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U+521D, 初
CJK UNIFIED IDEOGRAPH-521D

[U+521C]
CJK Unified Ideographs
[U+521E]

Translingual[edit]

Stroke order
7 strokes

Han character[edit]

(radical 18, +5, 7 strokes, cangjie input 中尸竹 (LSH), four-corner 37220, composition)

Derived characters[edit]

References[edit]

  • KangXi: page 137, character 33
  • Dai Kanwa Jiten: character 1911
  • Dae Jaweon: page 310, character 1
  • Hanyu Da Zidian (first edition): volume 1, page 327, character 22
  • Unihan data for U+521D

Chinese[edit]

simp. and trad.
alternative forms

Glyph origin[edit]

Historical forms of the character
Shang Western Zhou Warring States Shuowen Jiezi (compiled in Han) Liushutong (compiled in Ming)
Oracle bone script Bronze inscriptions Chu Slip and silk script Small seal script Transcribed ancient scripts
初-oracle.svg 初-bronze.svg 初-silk.svg 初-seal.svg 初-bigseal.svg

Ideogrammic compound (會意): (clothes) + (knife; to cut) – start making clothes by cutting the cloth.

The various 𢀰-shaped glyphs are or are evolved from Zetian characters.

Pronunciation[edit]


Note:
  • chhoe/chhe - vernacular;
  • chho͘ - literary.
  • Wu

  • Rime
    Character
    Reading # 1/1
    Initial () (19)
    Final () (22)
    Tone (調) Level (Ø)
    Openness (開合) Open
    Division () III
    Fanqie
    Reconstructions
    Zhengzhang
    Shangfang
    /t͡ʃʰɨʌ/
    Pan
    Wuyun
    /ʈ͡ʂʰiɔ/
    Shao
    Rongfen
    /t͡ʃʰiɔ/
    Edwin
    Pulleyblank
    /ʈ͡ʂʰɨə̆/
    Li
    Rong
    /t͡ʃʰiɔ/
    Wang
    Li
    /t͡ʃʰĭo/
    Bernard
    Karlgren
    /ʈ͡ʂʰi̯wo/
    Expected
    Mandarin
    Reflex
    chū
    Expected
    Cantonese
    Reflex
    co1
    BaxterSagart system 1.1 (2014)
    Character
    Reading # 1/1
    Modern
    Beijing
    (Pinyin)
    chū
    Middle
    Chinese
    ‹ tsrhjo ›
    Old
    Chinese
    /*[ts]ʰra/
    English beginning

    Notes for Old Chinese notations in the Baxter–Sagart system:

    * Parentheses "()" indicate uncertain presence;
    * Square brackets "[]" indicate uncertain identity, e.g. *[t] as coda may in fact be *-t or *-p;
    * Angle brackets "<>" indicate infix;
    * Hyphen "-" indicates morpheme boundary;

    * Period "." indicates syllable boundary.
    Zhengzhang system (2003)
    Character
    Reading # 1/1
    No. 1589
    Phonetic
    component
    Rime
    group
    Rime
    subdivision
    0
    Corresponding
    MC rime
    Old
    Chinese
    /*sʰra/

    Definitions[edit]

    1. initial; inceptive
    2. original; first; primary
    3. elementary; basic
    4. beginning; start
    5. initially; originally

    Compounds[edit]


    Japanese[edit]

    Kanji[edit]

    (grade 4 “Kyōiku” kanji)

    Readings[edit]

    Compounds[edit]

    Etymology 1[edit]

    Kanji in this term
    はつ
    Grade: 4
    kun’yomi

    ⟨patu⟩/ɸat͡su//hat͡su/

    From Old Japanese.

    Possible cognates include 始め (hajime, beginning) and (ha, edge of something).

