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U+4E09, 三
CJK UNIFIED IDEOGRAPH-4E09

[U+4E08]
CJK Unified Ideographs
[U+4E0A]
Commons:Category
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Translingual[edit]

Stroke order
三-order.gif

Han character[edit]

(radical 1, +2, 3 strokes, cangjie input 一一一 (MMM), four-corner 10101, composition or ⿱𠄟)

  1. Shuōwén Jiězì radical №4

Derived characters[edit]

Descendants[edit]

References[edit]

  • KangXi: page 76, character 5
  • Dai Kanwa Jiten: character 12
  • Dae Jaweon: page 138, character 1
  • Hanyu Da Zidian: volume 1, page 4, character 3
  • Unihan data for U+4E09

Chinese[edit]

simp. and trad.
variant forms financial

𢦘
Wikipedia has an article on:

Glyph origin[edit]

Historical forms of the character
Shang Western Zhou Warring States Shuowen Jiezi (compiled in Han) Liushutong (compiled in Ming)
Oracle bone script Bronze inscriptions Bronze inscriptions Chu Slip and silk script Qin slip script Ancient script Small seal script Transcribed ancient scripts
三-oracle.svg 三-bronze.svg ACC-b00375.svg 三-silk.svg 三-slip.svg 三-ancient.svg 三-seal.svg 三-bigseal.svg





References:

Mostly from Richard Sears' Chinese Etymology site (authorisation),
which in turn draws data from various collections of ancient forms of Chinese characters, including:

  • Shuowen Jiezi (small seal),
  • Jinwen Bian (bronze inscriptions),
  • Liushutong (Liushutong characters) and
  • Yinxu Jiaguwen Bian (oracle bone script).
Characters in the same phonetic series () (Zhengzhang, 2003) 
Old Chinese
*suːm, *suːms
*suːm

Ideogram (指事) - three parallel lines. Compare with , one line meaning “one”, , two lines meaning “two”, and , four lines meaning “four”. Triplication of (“one”).

Etymology[edit]

From Proto-Sino-Tibetan *g-sum.

Pronunciation 1[edit]


Note:
  • saⁿ - vernacular;
  • sam - literary.
Note:
  • san1 - vernacular;
  • sam1 - literary.
  • Wu

  • Rime
    Character
    Reading # 1/2
    Initial () (16)
    Final () (143)
    Tone (調) Level (Ø)
    Openness (開合) Open
    Division () I
    Fanqie
    Reconstructions
    Zhengzhang
    Shangfang
    /sɑm/
    Pan
    Wuyun
    /sɑm/
    Shao
    Rongfen
    /sɑm/
    Edwin
    Pulleyblank
    /sam/
    Li
    Rong
    /sɑm/
    Wang
    Li
    /sɑm/
    Bernard
    Karlgren
    /sɑm/
    Expected
    Mandarin
    Reflex
    sān
    BaxterSagart system 1.1 (2014)
    Character
    Reading # 1/2
    Modern
    Beijing
    (Pinyin)
    sān
    Middle
    Chinese
    ‹ sam ›
    Old
    Chinese
    /*s.rum/ (*s.r- > s-; infl. by 四 *s-?)
    English three

    Notes for Old Chinese notations in the Baxter–Sagart system:

    * Parentheses "()" indicate uncertain presence;
    * Square brackets "[]" indicate uncertain identity, e.g. *[t] as coda may in fact be *-t or *-p;
    * Angle brackets "<>" indicate infix;
    * Hyphen "-" indicates morpheme boundary;

    * Period "." indicates syllable boundary.
    Zhengzhang system (2003)
    Character
    Reading # 1/2
    No. 10963
    Phonetic
    component
    Rime
    group
    Rime
    subdivision
    3
    Corresponding
    MC rime
    Old
    Chinese
    /*suːm/

    Definitions[edit]

    1. three
    2. A surname​.

    Descendants[edit]

    Sino-Xenic ():
    • Japanese:  (さん) (san)
    • Korean: (, sam)
    • Vietnamese: tam ()

    Others:

    Compounds[edit]

    Pronunciation 2[edit]



    Rime
    Character
    Reading # 2/2
    Initial () (16)
    Final () (143)
    Tone (調) Departing (H)
    Openness (開合) Open
    Division () I
    Fanqie
    Reconstructions
    Zhengzhang
    Shangfang
    /sɑmH/
    Pan
    Wuyun
    /sɑmH/
    Shao
    Rongfen
    /sɑmH/
    Edwin
    Pulleyblank
    /samH/
    Li
    Rong
    /sɑmH/
    Wang
    Li
    /sɑmH/
    Bernard
    Karlgren
    /sɑmH/
    Expected
    Mandarin
    Reflex
    sàn
    BaxterSagart system 1.1 (2014)
    Character
    Reading # 2/2
    Modern
    Beijing
    (Pinyin)
    sān
    Middle
    Chinese
    ‹ samH ›
    Old
    Chinese
    /*s.r[u]m-s/ (*s.r- > *s-, infl. by 四 *s-?)
    English three times

