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U+9678, 陸
CJK UNIFIED IDEOGRAPH-9678

[U+9677]
CJK Unified Ideographs
[U+9679]
U+F9D3, 陸
CJK COMPATIBILITY IDEOGRAPH-F9D3

[U+F9D2]
CJK Compatibility Ideographs
[U+F9D4]

Translingual[edit]

Han character[edit]

(Kangxi radical 170, +8, 11 strokes, cangjie input 弓中土金土 (NLGCG), four-corner 74214, composition )

Derived characters[edit]

Related characters[edit]

References[edit]

  • Kangxi Dictionary: page 1355, character 1
  • Dai Kanwa Jiten: character 41708
  • Dae Jaweon: page 1858, character 4
  • Hanyu Da Zidian (first edition): volume 6, page 4134, character 5
  • Unihan data for U+9678

Chinese[edit]

trad.
simp.
alternative forms
Wikipedia has an article on:

Glyph origin[edit]

Historical forms of the character
Shang Western Zhou Spring and Autumn Warring States Shuowen Jiezi (compiled in Han)
Bronze inscriptions Oracle bone script Bronze inscriptions Bronze inscriptions Chu slip and silk script Qin slip script Shizhoupian script Small seal script

Phono-semantic compound (形聲形声, OC *m·ruɡ) : semantic + phonetic (OC *m·ruɡ).

Etymology 1[edit]

Perhaps related to Proto-Wa (*[ʔ]rok, "dry land") (Schuessler, 2007).

Pronunciation[edit]


Note: lio̍k - including surname.
Note:
  • lêg8 - vernacular;
  • log8 - literary.

  • Dialectal data
Variety Location
Mandarin Beijing /lu⁵¹/
Harbin /lu⁵³/
Tianjin /lu⁵³/
Jinan /lu²¹/
Qingdao /lu⁴²/
Zhengzhou /lu²⁴/
Xi'an /lu²¹/
Xining /lv̩⁴⁴/
Yinchuan /lu¹³/
Lanzhou /lu¹³/
Ürümqi /lu²¹³/
Wuhan /nəu²¹³/
Chengdu /nu³¹/
Guiyang /nu²¹/
Kunming /lu³¹/
Nanjing /luʔ⁵/
Hefei /luəʔ⁵/
Jin Taiyuan /luəʔ²/
Pingyao /luʌʔ⁵³/
Hohhot /luəʔ⁴³/
Wu Shanghai /loʔ¹/
Suzhou /loʔ³/
Hangzhou /loʔ²/
Wenzhou /lɤu²¹³/
Hui Shexian /lo²²/
Tunxi /ləu¹¹/
Xiang Changsha /ləu²⁴/
Xiangtan /nəɯ²⁴/
Gan Nanchang /luʔ⁵/
Hakka Meixian /liuk̚⁵/
Taoyuan /liuk̚⁵⁵/
Cantonese Guangzhou /lok̚²/
Nanning /luk̚²²/
Hong Kong /luk̚²/
Min Xiamen (Hokkien) /liɔk̚⁵/
/lak̚⁵/
Fuzhou (Eastern Min) /løyʔ⁵/
Jian'ou (Northern Min) /ly⁴²/
Shantou (Teochew) /lek̚⁵/
Haikou (Hainanese) /lok̚⁵/ ~地
/lok̚³/ ~續

Rime
Character
Reading # 1/1
Initial () (37)
Final () (4)
Tone (調) Checked (Ø)
Openness (開合) Open
Division () III
Fanqie
Baxter ljuwk
Reconstructions
Zhengzhang
Shangfang
/lɨuk̚/
Pan
Wuyun
/liuk̚/
Shao
Rongfen
/liuk̚/
Edwin
Pulleyblank
/luwk̚/
Li
Rong
/liuk̚/
Wang
Li
/lĭuk̚/
Bernard
Karlgren
/li̯uk̚/
Expected
Mandarin
Reflex
Expected
Cantonese
Reflex
luk6
BaxterSagart system 1.1 (2014)
Character
Reading # 1/1
Modern
Beijing
(Pinyin)
Middle
Chinese
‹ ljuwk ›
Old
Chinese
/*[r]uk/
English land (as opposed to water)

Notes for Old Chinese notations in the Baxter–Sagart system:

* Parentheses "()" indicate uncertain presence;
* Square brackets "[]" indicate uncertain identity, e.g. *[t] as coda may in fact be *-t or *-p;
* Angle brackets "<>" indicate infix;
* Hyphen "-" indicates morpheme boundary;

