Definition from Wiktionary, the free dictionary
Jump to navigation Jump to search
See also:
U+904E, 過
CJK UNIFIED IDEOGRAPH-904E

[U+904D]
CJK Unified Ideographs
[U+904F]

Translingual[edit]

Stroke order
過-order.gif
Japanese
Simplified
Traditional

Alternative forms[edit]

Note that the box in the upper part of 咼 differs in simplified Chinese – in simplified Chinese fonts it is on the left, while in Japanese and traditional Chinese it is on the right (as seen in the Kangxi dictionary).

Han character[edit]

(radical 162, +8 in Chinese, 辵+9 in Japanese, 11 strokes in Chinese, 12 strokes in Japanese, cangjie input 卜月月口 (YBBR), four-corner 37302, composition)

References[edit]

  • KangXi: page 1261, character 22
  • Dai Kanwa Jiten: character 39002
  • Dae Jaweon: page 1753, character 6
  • Hanyu Da Zidian (first edition): volume 6, page 3849, character 8
  • Unihan data for U+904E

Chinese[edit]

trad.
simp.
alternative forms 𬨨 variant form and nonstandard simplified

Glyph origin[edit]

Historical forms of the character
Western Zhou Warring States Shuowen Jiezi (compiled in Han)
Bronze inscriptions Chu Slip and silk script Qin slip script Small seal script
過-bronze.svg 過-silk.svg 過-slip.svg 過-seal.svg

Phono-semantic compound (形聲, OC *kloːl, *kloːls): semantic (walk) + phonetic (OC *kʰʷroːl).

Pronunciation 1[edit]


Note:
  • guo - verbal or adjectival complement indicating occurrence or completion;
  • guō - used in certain colloquial words;
  • gè - colloquial (“fault”).
  • Cantonese
  • Gan
  • Note:
    • guo1 - limited;
    • guo - verbal or adjectival complement indicating occurrence or completion.
  • Hakka
  • Jin
  • Min Bei
  • Min Dong
  • Min Nan
  • Note:
    • kè/kèr/kòe - vernacular;
    • kòa - vernacular (limited, e.g. 罪過);
    • kò/kò͘ - literary;
    • ko͘/ko - literary;
    • koa - vernacular.
  • Wu
  • Xiang

  • Rime
    Character
    Reading # 1/2 2/2
    Initial () (28) (28)
    Final () (95) (95)
    Tone (調) Level (Ø) Departing (H)
    Openness (開合) Closed Closed
    Division () I I
    Fanqie
    Reconstructions
    Zhengzhang
    Shangfang
    /kuɑ/ /kuɑH/
    Pan
    Wuyun
    /kuɑ/ /kuɑH/
    Shao
    Rongfen
    /kuɑ/ /kuɑH/
    Edwin
    Pulleyblank
    /kwa/ /kwaH/
    Li
    Rong
    /kuɑ/ /kuɑH/
    Wang
    Li
    /kuɑ/ /kuɑH/
    Bernard
    Karlgren
    /kuɑ/ /kuɑH/
    Expected
    Mandarin
    Reflex
    guō guò
    Expected
    Cantonese
    Reflex
    gwo1 gwo3
    BaxterSagart system 1.1 (2014)
    Character
    Reading # 1/3 2/3 3/3
    Modern
    Beijing
    (Pinyin)
    guō guō guò
    Middle
    Chinese
    ‹ kwa › ‹ kwa › ‹ kwaH ›
    Old
    Chinese
    /*Cə.kʷˁaj/ /*kʷˁaj/ /*kʷˁaj-s/
    English tough, fibrous (vegetables) to pass to pass; transgress

    Notes for Old Chinese notations in the Baxter–Sagart system:

    * Parentheses "()" indicate uncertain presence;
    * Square brackets "[]" indicate uncertain identity, e.g. *[t] as coda may in fact be *-t or *-p;
    * Angle brackets "<>" indicate infix;
    * Hyphen "-" indicates morpheme boundary;

    * Period "." indicates syllable boundary.
    Zhengzhang system (2003)
    Character
    Reading # 1/2 2/2
    No. 4362 4371
    Phonetic
    component
    Rime
    group
    Rime
    subdivision
    3 3
    Corresponding
    MC rime
    Old
    Chinese
    /*kloːl/ /*kloːls/

