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U+6C99, 沙
CJK UNIFIED IDEOGRAPH-6C99

[U+6C98]
CJK Unified Ideographs
[U+6C9A]

Translingual[edit]

Han character[edit]

(radical 85, +4, 7 strokes, cangjie input 水火竹 (EFH), four-corner 39120, composition)

References[edit]

  • KangXi: page 611, character 21
  • Dai Kanwa Jiten: character 17212
  • Dae Jaweon: page 1005, character 3
  • Hanyu Da Zidian: volume 3, page 1562, character 9
  • Unihan data for U+6C99

Chinese[edit]

simp. and trad.
Wikipedia has an article on:
放大顯示的沙子,本為一平方釐米

Glyph origin[edit]

Characters in the same phonetic series () (Zhengzhang, 2003) 
Old Chinese
*ʔsaːlʔ, *sʰaːlʔ, *sraːl
*saːl, *saːlʔ
*saːl, *sraːl
*saːl
*saːl
*saːl, *sreŋʔ, *seŋʔ
*sraːl, *sraːls
*sraːl
*sraːl
*sraːl
*sraːl
*sraːl
髿 *sraːl, *soːl
*sraːl, *soːl
*soːl
*soːl

Ideogrammic compound (會意):  (water) +  (to lack; to be short of).

Etymology 1[edit]

From Proto-Sino-Tibetan *(s/z)a-j (earth, sand). Compare Tibetan (sa, sand) and Burmese သဲ (sai:, sand).

Pronunciation 1[edit]


Note:
  • sa - literary;
  • sai - vernacular.
  • Min Nan
  • Note:
    • soa/se - vernacular;
    • sa/see - literary.
    Note:
    • sua1 - vernacular;
    • sa1 - literary.

    • Dialectal data
    Variety Location
    Mandarin Beijing /ʂa⁵⁵/
    Harbin /ʂa⁴⁴/
    Tianjin /sɑ²¹/
    Jinan /ʂa²¹³/
    Qingdao /ʂa²¹³/
    Zhengzhou /ʂa²⁴/
    Xi'an /sa²¹/
    Xining /sa⁴⁴/
    Yinchuan /ʂa⁴⁴/
    Lanzhou /ʂa³¹/
    Ürümqi /sa⁴⁴/
    Wuhan /sa²¹³/
    Chengdu /sa⁵⁵/
    Guiyang /sa⁵⁵/
    Kunming /ʂa̠⁴⁴/
    Nanjing /ʂɑ³¹/
    Hefei /ʂa²¹/
    Jin Taiyuan /sa¹¹/
    Pingyao /sɑ¹³/
    Hohhot /sa³¹/
    Wu Shanghai /so⁵³/
    Suzhou /so⁵⁵/
    Hangzhou /sɑ³³/
    Wenzhou /so³³/
    Hui Shexian /sa³¹/
    Tunxi /sɔ¹¹/
    Xiang Changsha /sa³³/
    Xiangtan /dɒ³³/
    Gan Nanchang /sɑ⁴²/
    Hakka Meixian /sa⁴⁴/
    Taoyuan /sɑ²⁴/
    Cantonese Guangzhou /sa⁵³/
    Nanning /sa⁵⁵/
    Hong Kong /sa⁵⁵/
    Min Xiamen (Min Nan) /sa⁵⁵/
    /sua⁵⁵/
    Fuzhou (Min Dong) /sa⁴⁴/
    Jian'ou (Min Bei) /suɛ⁵⁴/
    /sa⁵⁴/
    Shantou (Min Nan) /sua³³/
    Haikou (Min Nan) /sa²³/
    /tua²³/