* Period "." indicates syllable boundary.
Zhengzhang system (2003)
Character
Reading # 1/1
No. 8533
Phonetic
component
Rime
group
Rime
subdivision
1
Corresponding
MC rime
Old
Chinese
/*m·ruɡ/

Definitions[edit]

  1. land; continent; mainland
      ―  dēng  ―  to land; to go ashore
      ―    ―  land route
  2. land route; surface transport
  3. Short for 中國大陸中国大陆 (Zhōngguó dàlù, “mainland China”).
      ―  shēng  ―  student from mainland China studying in Taiwan
  4. Short for 陸軍陆军 (lùjūn, “army”).
  5. a surname: Lu
      ―  Yóu  ―  Lu You (Southern Song dynasty poet)
Synonyms[edit]
  • (land route):
Antonyms[edit]

Compounds[edit]

Etymology 2[edit]

Pronunciation[edit]


Note:
  • la̍k - vernacular;
  • lio̍k - literary.

Definitions[edit]

  1. (financial) Alternative form of (six)

See also[edit]

Chinese numbers
0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 102 103 104 106 108 1012
Normal
(小寫小写)
, , , , ,
十千 (Malaysia, Singapore)
百萬百万,
(Philippines),
面桶 (Philippines)
亿 (Taiwan)
萬億万亿 (Mainland China)
Financial
(大寫大写)

Japanese[edit]

Kanji[edit]

(grade 4 “Kyōiku” kanji)

  1. land
  2. (financial, archaic) six

Readings[edit]

Synonyms[edit]

Etymology 1[edit]

Kanji in this term
ろく
Grade: 4
goon
Alternative spelling

Originally referred to "flat" in reference to flat land, in turn the core meaning of the kanji character.[1][2]

The alternative spelling is an example of ateji.[1][2][3][4]

First attested in the 羅葡日辞書 (Ra-Ho-Nichi Jisho, Latin-Portuguese-Japanese Dictionary) of 1595.[1]

Pronunciation[edit]

Adjective[edit]

(ろく) (roku-na (adnominal (ろく) (roku na), adverbial (ろく) (roku ni))

  1. [from 1595] flat, not steep
    • 1603, 日葡辞書 [Nippo Jisho, Japanese-Portuguese Dictionary]‎[5], page 212:
      Rocuna michi.
      Rocuna michi.
      Flat road.
  2. [from roughly 1600] straightforward, uncomplicated, straight, correct
  3. [from roughly 1600] (mostly used in negative expressions) correct, right, complete, sufficient, satisfactory, proper
    ろくでもない人物(じんぶつ)ろく(やす)みも()れない
    roku de mo nai jinbutsu, roku ni yasumi mo torenai
    a person who isn't right, a good-for-nothing / can't even fully take a break
  4. [from late 1600s] peaceful, tranquil, serene (said of one's surroundings)
  5. [from 1700] even-tempered, easygoing, relaxed
Inflection[edit]

Noun[edit]

(ろく) (roku

  1. [from 1595] flatness
  2. [from roughly 1600] straightforwardness, uncomplicatedness, straightness, correctness
  3. [from roughly 1600] (mostly used in negative expressions) correctness, rightness, completeness, sufficientness, satisfactoriness, properness
  4. [from late 1600s] peacefulness, tranquility, serenity (said of one's surroundings)
  5. [from 1700] an even temper, easygoingness, relaxedness

Etymology 2[edit]

Kanji in this term
ろく
Grade: 4
goon
Alternative spelling
(non-legal)

Substitute spelling for (roku, six),[6][7][2] likely borrowed from similar usage of written Chinese (six).

Pronunciation[edit]

Noun[edit]

(ろく) (roku

  1. (financial, archaic) the number six, 6 (used only in legal documents, otherwise )
Usage notes[edit]

Legal uses arose due to the relative ease with which certain number kanji can be fraudulently altered to look like other number kanji. For instance, (ichi, one) could be modified to look like (roku, six), but it cannot be modified to look like (roku, six, in legal contexts).

