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See also:
U+904E, 過
CJK UNIFIED IDEOGRAPH-904E

[U+904D]
CJK Unified Ideographs
[U+904F]

Translingual[edit]

Stroke order
過-order.gif
Japanese
Simplified
Traditional

Alternative forms[edit]

Note that the box in the upper part of 咼 differs in simplified Chinese – in simplified Chinese fonts it is on the left, while in Japanese and traditional Chinese it is on the right.

Han character[edit]

(radical 162, +8 in Chinese, 辵+9 in Japanese, 11 strokes in Chinese, 12 strokes in Japanese, cangjie input 卜月月口 (YBBR), four-corner 37302, composition)

References[edit]

  • KangXi: page 1261, character 22
  • Dai Kanwa Jiten: character 39002
  • Dae Jaweon: page 1753, character 6
  • Hanyu Da Zidian (first edition): volume 6, page 3849, character 8
  • Unihan data for U+904E

Chinese[edit]

trad.
simp.
alternative forms 𬨨 variant form and nonstandard simplified

Glyph origin[edit]

Historical forms of the character
Western Zhou Warring States Shuowen Jiezi (compiled in Han)
Bronze inscriptions Chu Slip and silk script Qin slip script Small seal script
過-bronze.svg 過-silk.svg 過-slip.svg 過-seal.svg

Phono-semantic compound (形聲, OC *kloːl, *kloːls): semantic  (walk) + phonetic  (OC *kʰʷroːl).

Pronunciation 1[edit]


Note:
  • guo - verbal or adjectival complement indicating occurrence or completion;
  • guō - used in certain colloquial words;
  • gè - colloquial (“fault”).
  • Cantonese
  • Gan
  • Note:
    • guo1 - limited;
    • guo - verbal or adjectival complement indicating occurrence or completion.
  • Hakka
  • Jin
  • Min Bei
  • Min Dong
  • Min Nan
  • Note:
    • kè/kèr/kòe - vernacular;
    • kòa - vernacular (limited, e.g. 罪過);
    • kò/kò͘ - literary;
    • ko͘/ko - literary;
    • koa - vernacular.
  • Wu
  • Xiang

    Rime
    Character
    Reading # 1/2 2/2
    Initial () (28) (28)
    Final () (95) (95)
    Tone (調) Level (Ø) Departing (H)
    Openness (開合) Closed Closed
    Division () I I
    Fanqie
    Reconstructions
    Zhengzhang
    Shangfang
    /kuɑ/ /kuɑH/
    Pan
    Wuyun
    /kuɑ/ /kuɑH/
    Shao
    Rongfen
    /kuɑ/ /kuɑH/
    Edwin
    Pulleyblank
    /kwa/ /kwaH/
    Li
    Rong
    /kuɑ/ /kuɑH/
    Wang
    Li
    /kuɑ/ /kuɑH/
    Bernard
    Karlgren
    /kuɑ/ /kuɑH/
    Expected
    Mandarin
    Reflex
    guō guò
    BaxterSagart system 1.1 (2014)
    Character
    Reading # 1/3 2/3 3/3
    Modern
    Beijing
    (Pinyin)
    guō guō guò
    Middle
    Chinese
    ‹ kwa › ‹ kwa › ‹ kwaH ›
    Old
    Chinese
    /*Cə.kʷˁaj/ /*kʷˁaj/ /*kʷˁaj-s/
    English tough, fibrous (vegetables) to pass to pass; transgress

    Notes for Old Chinese notations in the Baxter–Sagart system:

    * Parentheses "()" indicate uncertain presence;
    * Square brackets "[]" indicate uncertain identity, e.g. *[t] as coda may in fact be *-t or *-p;
    * Angle brackets "<>" indicate infix;
    * Hyphen "-" indicates morpheme boundary;

    * Period "." indicates syllable boundary.
    Zhengzhang system (2003)
    Character
    Reading # 1/2 2/2
    No. 4362 4371
    Phonetic
    component
    Rime
    group
    Rime
    subdivision
    3 3
    Corresponding
    MC rime
    Old
    Chinese
    /*kloːl/ /*kloːls/

    Definitions[edit]

