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U+521D, 初
CJK UNIFIED IDEOGRAPH-521D

[U+521C]
CJK Unified Ideographs
[U+521E]

Translingual[edit]

Stroke order
7 strokes

Han character[edit]

(Kangxi radical 18, +5, 7 strokes, cangjie input 中尸竹 (LSH), four-corner 37220, composition )

Derived characters[edit]

References[edit]

  • Kangxi Dictionary: page 137, character 33
  • Dai Kanwa Jiten: character 1911
  • Dae Jaweon: page 310, character 1
  • Hanyu Da Zidian (first edition): volume 1, page 327, character 22
  • Unihan data for U+521D

Chinese[edit]

simp. and trad.
alternative forms

Glyph origin[edit]

Historical forms of the character
Shang Western Zhou Warring States Shuowen Jiezi (compiled in Han) Liushutong (compiled in Ming)
Oracle bone script Bronze inscriptions Chu slip and silk script Small seal script Transcribed ancient scripts

Ideogrammic compound (會意会意) : (clothes) + (knife; to cut) – start making clothes by cutting the cloth.

The various 𢀰-shaped glyphs are or are evolved from Zetian characters.

Pronunciation[edit]


Note:
  • chhoe/chhe - vernacular;
  • chho͘ - literary.
Note:
  • ciu1 - only when referring to days 1-10 of the month in the Chinese calendar;
  • co1 - all other senses.

Rime
Character
Reading # 1/1
Initial () (19)
Final () (22)
Tone (調) Level (Ø)
Openness (開合) Open
Division () III
Fanqie
Baxter tsrhjo
Reconstructions
Zhengzhang
Shangfang
/t͡ʃʰɨʌ/
Pan
Wuyun
/ʈ͡ʂʰiɔ/
Shao
Rongfen
/t͡ʃʰiɔ/
Edwin
Pulleyblank
/ʈ͡ʂʰɨə̆/
Li
Rong
/t͡ʃʰiɔ/
Wang
Li
/t͡ʃʰĭo/
Bernard
Karlgren
/ʈ͡ʂʰi̯wo/
Expected
Mandarin
Reflex
chū
Expected
Cantonese
Reflex
co1
BaxterSagart system 1.1 (2014)
Character
Reading # 1/1
Modern
Beijing
(Pinyin)
chū
Middle
Chinese
‹ tsrhjo ›
Old
Chinese
/*[ts]ʰra/
English beginning

Notes for Old Chinese notations in the Baxter–Sagart system:

* Parentheses "()" indicate uncertain presence;
* Square brackets "[]" indicate uncertain identity, e.g. *[t] as coda may in fact be *-t or *-p;
* Angle brackets "<>" indicate infix;
* Hyphen "-" indicates morpheme boundary;

* Period "." indicates syllable boundary.
Zhengzhang system (2003)
Character
Reading # 1/1
No. 1589
Phonetic
component
Rime
group
Rime
subdivision
0
Corresponding
MC rime
Old
Chinese
/*sʰra/

Definitions[edit]

  1. initial; inceptive
      ―  chūxià  ―  early summer
  2. first
      ―  chūxuě  ―  first snow
      ―  chūliàn  ―  first love
  3. prefix of dates from 1st to 10th in the Chinese calendar
      ―  chūsān  ―  third day of a lunar month
  4. original
      ―  chūzhōng  ―  one’s initial intention; original idea
  5. elementary; basic
      ―  chū  ―  elementary
  6. beginning; start
    四月  ―  sìyuè chū  ―  early April
      ―  mínchū  ―  beginning of the Republic of China era
  7. just
    出茅廬出茅庐  ―  chūchūmáolú  ―  to have just begun one's career without any experience (literally, “to have just come out of one's thatched cottage”)
    如夢如梦  ―  rúmèngchūxǐng  ―  to suddenly realize; to wake up to reality (literally, “as if one has just waken up from a dream”)

Compounds[edit]

Descendants[edit]

  • Vietnamese: xưa

References[edit]

Japanese[edit]

Kanji[edit]

(grade 4 “Kyōiku” kanji)

Readings[edit]

Compounds[edit]

Etymology 1[edit]

Kanji in this term
はつ
Grade: 4
kun’yomi

⟨patu⟩/ɸat͡su//hat͡su/

From Old Japanese.

Possible cognates include 始め (hajime, beginning) and (ha, edge of something).

Pronunciation[edit]

Prefix[edit]

(はつ) (hatsu-

  1. the first..., initial..., new...
Derived terms[edit]

Noun[edit]

(はつ) (hatsu

  1. a first, start, a beginning
    Antonym: (sue)
    今年(ことし)(はつ)コンサートkotoshi hatsu no konsātothe first concert of this year
  2. (slang) first sexual relations, one's first time
Derived terms[edit]

Etymology 2[edit]

Kanji in this term
うい
Grade: 4
kun’yomi

/uɸi//uwi//ui/

First attested in the Kokin Wakashū of roughly 905-914 CE,[2] and assumed to be inherited from Old Japanese.

