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Translingual[edit]

Stroke order
過-order.gif
Shinjitai
Simplified
Traditional

Alternative forms[edit]

Note that the box in the upper part of 咼 differs in simplified Chinese – in simplified Chinese fonts it is on the left, while in Japanese and traditional Chinese it is on the right.

Han character[edit]

(radical 162 +9, 13 strokes, cangjie input 卜月月口 (YBBR), four-corner 37302, composition)

References[edit]

  • KangXi: page 1261, character 22
  • Dai Kanwa Jiten: character 39002
  • Dae Jaweon: page 1753, character 6
  • Hanyu Da Zidian: volume 6, page 3849, character 8
  • Unihan data for U+904E

Chinese[edit]

trad.
simp.

Glyph origin[edit]

Phono-semantic compound (形聲, OC *kloːl, *kloːls): semantic  ‎(walk) + phonetic  ‎(OC *kʰʷroːl)

Pronunciation[edit]



Rime
Character
Reading # 1/2 2/2
Initial () (28) (28)
Final () (95) (95)
Tone (調) Level (Ø) Departing (H)
Openness (開合) Closed Closed
Division () I I
Fanqie
Reconstructions
Zhengzhang
Shangfang
/kuɑ/ /kuɑH/
Pan
Wuyun
/kuɑ/ /kuɑH/
Shao
Rongfen
/kuɑ/ /kuɑH/
Edwin
Pulleyblank
/kwa/ /kwaH/
Li
Rong
/kuɑ/ /kuɑH/
Wang
Li
/kuɑ/ /kuɑH/
Bernard
Karlgren
/kuɑ/ /kuɑH/
Expected
Mandarin
Reflex
guō guò
Baxter-Sagart system 1.1 (2014)
Character
Reading # 1/3 2/3 3/3
Modern
Beijing
(Pinyin)
guō guō guò
Middle
Chinese
‹ kwa › ‹ kwa › ‹ kwaH ›
Old
Chinese
/*Cə.kʷˤaj/ /*kʷˤaj/ /*kʷˤaj-s/
English tough, fibrous (vegetables) to pass to pass; transgress

Notes for Old Chinese notations in the Baxter-Sagart system:

* Parentheses "()" indicate uncertain presence;
* Square brackets "[]" indicate uncertain identity, e.g. *[t] as coda may in fact be *-t or *-p;
* Angle brackets "<>" indicate infix;
* Hyphen "-" indicates morpheme boundary;

* Period "." indicates syllable boundary.
Zhengzhang system (2003)
Character
Reading # 1/2 2/2
No. 4362 4371
Phonetic
component
Rime
group
Rime
subdivision
3 3
Corresponding
MC rime
Old
Chinese
/*kloːl/ /*kloːls/

Definitions[edit]

  1. to cross, to pass, to go across, to pass through
  2. to exceed
  3. to go over, to look at carefully
  4. to pass by, to pass
  5. to pass an exam
  6. to live
  7. Verbal suffix of past experience, used to emphasise an experienced action which has been completed. ever
  8. (chiefly Cantonese) Particle used for comparison. more ... than
  9. too, excessively
  10. A surname​.

Usage notes[edit]

  • The past experience particle is negated with (méi), which is placed before the verb.
    中國 / 中国  ―  méiguò Zhōngguó.  ―  I have never been to China.
    • In Cantonese, (mei6) is used instead of .

Compounds[edit]


Japanese[edit]

Kanji[edit]

(grade 5 “Kyōiku” kanji)

  1. mistake
  2. excess, too much

Readings[edit]


Korean[edit]

Hanja[edit]

‎(gwa) (hangeul , revised gwa, McCune-Reischauer kwa, Yale kwa)

  1. This term needs a translation to English. Please help out and add a translation, then remove the text {{rfdef}}.

Vietnamese[edit]

Han character[edit]

(quá, goá, quớ, qua, quở)

  1. This term needs a translation to English. Please help out and add a translation, then remove the text {{rfdef}}.