    Pronunciation[edit]

    Prefix[edit]

    (はつ) (hatsu-

    1. the first..., initial..., new...
    Derived terms[edit]

    Noun[edit]

    (はつ) (hatsu

    1. a first, start, a beginning
      今年(ことし)(はつ)コンサートkotoshi hatsu no konsātothe first concert of this year
      Antonym: (sue)
    2. (slang) first sexual relations, one's first time
    Derived terms[edit]

    Etymology 2[edit]

    Kanji in this term
    うい
    Grade: 4
    kun’yomi

    /uɸi//uwi//ui/

    EB1911 - Volume 01 - Page 001 - 1.svg This etymology is missing or incomplete. Please add to it, or discuss it at the Etymology scriptorium.
    Particularly: “Unattested in Old Japanese; ultimately from Proto-Japonic *Opi?”

    Possibly cognate with (ue, above) or classical verb 生ふ (ou, to grow).

    Pronunciation[edit]

    Noun[edit]

    (うい) (uiうひ (ufi)?

    1. a first, start
    Derived terms[edit]

    Prefix[edit]

    (うい) (ui-うひ (ufi)?

    1. the first...
    Derived terms[edit]

    Etymology 3[edit]

    Kanji in this term
    うぶ
    Grade: 4
    kun’yomi
    Alternative spelling
    初心

    From stem up- cognate with ui (historical uhi) above. Cause of the shift in voicing is uncertain. (Can this(+) etymology be sourced?)

    Pronunciation[edit]

    Adjectival noun[edit]

    (うぶ) (ubu-na (adnominal (うぶ) (ubu na), adverbial (うぶ) (ubu ni))

    1. innocent
    2. inexperienced, green
    Inflection[edit]
    Derived terms[edit]

    Etymology 4[edit]

    Kanji in this term
    しょ
    Grade: 4
    kan’on

    From Middle Chinese (MC t͡ʃʰɨʌ).

    Compare Min Nan (chho͘).

    Affix[edit]

    (しょ) (sho

    1. beginning, start
    2. first, initial
    Derived terms[edit]

    Etymology 5[edit]

    Kanji in this term
    そ(め) > ぞ(め)
    Grade: 4
    kun’yomi
    For pronunciation and definitions of – see 初め.
    (This term, , is an alternative spelling of the above terms.)

    (The following entry is uncreated: 初め.)

    Etymology 6[edit]

    Kanji in this term
    はじ(め)
    Grade: 4
    kun’yomi

    Nominalization of 始め (hajime, beginning, first).

    Proper noun[edit]

    (はじめ) (Hajime

    1. a male given name

    References[edit]

    1. 1.0 1.1 1.2 2006, 大辞林 (Daijirin), Third Edition (in Japanese), Tōkyō: Sanseidō, →ISBN

    Korean[edit]

    Hanja[edit]

    (eumhun 처음 (cheo-eum cho))

    1. Hanja form? of (beginning; start).

    Compounds[edit]


    Okinawan[edit]

    Kanji[edit]

    (grade 4 “Kyōiku” kanji)

    Readings[edit]

    Etymology[edit]

    From Proto-Ryukyuan *patu.

    Cognate with Japanese (hatsu-).

    Pronunciation[edit]

    Prefix[edit]

    (hiragana はち, rōmaji hachi-)

    1. the first..., initial..., new...

    Derived terms[edit]


    Old Japanese[edit]

    Etymology[edit]

    From Proto-Japonic *patu.

    Possible cognates include 始め (pazime, beginning), 僅か (patuka, faint), and (pa, edge of something).

    Prefix[edit]

    (patu-) (kana はつ)

    1. the first..., initial..., new...

    Derived terms[edit]

    Descendants[edit]

    • Japanese: (hatsu-)

    Vietnamese[edit]

    Han character[edit]

    : Hán Việt readings: ((sở)(tồ)(thiết))[1][2][3]
    : Nôm readings: xưa[1][2][3][4][5], [1][2][3][5], [1][2][3], thơ[1][3][4], sờ[1]

    1. Hán tự form of (in the initial stage; primary; elementary).
    2. Nôm form of xưa (old; ancient; a long time ago).

    Compounds[edit]

    References[edit]