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See also:
U+904E, 過
CJK UNIFIED IDEOGRAPH-904E

[U+904D]
CJK Unified Ideographs
[U+904F]

Translingual[edit]

Stroke order
過-order.gif
Japanese
Simplified
Traditional

Alternative forms[edit]

Note that the box in the upper part of 咼 differs in simplified Chinese – in simplified Chinese fonts it is on the left, while in Japanese and traditional Chinese it is on the right.

Han character[edit]

(radical 162, +8 in Chinese, 辵+9 in Japanese, 11 strokes in Chinese, 12 strokes in Japanese, cangjie input 卜月月口 (YBBR), four-corner 37302, composition)

References[edit]

  • KangXi: page 1261, character 22
  • Dai Kanwa Jiten: character 39002
  • Dae Jaweon: page 1753, character 6
  • Hanyu Da Zidian: volume 6, page 3849, character 8
  • Unihan data for U+904E

Chinese[edit]

trad.
simp.
alt. forms 𬨨

Glyph origin[edit]

Historical forms of the character
Western Zhou Warring States Shuowen Jiezi (compiled in Han)
Bronze inscriptions Chu Slip and silk script Qin slip script Small seal script
過-bronze.svg 過-silk.svg 過-slip.svg 過-seal.svg
Characters in the same phonetic series () (Zhengzhang, 2003) 
Old Chinese
*l'oːl
*ɡ·roːl, *kʷroːl
*kloːl, *kloːls
*kloːl, *qloːl
*kloːl
*kloːl, *ɡloːls
*kloːl
*koːl, *kroːl, *kʷroːl
*kloːl
*kloːl, *qloːl
*kloːlʔ, *kloːls
*kʰloːl
*kʰloːl, *kr'oːl
*ɡloːlʔ
*qloːl
*qloːl
*kr'oːl
*kr'oːl
*kroːl, *kʷroːl
*kroːl, *kʷroːl
*kroːl, *kʷroːl
*kroːlʔ
*kroːlʔ
*qʰroːls, *qʰʷroːls
*kʷroːl
*kʰʷroːl
*kʰʷroːl

Phono-semantic compound (形聲, OC *kloːl, *kloːls): semantic  (walk) + phonetic  (OC *kʰʷroːl).

Pronunciation 1[edit]


Note: guo - variant (verbal or adjectival complement indicating occurrence or completion).
Note:
  • kè/kèr/kòe - vernacular;
  • kòa - vernacular (limited, e.g. 罪過);
  • kò/kò͘ - literary;
  • ko͘/ko - literary;
  • koa - vernacular.
  • Wu

  • Rime
    Character
    Reading # 1/2 2/2
    Initial () (28) (28)
    Final () (95) (95)
    Tone (調) Level (Ø) Departing (H)
    Openness (開合) Closed Closed
    Division () I I
    Fanqie
    Reconstructions
    Zhengzhang
    Shangfang
    /kuɑ/ /kuɑH/
    Pan
    Wuyun
    /kuɑ/ /kuɑH/
    Shao
    Rongfen
    /kuɑ/ /kuɑH/
    Edwin
    Pulleyblank
    /kwa/ /kwaH/
    Li
    Rong
    /kuɑ/ /kuɑH/
    Wang
    Li
    /kuɑ/ /kuɑH/
    Bernard
    Karlgren
    /kuɑ/ /kuɑH/
    Expected
    Mandarin
    Reflex
    guō guò
    BaxterSagart system 1.1 (2014)
    Character
    Reading # 1/3 2/3 3/3
    Modern
    Beijing
    (Pinyin)
    guō guō guò
    Middle
    Chinese
    ‹ kwa › ‹ kwa › ‹ kwaH ›
    Old
    Chinese
    /*Cə.kʷˤaj/ /*kʷˤaj/ /*kʷˤaj-s/
    English tough, fibrous (vegetables) to pass to pass; transgress

    Notes for Old Chinese notations in the Baxter–Sagart system:

    * Parentheses "()" indicate uncertain presence;
    * Square brackets "[]" indicate uncertain identity, e.g. *[t] as coda may in fact be *-t or *-p;
    * Angle brackets "<>" indicate infix;
    * Hyphen "-" indicates morpheme boundary;

    * Period "." indicates syllable boundary.
    Zhengzhang system (2003)
    Character
    Reading # 1/2 2/2
    No. 4362 4371
    Phonetic
    component
    Rime
    group
    Rime
    subdivision
    3 3
    Corresponding
    MC rime
    Old
    Chinese
    /*kloːl/ /*kloːls/

    Definitions[edit]

    1. to cross; to pass; to go across; to pass through
    2. (of time) to pass by; to pass
    3. to spend time; to live
    4. to go over; to look at carefully; to go through
    5. to exceed; to surpass; to be over
    6. to pass an exam
    7. verbal complement
      1. indicating passing by; over; by
      2. indicating a change in direction; over; away
      3. indicating an excess in degree or amount; past; through; by
      4. indicating superiority; better than
      5. indicating completion or that an action has occurred already; ever; already
    8. adjectival complement
      1. (chiefly Cantonese) indicating an excess in degree or amount; more ... than
      2. indicating that the state has existed in the past
    9. too; excessively
    10. fault; blemish; mistake
    Usage notes[edit]

    Pronunciation 2[edit]



    Rime
    Character
    Reading # 1/2
    Initial () (28)
    Final () (95)
    Tone (調) Level (Ø)
    Openness (開合) Closed
    Division () I
    Fanqie
    Reconstructions
    Zhengzhang
    Shangfang
    /kuɑ/
    Pan
    Wuyun
    /kuɑ/
    Shao
    Rongfen
    /kuɑ/
    Edwin
    Pulleyblank
    /kwa/
    Li
    Rong
    /kuɑ/
    Wang
    Li
    /kuɑ/
    Bernard
    Karlgren
    /kuɑ/
    Expected
    Mandarin
    Reflex
    guō
    Zhengzhang system (2003)
    Character
    Reading # 1/2
    No. 4362
    Phonetic
    component
    Rime
    group
    Rime
    subdivision
    3
    Corresponding
    MC rime
    Old
    Chinese
    /*kloːl/

    Definitions[edit]

    1. name of a creek
    2. name of an ancient state in modern Shandong
    3. A surname​.

    Pronunciation 3[edit]


    Definitions[edit]

    1. Alternative form of .
    2. Alternative form of (huò).

    Compounds[edit]

    Descendants[edit]

    Sino-Xenic ():
    • Japanese:  () (ka)
    • Korean: (, gwa)
    • Vietnamese: quá (, too; to exceed), qua (, to cross; through; across)

    Others:


    Japanese[edit]

    Kanji[edit]

    (grade 5 “Kyōiku” kanji)

    1. mistake
    2. excess, too much

    Readings[edit]


    Korean[edit]

    Hanja[edit]

    (gwa) (hangeul , revised gwa, McCune–Reischauer kwa, Yale kwa)

    1. 지날 과; last, past, have been, in time, later.
      • 1.
      • 2.
      • 3.
      • 4.
      • 5.
        • 1.
        • 2.
        • 3.
        • 4.
        • 5.
    2. 허물 과; an error, a fault, a misstep, a slip, a mistake.
    3. 기름통 과; an oil cask, an oilcan.

    Vietnamese[edit]

    Han character[edit]

    (quá, goá, quớ, qua, quở)

    1. This term needs a translation to English. Please help out and add a translation, then remove the text {{rfdef}}.