    Notes for Old Chinese notations in the Baxter–Sagart system:

    * Parentheses "()" indicate uncertain presence;
    * Square brackets "[]" indicate uncertain identity, e.g. *[t] as coda may in fact be *-t or *-p;
    * Angle brackets "<>" indicate infix;
    * Hyphen "-" indicates morpheme boundary;

    * Period "." indicates syllable boundary.
    Zhengzhang system (2003)
    Character
    Reading # 2/2
    No. 10965
    Phonetic
    component
    Rime
    group
    Rime
    subdivision
    3
    Corresponding
    MC rime
    Old
    Chinese
    /*suːms/

    Definitions[edit]

    1. repeatedly; thrice
        ―  sān  ―  to think carefully

    Compounds[edit]

    See also[edit]

    Chinese numbers
    0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 102 103 104 108 1012
    Normal
    (小寫小写)
    亿 (Taiwan)
    萬億万亿 (Mainland China)
    Financial
    (大寫大写)
    Playing cards in Chinese · 撲克牌扑克牌 (pūkèpái) (layout · text)
    40 Asso di picche.jpg 41 Due di picche.jpg 42 Tre di picche.jpg 43 Quattro di picche.jpg 44 Cinque di picche.jpg 45 Sei di picche.jpg 46 Sette di picche.jpg
    A
    47 Otto di picche.jpg 48 Nove di picche.jpg 49 Dieci di picche.jpg 50 J di picche.jpg 51 Q di picche.jpg 52 K di picche.jpg Jolly Nero.jpg
    J Q K 小王 (black), 大王 (red)

    Japanese[edit]

    Kanji[edit]

    (grade 1 “Kyōiku” kanji)

    1. three

    Readings[edit]

    Compounds[edit]

    Alternative forms[edit]

    • (Financial/formal form):

    Etymology 1[edit]

    Japanese cardinal numbers
     <  2 3 4  > 
        Cardinal :
    Kanji in this term
    さん
    Grade: 1
    on’yomi

    */sam//samu//saɴ/

    From Middle Chinese (MC sɑm, sɑmH). Compare modern Mandarin (sān).

    In Old Japanese, this kanji was used phonetically to transcribe さむ (samu).

    Pronunciation[edit]

    Numeral[edit]

    (hiragana さん, rōmaji san)

    1. three, 3
      Synonym: スリー (surī)
    2. third
    Derived terms[edit]

    Etymology 2[edit]

    Kanji in this term
    さん
    Grade: 1
    on’yomi

    Borrowing from Chinese (sān), with the pitch accent different from etymology 1. (Can this(+) etymology be sourced?)

    Pronunciation[edit]

    Numeral[edit]

    (katakana サン, rōmaji san)

    1. three
    Derived terms[edit]

    Etymology 3[edit]

    Kanji in this term

    Grade: 1
    kun’yomi

    ⟨mi1/mi/

    From Old Japanese.

    Likely an apophonic form of (mu, six), compare (yo, four) with (ya, eight). (Can this(+) etymology be sourced?)

    Pronunciation[edit]

    Numeral[edit]

    (hiragana , rōmaji mi)

    1. three
       () () () ()、[…]
      hi, fu, mi, yo, […]
      one, two, three, four, […]
    Derived terms[edit]

    Etymology 4[edit]

    Kanji in this term
    みい
    Grade: 1
    Irregular

    /mi//miː/

    Shift from mi above.[1]

    Pronunciation[edit]

    Numeral[edit]

    (hiragana みい, rōmaji )

    1. (colloquial) three
       (ひい) (ふう) (みい) (よお) (いつ) (むう) (なあ) (やあ) (こお) (とお)
      hī, fū, , yō, itsu, mū, nā, yā, kō, tō
      one, two, three, four, five, six, seven, eight, nine, ten

    References[edit]

    1. 1.0 1.1 1.2 1.3 1.4 2006, 大辞林 (Daijirin), Third Edition (in Japanese), Tōkyō: Sanseidō, →ISBN

    Korean[edit]

    Hanja[edit]

    (eumhun (set sam))

    1. three

    References[edit]


    Vietnamese[edit]

    Han character[edit]

    (tam, tâm)

    1. This term needs a translation to English. Please help out and add a translation, then remove the text {{rfdef}}.