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U+4EA1, 亡
CJK UNIFIED IDEOGRAPH-4EA1

[U+4EA0]
CJK Unified Ideographs
[U+4EA2]

Translingual[edit]

Stroke order
3 strokes

Han character[edit]

(radical 8, +1, 3 strokes, cangjie input 卜女 (YV), four-corner 00710, composition𠃊(GV) or ⿱(HTJK))

References[edit]

  • KangXi: page 88, character 3
  • Dai Kanwa Jiten: character 287
  • Dae Jaweon: page 184, character 13
  • Hanyu Da Zidian (first edition): volume 1, page 279, character 5
  • Unihan data for U+4EA1

Chinese[edit]

simp. and trad.
alternative forms

Glyph origin[edit]

Historical forms of the character
Shang Western Zhou Warring States Shuowen Jiezi (compiled in Han) Liushutong (compiled in Ming)
Oracle bone script Bronze inscriptions Chu Slip and silk script Small seal script Transcribed ancient scripts
亡-oracle.svg 亡-bronze.svg 亡-silk.svg 亡-seal.svg 亡-bigseal.svg





References:

Mostly from Richard Sears' Chinese Etymology site (authorisation),
which in turn draws data from various collections of ancient forms of Chinese characters, including:

  • Shuowen Jiezi (small seal),
  • Jinwen Bian (bronze inscriptions),
  • Liushutong (Liushutong characters) and
  • Yinxu Jiaguwen Bian (oracle bone script).

Ideogram (指事): a line on cutting edge of a knife; the original form of (OC *maːŋ, *maŋ, “edge of a knife”).

Etymology[edit]

From Proto-Sino-Tibetan *ma (not) + Proto-Sino-Tibetan terminative suffix *-ŋ. Cognate with (OC *maŋ, *maŋs, “to forget”), (OC *mlaŋʔ, “to not have”), (OC *hmaːŋ, *hmaːŋs, “to waste (land, time)”) and (OC *smaːŋs, *smaːŋ, “to lose”).

Pronunciation 1[edit]


Note:
  • 3maan - vernacular;
  • 3vaan - literary.

Rime
Character
Reading # 1/1
Initial () (4)
Final () (106)
Tone (調) Level (Ø)
Openness (開合) Closed
Division () III
Fanqie
Reconstructions
Zhengzhang
Shangfang
/mʉɐŋ/
Pan
Wuyun
/mʷiɐŋ/
Shao
Rongfen
/miuɑŋ/
Edwin
Pulleyblank
/muaŋ/
Li
Rong
/miuaŋ/
Wang
Li
/mĭwaŋ/
Bernard
Karlgren
/miwaŋ/
Expected
Mandarin
Reflex
wáng
BaxterSagart system 1.1 (2014)
Character
Reading # 1/1
Modern
Beijing
(Pinyin)
wáng
Middle
Chinese
‹ mjang ›
Old
Chinese
/*maŋ/
English flee; disappear; die

Notes for Old Chinese notations in the Baxter–Sagart system:

* Parentheses "()" indicate uncertain presence;
* Square brackets "[]" indicate uncertain identity, e.g. *[t] as coda may in fact be *-t or *-p;
* Angle brackets "<>" indicate infix;
* Hyphen "-" indicates morpheme boundary;

* Period "." indicates syllable boundary.
Zhengzhang system (2003)
Character
Reading # 1/1
No. 12662
Phonetic
component
Rime
group
Rime
subdivision
0
Corresponding
MC rime
Old
Chinese
/*maŋ/

Definitions[edit]

  1. to flee
      ―  táowáng  ―  to flee
  2. to lose
      ―  wáng  ―  to be lost
    羊補牢 / 羊补牢  ―  wángyángbǔláo  ―  to repair the pen after sheep is lost
  3. to die; to perish
      ―  wáng  ―  to die
    /   ―  mièwáng  ―  to perish
  4. deceased
      ―  wáng  ―  deceased wife
  5. Alternative form of (wàng, “to forget”).
Compounds[edit]

Pronunciation 2[edit]

Definitions[edit]

  1. Alternative form of (, “not have”).
  2. Alternative form of (, “don't”).
  3. (Can we verify(+) this sense?) poor

References[edit]

  • 諸橋轍次 (Morohashi Tetsuji), chief ed. 大漢和辞典 (Dai Kan-Wa Jiten, “Comprehensive Chinese–Japanese Dictionary”). 13 vols. 1955–1960. Revised and enlarged ed. 1984–1986. Tokyo: Taishukan.

Japanese[edit]

Kanji[edit]

(grade 6 “Kyōiku” kanji)

  1. destroy
  2. fall; collapse
  3. not exist; nonexistent
  4. run away

Readings[edit]

As an alternative form of (not):

Compounds[edit]


Korean[edit]

Hanja[edit]

(mang, mu) (hangeul , )

  1. This term needs a translation to English. Please help out and add a translation, then remove the text {{rfdef}}.

Vietnamese[edit]

Han character[edit]

: Hán Nôm readings: vong,

  1. This term needs a translation to English. Please help out and add a translation, then remove the text {{rfdef}}.

References[edit]