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U+4E09, 三
CJK UNIFIED IDEOGRAPH-4E09

[U+4E08]
CJK Unified Ideographs
[U+4E0A]
Commons:Category
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Translingual[edit]

Stroke order
三-order.gif

Han character[edit]

(radical 1 +2, 3 strokes, cangjie input 一一一 (MMM), four-corner 10101, composition一一)

  1. Shuōwén Jiězì radical №4

Derived glyphs[edit]

Descendants[edit]

References[edit]

  • KangXi: page 76, character 5
  • Dai Kanwa Jiten: character 12
  • Dae Jaweon: page 138, character 1
  • Hanyu Da Zidian: volume 1, page 4, character 3
  • Unihan data for U+4E09

Chinese[edit]

simp. and trad.
alt. forms financial

𢦘

Glyph origin[edit]

Historical forms of the character
Shang Western Zhou Warring States Shuowen Jiezi (compiled in Han) Liushutong (compiled in Ming)
Oracle bone script Bronze inscriptions Bronze inscriptions Chu Slip and silk script Qin slip script Ancient script Small seal script Transcribed ancient scripts
三-oracle.svg 三-bronze.svg ACC-b00375.svg 三-silk.svg 三-slip.svg 三-ancient.svg 三-seal.svg 三-bigseal.svg





References:

Mostly from Richard Sears' Chinese Etymology site (authorisation),
which in turn draws data from various collections of ancient forms of Chinese characters, including:

  • Shuowen Jiezi (small seal),
  • Jinwen Bian (bronze inscriptions),
  • Liushutong (Liushutong characters) and
  • Yinxu Jiaguwen Bian (oracle bone script).
Characters in the same phonetic series () (Zhengzhang, 2003) 
Old Chinese
*suːm, *suːms
*suːm

Ideogram (指事) - three parallel lines. Compare with , one line meaning “one”, , two lines meaning “two”, and , four lines meaning “four”.

Etymology[edit]

From Proto-Sino-Tibetan *g-sum.

Pronunciation 1[edit]


Note:
  • saⁿ - vernacular;
  • sam - literary.
Note:
  • san1 - vernacular;
  • sam1 - literary.

Rime
Character
Reading # 1/2
Initial () (16)
Final () (143)
Tone (調) Level (Ø)
Openness (開合) Open
Division () I
Fanqie
Reconstructions
Zhengzhang
Shangfang
/sɑm/
Pan
Wuyun
/sɑm/
Shao
Rongfen
/sɑm/
Edwin
Pulleyblank
/sam/
Li
Rong
/sɑm/
Wang
Li
/sɑm/
Bernard
Karlgren
/sɑm/
Expected
Mandarin
Reflex
sān
Baxter-Sagart system 1.1 (2014)
Character
Reading # 1/2
Modern
Beijing
(Pinyin)
sān
Middle
Chinese
‹ sam ›
Old
Chinese
/*s.rum/ (*s.r- > s-; infl. by 四 *s-?)
English three

Notes for Old Chinese notations in the Baxter-Sagart system:

* Parentheses "()" indicate uncertain presence;
* Square brackets "[]" indicate uncertain identity, e.g. *[t] as coda may in fact be *-t or *-p;
* Angle brackets "<>" indicate infix;
* Hyphen "-" indicates morpheme boundary;

* Period "." indicates syllable boundary.
Zhengzhang system (2003)
Character
Reading # 1/2
No. 10963
Phonetic
component
Rime
group
Rime
subdivision
3
Corresponding
MC rime
Old
Chinese
/*suːm/

Definitions[edit]

  1. three
  2. A surname​.

Descendants[edit]

Sino-Xenic ():
  • Japanese:  (さん) (san)
  • Korean: (, sam)
  • Vietnamese: tam ()

Others:

Compounds[edit]

Pronunciation 2[edit]



Rime
Character
Reading # 2/2
Initial () (16)
Final () (143)
Tone (調) Departing (H)
Openness (開合) Open
Division () I
Fanqie
Reconstructions
Zhengzhang
Shangfang
/sɑmH/
Pan
Wuyun
/sɑmH/
Shao
Rongfen
/sɑmH/
Edwin
Pulleyblank
/samH/
Li
Rong
/sɑmH/
Wang
Li
/sɑmH/
Bernard
Karlgren
/sɑmH/
Expected
Mandarin
Reflex
sàn
Baxter-Sagart system 1.1 (2014)
Character
Reading # 2/2
Modern
Beijing
(Pinyin)
sān
Middle
Chinese
‹ samH ›
Old
Chinese
/*s.r[u]m-s/ (*s.r- > *s-, infl. by 四 *s-?)
English three times

