Definition from Wiktionary, the free dictionary
Jump to: navigation, search
See also:

Translingual[edit]

Stroke order
過-order.gif

shinjitai

simplified

traditional

Alternative forms[edit]

Note that the box in the upper part of 咼 differs in simplified Chinese – in simplified Chinese fonts it is on the left, while in Japanese and traditional Chinese it is on the right.

Etymology[edit]

Phono-semantic compound (形聲): semantic  ‎(walk) + phonetic 

Han character[edit]

(radical 162 +9, 13 strokes, cangjie input 卜月月口 (YBBR), four-corner 37302, composition)

References[edit]

  • KangXi: page 1261, character 22
  • Dai Kanwa Jiten: character 39002
  • Dae Jaweon: page 1753, character 6
  • Hanyu Da Zidian: volume 6, page 3849, character 8
  • Unihan data for U+904E

Chinese[edit]

trad.
simp.

Pronunciation[edit]


Middle Chinese pronunciation (, reconstructed)
Character (), Pronunciation 1/2

Initial: (28)
Final:
Division: I

Openness: Closed
Tone: Level (Ø)

Fanqie:
Zhengzhang
Shangfang
Bernard
Karlgren
Li
Rong
Pan
Wuyun
Edwin
Pulleyblank
Wang
Li
Shao
Rongfen
/kuɑ/ /kuɑ/ /kuɑ/ /kuɑ/ /kwa/ /kuɑ/ /kuɑ/
Character (), Pronunciation 2/2

Initial: (28)
Final:
Division: I

Openness: Closed
Tone: Departing (H)

Fanqie:
Zhengzhang
Shangfang
Bernard
Karlgren
Li
Rong
Pan
Wuyun
Edwin
Pulleyblank
Wang
Li
Shao
Rongfen
/kuɑH/ /kuɑH/ /kuɑH/ /kuɑH/ /kwaH/ /kuɑH/ /kuɑH/
Old Chinese pronunciation (, reconstructed)
Baxter-Sagart system 1.1 (2014)
Character Modern Beijing
(Pinyin)
Middle Chinese Old Chinese English
guō ‹ kwa › /*Cə.kʷˤaj/ tough, fibrous (vegetables)
guō ‹ kwa › /*kʷˤaj/ to pass
guò ‹ kwaH › /*kʷˤaj-s/ to pass; transgress

Notes for Old Chinese notations in the Baxter-Sagart system:

  • Parentheses "()" indicate uncertain presence;
  • Square brackets "[]" indicate uncertain identity, e.g. *[t] as coda may in fact be *-t or *-p;
  • Angle brackets "<>" indicate infix;
  • Hyphen "-" indicates morpheme boundary;
  • Period "." indicates syllable boundary.
Zhengzhang system (2003)
Character No. Phonetic
component
Rime
group
Rime
subdivision
Corresponding
MC rime
Old Chinese Notes
4362 3 /*kloːl/
4371 3 /*kloːls/

Particle[edit]

  1. (Verbal suffix of past experience, used to emphasise an experienced action which has been completed) ever
  2. (Cantonese) (particle used for comparison) more ... than

Usage notes[edit]

  • The past experience particle is negated with (méi), which is placed before the verb.
    中國 [MSC, trad.]
    中国 [MSC, simp.]
    méiguò Zhōngguó. [Pinyin]
    I have never been to China.
    • In Cantonese, (mei6) is used instead.

Verb[edit]

  1. to cross, to pass, to go across, to pass through
  2. to exceed
  3. to go over, to look at carefully
  4. to pass by, to pass
  5. to live

Adverb[edit]

  1. too, excessively

Proper noun[edit]

  1. A surname​.

Japanese[edit]

Kanji[edit]

(grade 5 “Kyōiku” kanji)

  1. mistake
  2. excess, too much

Readings[edit]


Korean[edit]

Hanja[edit]

‎(gwa) (hangeul , revised gwa, McCune-Reischauer kwa, Yale kwa)

  1. This entry needs a definition. Please add one, then remove {{defn}}.

Vietnamese[edit]

Han character[edit]

(quá, goá, quớ, qua, quở)

  1. This entry needs a definition. Please add one, then remove {{defn}}.