to encircle, to circle, to surround, everywhere, curve (in the road)
Unclear. Possibly connected with Tibetan [script needed] (gču-ba) ~ [script needed] (lču-ba, “screw”), [script needed] (gčud-ba) ~ [script needed] (lčub-ba, “turn, twist, plait, braid”), or Thaiดิ้ว(dîu, “club, stick; strips of rattan or bamboo bent in a circle to which ribs of a cage are fastened”) or Khmerជួត(cuət, “to wind; to wrap around; to wear a turban”) (Schuessler, 2007)
Unclear. Maybe same word as 周 (zhōu, “to surround”) as words for "help, aid" often derive from the notion "next to, or around, a person" (for analogies, 佐 (OC *ʔsaːls, “to assist < to be on one's left-side”) from 左 (OC *ʔsaːlʔ, “left”) and 佑 (OC *ɢʷɯs, “to assist < to be on one's right-side”) from 右 (OC *ɢʷɯʔ)) (Schuessler, 2007).
A 周方白 (Zhōufāng bó, “Elder of Zhou region”), likely King Wen of Zhou, was mentioned in Oracle Bone Inscriptions H11:82 and H11:84 (Lin, 1995)
Hargett (2021) states that 商 (Shāng) and 周 (Zhōu) derived from names of "places that the rulers and people of those eras regarded as their homeland or cultic centers"; the 周方 (Zhōufāng, “Zhou region”) was among "areas or regions along the frontier borders of Shang, traditionally regarded as enemy territory".
^ Lin, Sen-Shou. 1995. “Problems in the Studies of Zhou Oracle-Bone Scripts.” Retrospective Theses and Dissertations, 1919-2007. T, University of British Columbia. doi:http://dx.doi.org/10.14288/1.0098998.
Chu is the original Hán-Việt reading of this character and related ones according to Thiều Chửu. However, naming taboos for Nguyễn Phúc Chu (阮福淍) led to the reading Châu being used instead for this character, especially in the south of Vietnam, based on a tradition of u/âu sound swaps. Currently, both readings are in use.