See also[edit]
  • 大字 (daiji, big character, more-complicated kanji used as phonetic replacements for simpler numeric kanji, in order to prevent fraudulent modification)

Etymology 3[edit]

Kanji in this term
りく
Grade: 4
kan’on

Ultimately from Middle Chinese (MC ljuwk). First attested in Japanese as a standalone noun in a text from the mid-1400s.[8]

Pronunciation[edit]

Noun[edit]

(りく) (riku

  1. [from mid-1400s] land (as opposed to sea or other bodies of water)
    Synonyms: 陸地 (rikuchi), おか (oka), くにが (kuniga), くぬが (kunuga), くが (kuga)

Etymology 4[edit]

Kanji in this term
おか
Grade: 4
kun’yomi
For pronunciation and definitions of – see the following entry.
おか
[noun] [from 1310] land, ground (as opposed to the sea or other bodies of water)
[noun] [from 1708] the bathing area next to an お風呂 (ofuro, traditional Japanese soaking tub), often raised relative to the tub basin
[noun] [from 1873] the raised portion of a (suzuri, inkstone) where one grinds the stick of India ink (as opposed to the (ike, literally pond) or (umi, literally sea), the small depressed basin area where one pours in the water)
Alternative spelling
(This term, , is an alternative spelling of the above term.)

Etymology 5[edit]

Kanji in this term
くが
Grade: 4
kun’yomi
For pronunciation and definitions of – see the following entry.
くが
[noun] : [from 720] the land, the land portion of an area, as opposed to seas, rivers, lakes, swamps, etc.
[noun] : [mid-1700s–???] (archaic, possibly obsolete) an overland route, as opposed to an oversea route
[proper noun] : a surname
(This term, , is an alternative spelling of the above term.)

Etymology 6[edit]

Kanji in this term
くぬが
Grade: 4
kun’yomi
For pronunciation and definitions of – see the following entry: くぬが

(The following entry is uncreated: くぬが.)

References[edit]

  1. 1.0 1.1 1.2 陸・碌”, in 日本国語大辞典 (Nihon Kokugo Daijiten, Nihon Kokugo Daijiten)[1] (in Japanese), concise edition, Tōkyō: Shogakukan, 2000
  2. 2.0 2.1 2.2 2.3 2.4 2.5 2.6 Matsumura, Akira, editor (2006), 大辞林 (in Japanese), Third edition, Tōkyō: Sanseidō, →ISBN
  3. ^ ”, in デジタル大辞泉[2] (in Japanese), Tōkyō: Shogakukan, updated roughly every four months
  4. 4.0 4.1 4.2 4.3 Kindaichi, Kyōsuke et al., editors (1997), 新明解国語辞典 (in Japanese), Fifth edition, Tōkyō: Sanseidō, →ISBN
  5. 5.0 5.1 NHK Broadcasting Culture Research Institute, editor (1998), NHK日本語発音アクセント辞典 (in Japanese), Tōkyō: NHK Publishing, →ISBN
  6. ^ Cite error: Invalid <ref> tag; no text was provided for refs named K
  7. ^ 六・陸”, in 日本国語大辞典 (Nihon Kokugo Daijiten, Nihon Kokugo Daijiten)[3] (in Japanese), concise edition, Tōkyō: Shogakukan, 2000
  8. ^ ”, in 日本国語大辞典 (Nihon Kokugo Daijiten, Nihon Kokugo Daijiten)[4] (in Japanese), concise edition, Tōkyō: Shogakukan, 2000

Korean[edit]

Etymology 1[edit]

From Middle Chinese (MC ljuwk).

Historical Readings
Dongguk Jeongun Reading
Dongguk Jeongun, 1448 륙〮 (Yale: lyúk)
Middle Korean
Text Eumhun
Gloss (hun) Reading
Hunmong Jahoe, 1527[6] 두듥〮 (Yale: twùtúlk) 륙〮 (Yale: lyúk)

Pronunciation[edit]

Hanja[edit]

Korean Wikisource has texts containing the hanja:

Wikisource

(eumhun (mut ryuk), South Korea (mut yuk))

  1. Hanja form? of / ((dry) land). [affix]

Compounds[edit]

Etymology 2[edit]

Hanja[edit]

(eumhun 여섯 (yeoseot ryuk), South Korea 여섯 (yeoseot yuk))

  1. (financial) Alternative form of (Hanja form? of / (six).)

References[edit]

  • 국제퇴계학회 대구경북지부 (國際退溪學會 大邱慶北支部) (2007). Digital Hanja Dictionary, 전자사전/電子字典. [7]

Vietnamese[edit]

Han character[edit]

: Hán Nôm readings: lục

  1. This term needs a translation to English. Please help out and add a translation, then remove the text {{rfdef}}.