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U+4E5D, 九
CJK UNIFIED IDEOGRAPH-4E5D

[U+4E5C]
CJK Unified Ideographs
[U+4E5E]
Commons:Category
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Translingual[edit]

Stroke order
九-order.gif
Stroke order
2 strokes

Han character[edit]

(radical 5 +1, 2 strokes, cangjie input 大弓 (KN), four-corner 40017, composition丿)

References[edit]

  • KangXi: page 83, character 19
  • Dai Kanwa Jiten: character 167
  • Dae Jaweon: page 168, character 2
  • Hanyu Da Zidian: volume 1, page 48, character 5
  • Unihan data for U+4E5D

Chinese[edit]

simp. and trad.
alt. forms financial
𠔀
𢌬
𣲄

Glyph origin[edit]

Historical forms of the character
Shang Western Zhou Warring States Shuowen Jiezi (compiled in Han) Liushutong (compiled in Ming)
Oracle bone script Bronze inscriptions Chu Slip and silk script Small seal script Transcribed ancient scripts
九-oracle.svg 九-bronze.svg 九-silk.svg 九-seal.svg 九-bigseal.svg





References:

Mostly from Richard Sears' Chinese Etymology site (authorisation),
which in turn draws data from various collections of ancient forms of Chinese characters, including:

  • Shuowen Jiezi (small seal),
  • Jinwen Bian (bronze inscriptions),
  • Liushutong (Liushutong characters) and
  • Yinxu Jiaguwen Bian (oracle bone script).
Characters in the same phonetic series () (Zhengzhang, 2003) 
Old Chinese
*kʰuː
*kʰuː, *kʰu, *ɡu
*krɯːw, *qʰrɯːw, *ɡu, *ɡʷrɯw
*qʰruː
*ku
*ku
*kuʔ
*kus
*ɡu
*ɡu
*ɡu
*ɡu
*ɡu
*ɡu, *ɡʷrɯw
*ɡu, *kʷrɯwʔ
*ɡu, *ɡʷrɯw
*ɡu
*ɡu
*ɡu
*ɡu
*kʷrɯwʔ
*kʷrɯwʔ
氿 *kʷrɯwʔ
*kʷrɯwʔ
*kuɡ
*qʰʷoɡ

Pictogram (象形) – a stylized hand, with bent wrist/forearm (hence the hook stroke at lower right). Earlier forms resemble , . The original meaning of the glyph was “elbow”, which is now written (OC *tkuʔ).

After the meaning “elbow” was forgotten, was taken to symbolize a fist tightening to bump up against something; thus, there is a metaphorical bumping up of nine against ten, which is the last number when counting on one's fingers.

Etymology[edit]

From Proto-Sino-Tibetan *d/s-kəw. Compare Tibetan དགུ (dgu).

Pronunciation[edit]


Note:
  • gāu - vernacular;
  • giū - literary.
Note:
  • káu - vernacular;
  • kiú - literary.
Note:
  • gao2 - vernacular;
  • giu2 - literary.

Rime
Character
Reading # 1/1
Initial () (28)
Final () (136)
Tone (調) Rising (X)
Openness (開合) Open
Division () III
Fanqie
Reconstructions
Zhengzhang
Shangfang
/kɨuX/
Pan
Wuyun
/kiuX/
Shao
Rongfen
/kiəuX/
Edwin
Pulleyblank
/kuwX/
Li
Rong
/kiuX/
Wang
Li
/kĭəuX/
Bernard
Karlgren
/ki̯ə̯uX/
Expected
Mandarin
Reflex
jiǔ
Baxter-Sagart system 1.1 (2014)
Character
Reading # 1/1
Modern
Beijing
(Pinyin)
jiǔ
Middle
Chinese
‹ kjuwX ›
Old
Chinese
/*[k]uʔ/
English nine

Notes for Old Chinese notations in the Baxter-Sagart system:

* Parentheses "()" indicate uncertain presence;
* Square brackets "[]" indicate uncertain identity, e.g. *[t] as coda may in fact be *-t or *-p;
* Angle brackets "<>" indicate infix;
* Hyphen "-" indicates morpheme boundary;

* Period "." indicates syllable boundary.
Zhengzhang system (2003)
Character
Reading # 1/1
No. 6941
Phonetic
component
Rime
group
Rime
subdivision
1
Corresponding
MC rime
Old
Chinese
/*kuʔ/

Definitions[edit]

  1. nine
  2. (figuratively) many
  3. (weather) each of the nine nine-day periods from the winter solstice

See also[edit]

Chinese numbers
0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 102 103 104 108 1012
Normal
(小写, lower case)


亿

万亿
Financial
(大写, upper case)





亿

万亿

Compounds[edit]

Descendants[edit]

Sino-Xenic ():
  • Japanese:  () (ku);  (きゅう) (kyū)
  • Korean: (, gu)
  • Vietnamese: cửu ()

Others:


Japanese[edit]

Japanese cardinal numbers
 <  8 9 10  > 
    Cardinal :

Kanji[edit]

(grade 1 “Kyōiku” kanji)

  1. nine

Readings[edit]

Compounds[edit]

Etymology 1[edit]

From Early Middle Chinese. Goon, the initial reading when first borrowed into Japanese.

Pronunciation[edit]

Alternative forms[edit]

Number[edit]

(hiragana , rōmaji ku)

  1. nine
  2. ninth

Noun[edit]

(hiragana , rōmaji ku)

  1. nine
  2. the ninth

Etymology 2[edit]

From Middle Chinese. Kan'on, a later reading. Borrowed after palatalisation occurred in Middle Chinese.

Pronunciation[edit]

Number[edit]

(hiragana きゅう, rōmaji kyū, historical hiragana きう)

  1. nine

Noun[edit]

(hiragana きゅう, rōmaji kyū, historical hiragana きう)

  1. nine
  2. an indeterminate large number, a myriad, a great many
  3. (divination) the number of yang, in opposition to (roku, six) as the number of yin
Alternative forms[edit]
  • (large number):

Etymology 3[edit]

From Old Japanese.

Pronunciation[edit]

Number[edit]

(hiragana ここの, rōmaji kokono)

  1. nine

Etymology 4[edit]

/kokono//kono/

Abbreviation of Old Japanese kokono (“nine”).

Pronunciation[edit]

Number[edit]

(hiragana この, rōmaji kono)

  1. nine
    ひい、ふう、みい、…なな、やあ、この、とお
    hī, fū, mī, …nana, yā, kono, tō
    one, two, three, ... seven, eight, nine, ten
Alternative forms[edit]
Usage notes[edit]

Generally only used when counting out loud, as in the example above. In writing, usually found spelled out in hiragana as この to make the reading unambiguous.

References[edit]


Korean[edit]

Hanja[edit]

(gu)

  1. nine

Compounds[edit]


Vietnamese[edit]

Han character[edit]

(cửu)

  1. This term needs a translation to English. Please help out and add a translation, then remove the text {{rfdef}}.