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Translingual[edit]

Stroke order
楚-bw.png

Han character[edit]

(radical 75 +9, 13 strokes, cangjie input 木木弓卜人 (DDNYO), four-corner 44801, composition)

Derived characters[edit]

References[edit]

  • KangXi: page 539, character 23
  • Dai Kanwa Jiten: character 15141
  • Dae Jaweon: page 927, character 8
  • Hanyu Da Zidian: volume 2, page 1244, character 9
  • Unihan data for U+695A

Chinese[edit]

simp. and trad.

Glyph origin[edit]

Phono-semantic compound (形聲, OC *sŋ̥ʰraʔ, *sŋ̥ʰras): semantic  ‎(trees) + phonetic  ‎(OC *ŋraːʔ, *sŋra, *sŋraʔ) – a place with many trees, the Kingdom of Chu.

Pronunciation[edit]



  • Dialectal data
Variety Location
Mandarin Beijing /ʈ͡ʂʰu²¹⁴/
Harbin /ʈ͡ʂʰu²¹³/
Tianjin /t͡sʰu¹³/
Jinan /ʈ͡ʂʰu⁴²/
Qingdao /ʈ͡ʂʰu⁵⁵/
Zhengzhou /ʈ͡ʂʰu⁵³/
Xi'an /t͡sʰou⁵³/
Xining /ʈ͡ʂʰv̩⁵³/
Yinchuan /t͡sʰu⁵³/
Lanzhou /p͡fʰu⁴⁴²/
Ürümqi /ʈ͡ʂʰu⁵¹/
Wuhan /t͡sʰəu⁴²/
Chengdu /t͡sʰu⁵³/
Guiyang /t͡sʰu⁴²/
Kunming /t͡sʰu⁵³/
Nanjing /t͡sʰu²¹²/
Hefei /t͡sʰʊ²⁴/
Jin Taiyuan /t͡sʰu⁵³/
Pingyao /t͡sʰz̩ʷ⁵³/
Hohhot /t͡sʰu⁵³/
Wu Shanghai /t͡sʰu³⁵/
Suzhou /t͡sʰəu⁵¹³/
Hangzhou /t͡sʰu⁵³/
Wenzhou /t͡sʰɤu³⁵/
Hui Shexian /t͡sʰu³⁵/
Tunxi /t͡sʰəu³¹/
Xiang Changsha /t͡sʰəu⁴¹/
Xiangtan /t͡sʰəɯ²¹/
Gan Nanchang /t͡sʰu²¹³/
Hakka Meixian /t͡sʰz̩³¹/
Taoyuan /t͡sʰu³¹/
Cantonese Guangzhou /t͡sʰɔ³⁵/
Nanning /t͡sʰɔ³⁵/
Hong Kong /t͡sʰɔ³⁵/
Min Xiamen (Min Nan) /t͡sʰɔ⁵³/
Fuzhou (Min Dong) /t͡sʰu³²/
Jian'ou (Min Bei) /t͡sʰu²¹/
Shantou (Min Nan) /t͡sʰo⁵³/
Haikou (Min Nan) /su²¹³/

Rime
Character
Reading # 1/2 2/2
Initial () (19) (19)
Final () (22) (22)
Tone (調) Rising (X) Departing (H)
Openness (開合) Open Open
Division () III III
Fanqie
Reconstructions
Zhengzhang
Shangfang
/t͡ʃʰɨʌX/ /t͡ʃʰɨʌH/
Pan
Wuyun
/ʈ͡ʂʰiɔX/ /ʈ͡ʂʰiɔH/
Shao
Rongfen
/t͡ʃʰiɔX/ /t͡ʃʰiɔH/
Edwin
Pulleyblank
/ʈ͡ʂʰɨə̆X/ /ʈ͡ʂʰɨə̆H/
Li
Rong
/t͡ʃʰiɔX/ /t͡ʃʰiɔH/
Wang
Li
/t͡ʃʰĭoX/ /t͡ʃʰĭoH/
Bernard
Karlgren
/ʈ͡ʂʰi̯woX/ /ʈ͡ʂʰi̯woH/
Expected
Mandarin
Reflex
chǔ chù
Baxter-Sagart system 1.1 (2014)
Character
Reading # 1/3 2/3 3/3
Modern
Beijing
(Pinyin)
chǔ chǔ chǔ
Middle
Chinese
‹ tsrhjoX › ‹ tsrhjoX › ‹ tsrhjoX ›
Old
Chinese
/*[s.r̥]aʔ/ /*s.r̥aʔ/ /*s.r̥aʔ/
English arrange in order thorns name of a state

Notes for Old Chinese notations in the Baxter-Sagart system:

* Parentheses "()" indicate uncertain presence;
* Square brackets "[]" indicate uncertain identity, e.g. *[t] as coda may in fact be *-t or *-p;
* Angle brackets "<>" indicate infix;
* Hyphen "-" indicates morpheme boundary;

* Period "." indicates syllable boundary.
Zhengzhang system (2003)
Character
Reading # 1/2 2/2
No. 11781 11786
Phonetic
component
Rime
group
Rime
subdivision
0 0
Corresponding
MC rime
Old
Chinese
/*sŋ̥ʰraʔ/ /*sŋ̥ʰras/

Definitions[edit]

  1. pain; suffering
  2. clear; distinct
      ―  qīngchǔ  ―  clear
  3. neat; clean; tidy
  4. bright; gorgeous
    楚楚  ―  chǔchǔ  ―  tidy; dainty, charming
  5. (TCM) deciduous bush used in Chinese medicine (genus Vitex)
  6. (historical) punishment cane
  7. (historical) to beat with a punishment cane
  8. (historical) Chu, an ancient Chinese viscounty and kingdom along the Yangtze River during the Zhou dynasty.
  9. The realm of this state under later imperial Chinese dynasties; modern-day Hubei and Hunan regions of China.
  10. A surname​.

Compounds[edit]


Japanese[edit]

Kanji[edit]

(“Jinmeiyō” kanji used for names)

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Readings[edit]


Korean[edit]

Hanja[edit]

‎(cho) (hangeul , revised cho, McCune-Reischauer ch'o, Yale cho)

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Vietnamese[edit]

Han character[edit]

(sở, sỡ)

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