    Definitions[edit]

    1. to cross; to pass; to go across; to pass through
      安全 [MSC, trad.]
      安全 [MSC, simp.]
      Zuò zhè sōu chuán guò hé hěn ānquán. [Pinyin]
      It is safe to cross the river in this boat.
      趕快安檢現在已經登機 [MSC, trad.]
      赶快安检现在已经登机 [MSC, simp.]
      Qǐng nín gǎnkuài guò ānjiǎn, xiànzài yǐjīng dēngjī le. [Pinyin]
      Please hurry up to pass the security check, it's already boarding time.
      百貨公司便 [MSC, trad.]
      百货公司便 [MSC, simp.]
      Guò le bǎihuò gōngsī biàn xiàng yòu guǎi. [Pinyin]
      Turn to the right after passing the department store.
    2. (of time) to pass by; to pass
      時間 / 时间  ―  Shíjiān guò de hěn kuài.  ―  Time flies quickly.
      許多我們偶然相逢 [MSC, trad.]
      许多我们偶然相逢 [MSC, simp.]
      Guò le xǔduō nián wǒmen cái ǒurán xiāngféng. [Pinyin]
      Many years were to pass before we crossed our paths again.
    3. to spend time; to live
      貧困迫使艱苦生活 [MSC, trad.]
      贫困迫使艰苦生活 [MSC, simp.]
      Pínkùn pòshǐ tā guò jiānkǔ de shēnghuó. [Pinyin]
      Poverty obliged her to live a hard life.
    4. to go over; to look at carefully; to go through
      我們稿子一遍 [MSC, trad.]
      我们稿子一遍 [MSC, simp.]
      Wǒmen bǎ zhè piān gǎozi zài guò yībiàn. [Pinyin]
      Let's go over the draft once again.
    5. to exceed; to surpass; to be over
    6. to pass an exam
    7. verbal complement
      1. indicating passing by; over; by
      2. indicating a change in direction; over; away
      3. indicating an excess in degree or amount; past; through; by
      4. indicating superiority; better than
      5. indicating completion or that an action has occurred already; ever; already
        中國 / 中国  ―  Nǐ qù guò Zhōngguó ma?  ―  Have you (ever) been to China?
        香港 [Guangzhou Cantonese, trad.]
        香港 [Guangzhou Cantonese, simp.]
        nei5 jau5 mou5 heoi3 gwo3 hoeng1 gong2 aa3? [Jyutping]
        Have you ever been to Hong Kong?
        女朋友 [Guangzhou Cantonese, trad.]
        女朋友 [Guangzhou Cantonese, simp.]
        nei5 gin3 gwo3 ngo5 go3 neoi5 pang4 jau5 mei6 aa3? [Jyutping]
        Have you seen my girlfriend yet?
    8. adjectival complement
      1. (chiefly Classical Chinese, Cantonese) indicating an excess in degree or amount; more ... than
        / [Guangzhou Cantonese]  ―  keoi5 gou1 gwo3 ngo5. [Jyutping]  ―  He/she is taller than me.
        梗係 [Guangzhou Cantonese, trad.]
        梗系 [Guangzhou Cantonese, simp.]
        keoi5 gang2 hai6 lek1 gwo3 ngo5 laa1. [Jyutping]
        He/she is definitely smarter than me.
        子曰:「。」 [Classical Chinese, trad.]
        子曰:“。” [Classical Chinese, simp.]
        From: The Analects of Confucius, circa 475 – 221 BCE
        Zǐyuē: “Yóu yě hào yǒng guò wǒ, wú suǒ qǔ cái.” [Pinyin]
        Upon which the Master said, "Zhong You is fonder of daring than I am. He does not exercise his judgment upon matters."
      2. indicating that the state has existed in the past
    9. too; excessively
      他們抱怨工資 [MSC, trad.]
      他们抱怨工资 [MSC, simp.]
      Tāmen bàoyuàn gōngzī guò dī. [Pinyin]
      They complained that the wages were too low.
    10. fault; blemish; mistake
      / [Classical Chinese]  ―  guò yǐ! [Pinyin]  ―  I am/was wrong! / I have erred!
    11. to pay a visit; to visit; to call on

    Synonyms[edit]

    • (to pay a visit):
    edit

    Usage notes[edit]

    • The past experience particle is negated with (méi), which is placed before the verb.
      中國 / 中国  ―  méiguò Zhōngguó.  ―  I have not been to China.
      • In Cantonese, (mei6) is used instead of .