    Rime
    Character
    Reading # 1/2 2/2
    Initial () (21) (21)
    Final () (98) (98)
    Tone (調) Level (Ø) Departing (H)
    Openness (開合) Open Open
    Division () II II
    Fanqie
    Reconstructions
    Zhengzhang
    Shangfang
    /ʃˠa/ /ʃˠaH/
    Pan
    Wuyun
    /ʃᵚa/ /ʃᵚaH/
    Shao
    Rongfen
    /ʃa/ /ʃaH/
    Edwin
    Pulleyblank
    /ʂaɨ/ /ʂaɨH/
    Li
    Rong
    /ʃa/ /ʃaH/
    Wang
    Li
    /ʃa/ /ʃaH/
    Bernard
    Karlgren
    /ʂa/ /ʂaH/
    Expected
    Mandarin
    Reflex
    shā shà
    BaxterSagart system 1.1 (2014)
    Character
    Reading # 1/1
    Modern
    Beijing
    (Pinyin)
    shā
    Middle
    Chinese
    ‹ sræ ›
    Old
    Chinese
    /*sˁraj/
    English sand

    Notes for Old Chinese notations in the Baxter–Sagart system:

    * Parentheses "()" indicate uncertain presence;
    * Square brackets "[]" indicate uncertain identity, e.g. *[t] as coda may in fact be *-t or *-p;
    * Angle brackets "<>" indicate infix;
    * Hyphen "-" indicates morpheme boundary;

    * Period "." indicates syllable boundary.
    Zhengzhang system (2003)
    Character
    Reading # 1/2 2/2
    No. 11025 11035
    Phonetic
    component
    Rime
    group
    Rime
    subdivision
    1 1
    Corresponding
    MC rime
    Old
    Chinese
    /*sraːl/ /*sraːls/
    Definitions[edit]

    1. sand
    2. something granular
    3. mushy and rough (as sand), texture of a watermelon of good quality.
        ―  shāráng  ―  (please add an English translation of this example)
        ―  shā  ―  Pyrus pyrifolia
      西  ―  shāguā  ―  alternative of
    4. (of a voice) hoarse; husky
      [Cantonese, trad.]
      [Cantonese, simp.]
      giu3 dou3 baa2 seng1 saa1 saai3 [Jyutping]
      shout so much that one's voice is all hoarse
    5. (Buddhism) the number 10-8
    6. Short for 沙皇 (shāhuáng).
    Compounds[edit]

    Pronunciation 2[edit]


    Definitions[edit]

    1. (dialectal) to shake in order to gather impurities to be removed

    Etymology 2[edit]

    For pronunciation and definitions of – see (“sand, ; extremely mushy and/or rough, texture of a watermelon of good quality, ”).
    (This character, , is the second-round simplified form of .)
    Notes:

    Japanese[edit]

    Kanji[edit]

    (common “Jōyō” kanji)

    Readings[edit]

    Etymology 1[edit]

    Noun[edit]

    (hiragana すな, rōmaji suna)

    1. sand

    Etymology 2[edit]

    Noun[edit]

    (hiragana いさご, rōmaji isago)

    1. small rock
    2. sand

    Etymology 3[edit]

    Noun[edit]

    (hiragana , rōmaji sa, alternative reading しゃ, rōmaji sha)

    1. Number of units, 1 of 100 million parts.

    Korean[edit]

    Hanja[edit]

    (sa) (hangeul , revised sa, McCune–Reischauer sa, Yale sa) [모래 사]

    1. This term needs a translation to English. Please help out and add a translation, then remove the text {{rfdef}}.

    Vietnamese[edit]

    Han character[edit]

    (sa, , nhểu, xoà, xa, )

    1. This term needs a translation to English. Please help out and add a translation, then remove the text {{rfdef}}.

    References[edit]

    • Nom Foundation
    • Thiều Chửu : Hán Việt Tự Điển Hà Nội 1942
    • Trần Văn Chánh: Từ Điển Hán Việt NXB Trẻ, Ho Chi Minh Ville, 1999
    • Vũ Văn Kính: Đại Tự Điển Chữ Nôm, NXB Văn Nghệ, Ho Chi Minh Ville