    1. to cross; to pass; to go across; to pass through
    2. (of time) to pass by; to pass
    3. to spend time; to live
    4. to go over; to look at carefully; to go through
    5. to exceed; to surpass; to be over
    6. to pass an exam
    7. verbal complement
      1. indicating passing by; over; by
      2. indicating a change in direction; over; away
      3. indicating an excess in degree or amount; past; through; by
      4. indicating superiority; better than
      5. indicating completion or that an action has occurred already; ever; already
    8. adjectival complement
      1. (chiefly Classical Chinese, Cantonese) indicating an excess in degree or amount; more ... than
      2. indicating that the state has existed in the past
    9. too; excessively
    10. fault; blemish; mistake
    11. to pay a visit; to visit; to call on

    Synonyms[edit]

    • (to pay a visit):
    edit
    Usage notes[edit]
    • The past experience particle is negated with (méi), which is placed before the verb.
      中國 / 中国  ―  méiguò Zhōngguó.  ―  I have not been to China.
      • In Cantonese, (mei6) is used instead of .

    Pronunciation 2[edit]



    Rime
    Character
    Reading # 1/2
    Initial () (28)
    Final () (95)
    Tone (調) Level (Ø)
    Openness (開合) Closed
    Division () I
    Fanqie
    Reconstructions
    Zhengzhang
    Shangfang
    /kuɑ/
    Pan
    Wuyun
    /kuɑ/
    Shao
    Rongfen
    /kuɑ/
    Edwin
    Pulleyblank
    /kwa/
    Li
    Rong
    /kuɑ/
    Wang
    Li
    /kuɑ/
    Bernard
    Karlgren
    /kuɑ/
    Expected
    Mandarin
    Reflex
    guō
    Zhengzhang system (2003)
    Character
    Reading # 1/2
    No. 4362
    Phonetic
    component
    Rime
    group
    Rime
    subdivision
    3
    Corresponding
    MC rime
    Old
    Chinese
    /*kloːl/

    Definitions[edit]

    1. name of a creek
    2. name of an ancient state in modern Shandong
    3. A surname​.

    Pronunciation 3[edit]


    Definitions[edit]

    1. Alternative form of (guǒ).
    2. Alternative form of (huò).

    Compounds[edit]

    Descendants[edit]

    Sino-Xenic ():
    • Japanese: () (ka)
    • Korean: (, gwa)
    • Vietnamese: quá (, too; to exceed), qua (, to cross; through; across)

    Others:

    • Hmong-Mien: *KʷajH (to cross)
    • Tai: *kwaːᴮ (to cross over)
      • Lao: ກວ່າ (kuā, than; more than)
      • Shan: ၵႂႃႇ (kwàa, go; work, run (as an engine))
      • Thai: กว่า (gwàa, than; more than; over; go; overflow; pass)

    References[edit]


    Japanese[edit]

    Kanji[edit]

    (grade 5 “Kyōiku” kanji)

    1. mistake
    2. excess, too much

    Readings[edit]

    Etymology[edit]

    Kanji in this term

    Grade: 5
    on’yomi

    From Middle Chinese (MC kuɑ, kuɑH).

    Pronunciation[edit]

    Noun[edit]

    () (ka (historical kana くわ)

    1. fault; error; mistake
    2. the past
    3. excess

    Prefix[edit]

    () (ka- (historical kana くわ)

    1. (chemistry) super-, over-; per

    References[edit]

    1. ^ 2006, 大辞林 (Daijirin), Third Edition (in Japanese), Tōkyō: Sanseidō, →ISBN

    Korean[edit]

    Hanja[edit]

    (eumhun 지날 (jinal gwa))

    1. 지날 과; last, past, have been, in time, later.
      • 1.
      • 2.
      • 3.
      • 4.
      • 5.
        • 1.
        • 2.
        • 3.
        • 4.
        • 5.
    2. 허물 과; an error, a fault, a misstep, a slip, a mistake.
    3. 기름통 과; an oil cask, an oilcan.

    (eumhun 재앙 (jaeang hwa))

    1. This term needs a translation to English. Please help out and add a translation, then remove the text {{rfdef}}.

    Vietnamese[edit]

    Han character[edit]

    (quá, goá, quớ, qua, quở)

    1. This term needs a translation to English. Please help out and add a translation, then remove the text {{rfdef}}.