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See also: , , and
U+4E5D, 九
CJK UNIFIED IDEOGRAPH-4E5D

[U+4E5C]
CJK Unified Ideographs
[U+4E5E]
Commons:Category
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Translingual[edit]

Stroke order
2 strokes
Stroke order
九-order.gif

Han character[edit]

(radical 5, +1, 2 strokes, cangjie input 大弓 (KN), four-corner 40017, composition丿)

Derived characters[edit]

Descendants[edit]

References[edit]

  • KangXi: page 83, character 19
  • Dai Kanwa Jiten: character 167
  • Dae Jaweon: page 168, character 2
  • Hanyu Da Zidian: volume 1, page 48, character 5
  • Unihan data for U+4E5D

Chinese[edit]

simp. and trad.
variant forms financial
𠔀
𢌬
𣲄

Glyph origin[edit]

Historical forms of the character
Shang Western Zhou Warring States Shuowen Jiezi (compiled in Han) Liushutong (compiled in Ming)
Oracle bone script Bronze inscriptions Chu Slip and silk script Small seal script Transcribed ancient scripts
九-oracle.svg 九-bronze.svg 九-silk.svg 九-seal.svg 九-bigseal.svg





References:

Mostly from Richard Sears' Chinese Etymology site (authorisation),
which in turn draws data from various collections of ancient forms of Chinese characters, including:

  • Shuowen Jiezi (small seal),
  • Jinwen Bian (bronze inscriptions),
  • Liushutong (Liushutong characters) and
  • Yinxu Jiaguwen Bian (oracle bone script).
Characters in the same phonetic series () (Zhengzhang, 2003) 
Old Chinese
*kʰuː
*kʰuː, *kʰu, *ɡu
*krɯːw, *qʰrɯːw, *ɡu, *ɡʷrɯw
*qʰruː
*ku
*ku
*kuʔ
*kus
*ɡu
*ɡu
*ɡu
*ɡu
*ɡu
*ɡu, *ɡʷrɯw
*ɡu, *kʷrɯwʔ
*ɡu, *ɡʷrɯw
*ɡu
*ɡu
*ɡu
*ɡu
*kʷrɯwʔ
*kʷrɯwʔ
氿 *kʷrɯwʔ
*kʷrɯwʔ
*kuɡ
*qʰʷoɡ

Pictogram (象形) – a stylized hand, with bent wrist/forearm (hence the hook stroke at lower right). Earlier forms resemble , . The original meaning of the glyph was “elbow”, which is now written (OC *tkuʔ).

After the meaning “elbow” was forgotten, was taken to symbolize a fist tightening to bump up against something; thus, there is a metaphorical bumping up of nine against ten, which is the last number when counting on one's fingers.

Etymology[edit]

From Proto-Sino-Tibetan *d/s-kəw. Compare Tibetan དགུ (dgu).

Pronunciation[edit]


Note:
  • gāu - vernacular;
  • giū - literary.
  • Min Nan
  • Note:
    • káu - vernacular;
    • kiú - literary.
    Note:
    • gao2 - vernacular;
    • giu2 - literary.
  • Wu

  • Rime
    Character
    Reading # 1/1
    Initial () (28)
    Final () (136)
    Tone (調) Rising (X)
    Openness (開合) Open
    Division () III
    Fanqie
    Reconstructions
    Zhengzhang
    Shangfang
    /kɨuX/
    Pan
    Wuyun
    /kiuX/
    Shao
    Rongfen
    /kiəuX/
    Edwin
    Pulleyblank
    /kuwX/
    Li
    Rong
    /kiuX/
    Wang
    Li
    /kĭəuX/
    Bernard
    Karlgren
    /ki̯ə̯uX/
    Expected
    Mandarin
    Reflex
    jiǔ
    BaxterSagart system 1.1 (2014)
    Character
    Reading # 1/1
    Modern
    Beijing
    (Pinyin)
    jiǔ
    Middle
    Chinese
    ‹ kjuwX ›
    Old
    Chinese
    /*[k]uʔ/
    English nine

    Notes for Old Chinese notations in the Baxter–Sagart system:

    * Parentheses "()" indicate uncertain presence;
    * Square brackets "[]" indicate uncertain identity, e.g. *[t] as coda may in fact be *-t or *-p;
    * Angle brackets "<>" indicate infix;
    * Hyphen "-" indicates morpheme boundary;

    * Period "." indicates syllable boundary.
    Zhengzhang system (2003)
    Character
    Reading # 1/1
    No. 6941
    Phonetic
    component
    Rime
    group
    Rime
    subdivision
    1
    Corresponding
    MC rime
    Old
    Chinese
    /*kuʔ/

    Definitions[edit]

    1. nine
    2. (figuratively) many
    3. (weather) each of the nine nine-day periods from the winter solstice

    See also[edit]

    Chinese numbers
    0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 102 103 104 108 1012
    Normal
    (小寫小写)
    亿 (Taiwan)
    萬億万亿 (Mainland China)
    Financial
    (大寫大写)

    Compounds[edit]

    Descendants[edit]

    Sino-Xenic ():
    • Japanese:  () (ku);  (きゅう) (kyū)
    • Korean: (, gu)
    • Vietnamese: cửu ()

    Others:


    Japanese[edit]

    Japanese cardinal numbers
     <  8 9 10  > 
        Cardinal :

    Kanji[edit]

    (grade 1 “Kyōiku” kanji)

    1. nine

    Readings[edit]

    Compounds[edit]

    Etymology 1[edit]

    From Early Middle Chinese. Goon, the initial reading when first borrowed into Japanese.

    Pronunciation[edit]

    Alternative forms[edit]

    Number[edit]

    (hiragana , rōmaji ku)

    1. nine
    2. ninth

    Noun[edit]

    (hiragana , rōmaji ku)

    1. nine
    2. the ninth

    Etymology 2[edit]

    From Middle Chinese. Kan'on, a later reading. Borrowed after palatalisation occurred in Middle Chinese.

    Pronunciation[edit]

    Number[edit]

    (hiragana きゅう, rōmaji kyū, historical hiragana きう)

    1. nine

    Noun[edit]

    (hiragana きゅう, rōmaji kyū, historical hiragana きう)

    1. nine
    2. an indeterminate large number, a myriad, a great many
    3. (divination) the number of yang, in opposition to (roku, six) as the number of yin
    Alternative forms[edit]
    • (large number):

    Etymology 3[edit]

    From Old Japanese.

    Pronunciation[edit]

    Number[edit]

    (hiragana ここの, rōmaji kokono)

    1. nine

    Etymology 4[edit]

    /kokono//kono/

    Abbreviation of Old Japanese kokono (“nine”).

    Pronunciation[edit]

    Number[edit]

    (hiragana この, rōmaji kono)

    1. nine
      ひい、ふう、みい、…なな、やあ、この、とお
      hī, fū, mī, …nana, yā, kono, tō
      one, two, three, ... seven, eight, nine, ten
    Alternative forms[edit]
    Usage notes[edit]

    Generally only used when counting out loud, as in the example above. In writing, usually found spelled out in hiragana as この to make the reading unambiguous.

    References[edit]


    Korean[edit]

    Hanja[edit]

    (gu)

    1. nine

    Compounds[edit]


    Vietnamese[edit]

    Han character[edit]

    (cửu)

    1. This term needs a translation to English. Please help out and add a translation, then remove the text {{rfdef}}.