (book 14, poem #3458)
      奈勢能古夜 等里乃乎加恥志 奈可太乎礼 乎祢思奈久与 伊久豆君麻弖尓
    • c. 759, Man'yōshū (book 14, poem #3471)
      思麻良久波 祢都追母安良牟乎 伊米能未尓 母登奈見要都追 乎祢思奈久流
    • c. 1001–1014, Genji Monogatari (Yūgao)
      が君、生き出で給へ。いと、いみじき目な見せ給ひそ

Etymology 6[edit]

Kanji in this term
あれ
Grade: 6
kun'yomi

The long form of (a). Compound of (a, see above) +‎ (re), a nominalizing suffix also seen in terms such as これ (kore, this) and (dare, who).

Obsolete. Fell into disuse in roughly the Heian period,[2] when it was replaced by ware (see above).

Pronunciation[edit]

Alternative forms[edit]

Pronoun[edit]

(hiragana あれ, romaji are)

  1. (obsolete) first-person personal pronoun: I, me
    • c. 759, Man'yōshū (book 5, poem #808)
      多都乃麻乎 阿礼波毛等米牟 阿遠尓与志 奈良乃美夜古迩 許牟比等乃多仁
    • c. 759, Man'yōshū (book 14, poem #3361)
      安思我良能 乎弖毛許乃母尓 佐須和奈乃 可奈流麻之豆美 許呂安礼比毛等久
    • c. 759, Man'yōshū (book 15, poem #3585)
      和伎母故我 之多尓毛伎余等 於久理多流 許呂母能比毛乎 安礼等可米也母
    • c. 759, Man'yōshū (book 17, poem #3932)
      須麻比等乃 海辺都祢佐良受 夜久之保能 可良吉恋乎母 安礼波須流香物
    • c. 759, Man'yōshū (book 18, poem #4058)
      多知婆奈能 登乎能多知婆奈 夜都代尓母 安礼波和須礼自 許乃多知婆奈乎
    • c. 759, Man'yōshū (book 20, poem #4298)
      霜上尓 安良礼多婆之里 伊夜麻之尓 安礼波麻為許牟 年緒奈我久 古今未詳
    • c. 1001–1014, Genji Monogatari (Yume no Ukihashi)
      [...]と、聞こえ動かして、几帳のもとに、おし寄せたてまつりたれば、あれにもあらず、居給へるけはい[...]

References[edit]

  1. 1.0 1.1 1.2 1.3 1988, 国語大辞典(新装版) (Kokugo Dai Jiten, Revised Edition) (in Japanese), Tōkyō: Shogakukan
  2. 2.0 2.1 2.2 2.3 2006, 大辞林 (Daijirin), Third Edition (in Japanese), Tōkyō: Sanseidō, ISBN 4-385-13905-9

Korean[edit]

Hanja[edit]

(a) (hangeul , revised a, McCune-Reischauer a, Yale a)

  1. This entry needs a definition. Please add one, then remove {{defn}}.

Vietnamese[edit]

Han character[edit]

Pronoun[edit]

  1. Hán tự form of ngã, ngả, "I (old)"

References[edit]