There is an apparently related term (ubu) of overlapping synonymous meaning, first attested in the early 1000s. It is unclear how these two terms are related: one might be a derivation of the other, or the two might derive separately via other processes.

Both ui and ubu appear to be related to verb 生む (umu, to birth), from the sense of "first of something since one has been born".

Martin suggests that this might be a fusion of 生む (umu, to birth) +‎ (hi, day), literally birthday.[3] However, the meaning of any such compound would be the noun birthday with a sense of "the day a woman gives birth" rather than "the day someone is born". Also, phonologically, this would be expected to result in ubi: /umu/ + /pi//umupi//umpi//ubi/.

Possibly cognate with (ue, above, possibly via the sense of "upstream → earlier") or classical verb 生ふ (ancient opu, classical ofu, modern ou, “to grow).

Pronunciation[edit]

Noun[edit]

(うい) (uiうひ (ufi)?

  1. [from early 900s] a first, start
Derived terms[edit]

Prefix[edit]

(うい) (ui-うひ (ufi)?

  1. [from early 900s] the first of something
Derived terms[edit]

Etymology 3[edit]

Kanji in this term
うぶ
Grade: 4
kun’yomi
Alternative spelling
初心

From stem up- cognate with ui (historical uhi) above. Cause of the shift in voicing is uncertain. (Can this(+) etymology be sourced?)

Pronunciation[edit]

Adjective[edit]

(うぶ) (ubu-na (adnominal (うぶ) (ubu na), adverbial (うぶ) (ubu ni))

  1. innocent
  2. inexperienced, green
Inflection[edit]
Derived terms[edit]

Etymology 4[edit]

Kanji in this term
しょ
Grade: 4
kan’on

From Middle Chinese (MC tsrhjo).

Compare Min Nan (chho͘).

Affix[edit]

(しょ) (sho

  1. beginning, start
  2. first, initial
Derived terms[edit]

Etymology 5[edit]

Kanji in this term
そ(め) > ぞ(め)
Grade: 4
kun’yomi
For pronunciation and definitions of – see the following entry.
[suffix] for the first time, typically in the current year
(This term, , is an alternative spelling (uncommon) of the above term.)

Etymology 6[edit]

Kanji in this term
はじ(め)
Grade: 4
kun’yomi

Nominalization of 始め (hajime, beginning, first).

Proper noun[edit]

(はじめ) (Hajime

  1. a male given name

References[edit]

  1. 1.0 1.1 1.2 Matsumura, Akira, editor (2006) 大辞林 [Daijirin] (in Japanese), Third edition, Tōkyō: Sanseidō, →ISBN
  2. ^ ”, in 日本国語大辞典 (Nihon Kokugo Daijiten, Nihon Kokugo Daijiten)[1] (in Japanese), concise edition, Tōkyō: Shogakukan, 2000
  3. ^ Martin, Samuel E. (1987) The Japanese Language Through Time, New Haven, London: Yale University Press, →ISBN

Korean[edit]

Hanja[edit]

(eumhun 처음 (cheo'eum cho))

  1. Hanja form? of (beginning; start).

Compounds[edit]

Okinawan[edit]

Kanji[edit]

(grade 4 “Kyōiku” kanji)

Readings[edit]

Etymology[edit]

From Proto-Ryukyuan *patu.

Cognate with Japanese (hatsu-).

Pronunciation[edit]

Prefix[edit]

(はち) (hachi-

  1. the first..., initial..., new...

Derived terms[edit]

Old Japanese[edit]

Etymology[edit]

From Proto-Japonic *patu.

Possible cognates include 始め (pazime, beginning), 僅か (patuka, faint), and (pa, edge of something).

Prefix[edit]

(patu-) (kana はつ)

  1. the first..., initial..., new...

Derived terms[edit]

Descendants[edit]

  • Japanese: (hatsu-)

Vietnamese[edit]

Han character[edit]

: Hán Việt readings: ((sở)(tồ)(thiết))[1][2][3]
: Nôm readings: xưa[1][2][3][4][5], [1][2][3][5], [1][2][3], thơ[1][3][4], sờ[1]

Compounds[edit]

Adjective[edit]

(, xưa)

  1. chữ Hán form of (in the initial stage; primary; elementary).
  2. Nôm form of xưa (old; ancient).

Noun[edit]

(xưa)

  1. Nôm form of xưa (a long time ago; old times).

References[edit]