    Compounds[edit]

    Descendants[edit]

    Sino-Xenic ():
    • Japanese: () (ka)
    • Korean: (, gwa)
    • Vietnamese: quá (, too; to exceed), qua (, to cross; through; across)

    Others:

    • Hmong-Mien: *KʷajH (to cross)
    • Tai: *kwaːᴮ (to cross over)
      • Lao: ກວ່າ (kuā, than; more than)
      • Shan: ၵႂႃႇ (kwàa, go; work, run (as an engine))
      • Thai: กว่า (gwàa, than; more than; over; go; overflow; pass)

    Pronunciation 2[edit]



    Rime
    Character
    Reading # 1/2
    Initial () (28)
    Final () (95)
    Tone (調) Level (Ø)
    Openness (開合) Closed
    Division () I
    Fanqie
    Reconstructions
    Zhengzhang
    Shangfang
    /kuɑ/
    Pan
    Wuyun
    /kuɑ/
    Shao
    Rongfen
    /kuɑ/
    Edwin
    Pulleyblank
    /kwa/
    Li
    Rong
    /kuɑ/
    Wang
    Li
    /kuɑ/
    Bernard
    Karlgren
    /kuɑ/
    Expected
    Mandarin
    Reflex
    guō
    Expected
    Cantonese
    Reflex
    gwo1
    Zhengzhang system (2003)
    Character
    Reading # 1/2
    No. 4362
    Phonetic
    component
    Rime
    group
    Rime
    subdivision
    3
    Corresponding
    MC rime
    Old
    Chinese
    /*kloːl/

    Definitions[edit]

    1. name of a creek
    2. name of an ancient state in modern Shandong
    3. A surname.

    Pronunciation 3[edit]


    Definitions[edit]

    1. Alternative form of (guǒ).
    2. Alternative form of (huò).

    References[edit]


    Japanese[edit]

    Kanji[edit]

    (grade 5 “Kyōiku” kanji)

    1. mistake
    2. excess, too much

    Readings[edit]

    Etymology[edit]

    Kanji in this term

    Grade: 5
    on’yomi

    From Middle Chinese (MC kuɑ, kuɑH).

    Pronunciation[edit]

    Noun[edit]

    () (kaくわ (kwa)?

    1. fault; error; mistake
    2. the past
    3. excess

    Prefix[edit]

    () (ka-くわ (kwa)?

    1. (chemistry) super-, over-; per

    References[edit]

    1. ^ 2006, 大辞林 (Daijirin), Third Edition (in Japanese), Tōkyō: Sanseidō, →ISBN

    Korean[edit]

    Hanja[edit]

    (eumhun 지날 (jinal gwa))

    1. 지날 과; last, past, have been, in time, later.
      • 1.
      • 2.
      • 3.
      • 4.
      • 5.
        • 1.
        • 2.
        • 3.
        • 4.
        • 5.
    2. 허물 과; an error, a fault, a misstep, a slip, a mistake.
    3. 기름통 과; an oil cask, an oilcan.

    (eumhun 재앙 (jaeang hwa))

    1. This term needs a translation to English. Please help out and add a translation, then remove the text {{rfdef}}.

    Vietnamese[edit]

    Han character[edit]

    : Hán Nôm readings: qua, quá, góa/goá, quớ, quở

    1. Hán tự form of qua (to pass; to go over).
      • 1910, Sơn Hậu Diễn Ca, sheet 1a
        䀡運𡗶㐌挌頭。
        Xem vận trời đã gác qua đầu.
        Seeing that fate has been set over (my) head.
    2. Hán tự form of quá (too (much); over).
      • circa 15th century, Nguyễn Trãi, Lê triều Nguyễn tướng công Gia huấn ca, Quan Văn Ðường tàng bản (1907), lines 7-8
        𠳒咹涅於朱坤, 拯𢧚多多言𡭧芇。
        Lời ăn nết ở cho khôn, chẳng nên đa quá đa ngôn chút nào.
        Speak and act like a lady, but speak not too much lest you blunder.