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Translingual[edit]

Stroke order
九-bw.png
Stroke order
九-order.gif

Han character[edit]

(radical 5 +1, 2 strokes, cangjie input 大弓 (KN), four-corner 40017, composition丿)

Related characters[edit]

References[edit]

  • KangXi: page 83, character 19
  • Dai Kanwa Jiten: character 167
  • Dae Jaweon: page 168, character 2
  • Hanyu Da Zidian: volume 1, page 48, character 5
  • Unihan data for U+4E5D

Chinese[edit]

simp. and trad.
alt. forms financial
𠔀
𢌬
𣲄

Glyph origin[edit]

Historical forms of the character
Oracle bone script Bronze inscriptions Bamboo and silk script Large seal script Small seal script
九-oracle.svg 九-bronze.svg 九-silk.svg 九-bigseal.svg 九-seal.svg





References:

Mostly from Richard Sears' Chinese Etymology site (authorisation),
which in turn draws data from various collections of ancient forms of Chinese characters, including:

  • Shuowen Jiezi (small seal),
  • Jinwen Bian (bronze inscriptions),
  • Liushutong (large seal) and
  • Xu Jiaguwen Bian (oracle bone script).

Pictogram (象形) – a stylized hand, with bent wrist/forearm (hence the hook stroke at lower right). Earlier forms resemble , . The original meaning of the glyph was “elbow”, which is now written (OC *tkuʔ).

After the meaning “elbow” was forgotten, was taken to symbolize a fist tightening to bump up against something; thus, there is a metaphorical bumping up of nine against ten, which is the the last number when counting on one's fingers.

Etymology[edit]

From Proto-Sino-Tibetan *d/s-kəw. Compare Tibetan དགུ ‎(dgu).

Pronunciation[edit]



Rime
Character
Reading # 1/1
Initial () (28)
Final () (136)
Tone (調) Rising (X)
Openness (開合) Open
Division () III
Fanqie
Reconstructions
Zhengzhang
Shangfang
/kɨuX/
Pan
Wuyun
/kiuX/
Shao
Rongfen
/kiəuX/
Edwin
Pulleyblank
/kuwX/
Li
Rong
/kiuX/
Wang
Li
/kĭəuX/
Bernard
Karlgren
/ki̯ə̯uX/
Expected
Mandarin
Reflex
jiǔ
Baxter-Sagart system 1.1 (2014)
Character
Reading # 1/1
Modern
Beijing
(Pinyin)
jiǔ
Middle
Chinese
‹ kjuwX ›
Old
Chinese
/*[k]uʔ/
English nine

Notes for Old Chinese notations in the Baxter-Sagart system:

* Parentheses "()" indicate uncertain presence;
* Square brackets "[]" indicate uncertain identity, e.g. *[t] as coda may in fact be *-t or *-p;
* Angle brackets "<>" indicate infix;
* Hyphen "-" indicates morpheme boundary;

* Period "." indicates syllable boundary.
Zhengzhang system (2003)
Character
Reading # 1/1
No. 6941
Phonetic
component
Rime
group
Rime
subdivision
1
Corresponding
MC rime
Old
Chinese
/*kuʔ/

Definitions[edit]

  1. nine
  2. (figuratively) many
  3. (weather) each of the nine nine-day periods from the winter solstice

See also[edit]

Chinese numbers
0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 102 103 104 108 1012
Cardinal

亿
Financial




亿

Compounds[edit]

Descendants[edit]

Sino-Xenic ():

Others:


Japanese[edit]

Kanji[edit]

(grade 1 “Kyōiku” kanji)

  1. nine

Readings[edit]

Compounds[edit]

Etymology 1[edit]

Japanese cardinal numbers
 <  8 9 10  > 
    Cardinal :

From Early Middle Chinese. Goon, the initial reading when first borrowed into Japanese.

Pronunciation[edit]

Alternative forms[edit]

Number[edit]

‎(hiragana , romaji ku)

  1. nine
  2. ninth

Noun[edit]

‎(hiragana , romaji ku)

  1. nine
  2. the ninth

Etymology 2[edit]

From Middle Chinese. Kan'on, a later reading. Borrowed after palatalisation occurred in Middle Chinese.

Pronunciation[edit]

Number[edit]

‎(hiragana きゅう, romaji kyū, historical hiragana きう)

  1. nine

Noun[edit]

‎(hiragana きゅう, romaji kyū, historical hiragana きう)

  1. nine
  2. an indeterminate large number, a myriad, a great many
  3. (divination) the number of yang, in opposition to ‎(roku, six) as the number of yin
Alternative forms[edit]
  • (large number):

Etymology 3[edit]

From Old Japanese.

Pronunciation[edit]

Counter[edit]

‎(hiragana ここの, romaji -kokono)

  1. nine

Etymology 4[edit]

/kokono//kono/

Abbreviation of Old Japanese kokono (“nine”).

Pronunciation[edit]

Number[edit]

‎(hiragana この, romaji kono)

  1. nine
    ひい、ふう、みい、…なな、やあ、この、とお
    hī, fū, mī, ... nana, yā, kono, tō
    one, two, three, ... seven, eight, nine, ten
Alternative forms[edit]
Usage notes[edit]

Generally only used when counting out loud, as in the example above. In writing, usually found spelled out in hiragana as この to make the reading unambiguous.

References[edit]


Korean[edit]

Hanja[edit]

‎(gu)
Eumhun:

  • Sound (hangeul):  (revised: gu, McCune-Reischauer: ku, Yale: kwu)
  • Name (hangeul): 아홉 (revised: ahop, McCune-Reischauer: ahop, Yale: ahop)
  1. nine

Compounds[edit]


Vietnamese[edit]

Han character[edit]

(cửu)

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