Notes for Old Chinese notations in the Baxter-Sagart system:

* Parentheses "()" indicate uncertain presence;
* Square brackets "[]" indicate uncertain identity, e.g. *[t] as coda may in fact be *-t or *-p;
* Angle brackets "<>" indicate infix;
* Hyphen "-" indicates morpheme boundary;

* Period "." indicates syllable boundary.
Zhengzhang system (2003)
Character
Reading # 2/2
No. 10965
Phonetic
component
Rime
group
Rime
subdivision
3
Corresponding
MC rime
Old
Chinese
/*suːms/

Definitions[edit]

  1. repeatedly; thrice
      ―  sān  ―  to think carefully

Compounds[edit]

See also[edit]

Chinese numbers
0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 102 103 104 108 1012
Normal
(小写, lower case)


亿

万亿
Financial
(大写, upper case)





亿

万亿
Playing cards in Chinese · 撲克牌扑克牌 (pūkèpái) (layout · text)
40 Asso di picche.jpg 41 Due di picche.jpg 42 Tre di picche.jpg 43 Quattro di picche.jpg 44 Cinque di picche.jpg 45 Sei di picche.jpg 46 Sette di picche.jpg
A
47 Otto di picche.jpg 48 Nove di picche.jpg 49 Dieci di picche.jpg 50 J di picche.jpg 51 Q di picche.jpg 52 K di picche.jpg Jolly Nero.jpg
J Q K 小王 (black), 大王 (red)

Japanese[edit]

Kanji[edit]

(grade 1 “Kyōiku” kanji)

  1. three

Readings[edit]

Compounds[edit]

Alternative forms[edit]

  • (Financial/formal form):

Etymology 1[edit]

Japanese cardinal numbers
 <  2 3 4  > 
    Cardinal :
Kanji in this term
さん
Grade: 1
on’yomi

*/sam//samu//saɴ/

From Middle Chinese (MC sɑm, sɑmH). Compare modern Mandarin (sān).

In Old Japanese, this kanji was used phonetically to transcribe さむ (samu).

Pronunciation[edit]

Numeral[edit]

(hiragana さん, rōmaji san)

  1. three, 3
    Synonyms: スリー (surī)
  2. third
Derived terms[edit]

Etymology 2[edit]

Kanji in this term
さん
Grade: 1
on’yomi

Borrowing from Chinese (sān), with the pitch accent different from etymology 1. (Can this(+) etymology be sourced?)

Pronunciation[edit]

Numeral[edit]

(katakana サン, rōmaji san)

  1. three
Derived terms[edit]

Etymology 3[edit]

Kanji in this term

Grade: 1
kun’yomi

⟨mi1/mi/

From Old Japanese.

Likely an apophonic form of (mu, six), compare (yo, four) with (ya, eight). (Can this(+) etymology be sourced?)

Pronunciation[edit]

Numeral[edit]

(hiragana , rōmaji mi)

  1. three
     () () () ()、[...]
    hi, fu, mi, yo, [...]
    (please add an English translation of this example)
Derived terms[edit]

Etymology 4[edit]

Kanji in this term
みい
Grade: 1
Irregular

/mi//miː/

Shift from mi above.[1]

Pronunciation[edit]

Numeral[edit]

(hiragana みい, rōmaji )

  1. (colloquial) three
     (ひい) (ふう) (みい) (よお) (いつ) (むう) (なあ) (やあ) (こお) (とお)
    hī, fū, , yō, itsu, mū, nā, yā, kō, tō
    (please add an English translation of this example)

References[edit]

  1. 1.0 1.1 1.2 1.3 1.4 2006, 大辞林 (Daijirin), Third Edition (in Japanese), Tōkyō: Sanseidō, →ISBN

Korean[edit]

Hanja[edit]

(sam)

  • Eumhun:
    • Sound (hangeul): (McCune-Reischauer: sam, Yale: sam)
    • Name (hangeul): (revised: set, McCune-Reischauer: set, Yale: seys)
  1. three

References[edit]


Vietnamese[edit]

Han character[edit]

(tam, tâm)

  1. This term needs a translation to English. Please help out and add a translation, then remove the text {{rfdef}}.