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U+6C99, 沙
CJK UNIFIED IDEOGRAPH-6C99

[U+6C98]
CJK Unified Ideographs
[U+6C9A]

Translingual

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Han character

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(Kangxi radical 85, +4, 7 strokes, cangjie input 水火竹 (EFH), four-corner 39120, composition )

Derived characters

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References

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  • Kangxi Dictionary: page 611, character 21
  • Dai Kanwa Jiten: character 17212
  • Dae Jaweon: page 1005, character 3
  • Hanyu Da Zidian (first edition): volume 3, page 1562, character 9
  • Unihan data for U+6C99

Chinese

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simp. and trad.
Wikipedia has articles on:
  • (Written Standard Chinese?)
  • (Cantonese)
放大顯示的沙子,本為一平方釐米

Glyph origin

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Historical forms of the character
Western Zhou Shuowen Jiezi (compiled in Han)
Bronze inscriptions Small seal script

Ideogrammic compound (會意会意) : (water) + (to lack; to be short of).

Etymology 1

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From Proto-Sino-Tibetan *(s/z)a-j (earth, sand). Compare Tibetan (sa, sand) and Burmese သဲ (sai:, sand).

Pronunciation 1

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Note:
  • suói - vernacular;
  • sá - literary.
Note:
  • săi - vernacular;
  • să - literary.
Note:
  • soa, se - vernacular;
  • sa/see - literary.
Note:
  • sua1 - vernacular;
  • sa1 - literary.

  • Dialectal data
Variety Location
Mandarin Beijing /ʂa⁵⁵/
Harbin /ʂa⁴⁴/
Tianjin /sɑ²¹/
Jinan /ʂa²¹³/
Qingdao /ʂa²¹³/
Zhengzhou /ʂa²⁴/
Xi'an /sa²¹/
Xining /sa⁴⁴/
Yinchuan /ʂa⁴⁴/
Lanzhou /ʂa³¹/
Ürümqi /sa⁴⁴/
Wuhan /sa²¹³/
Chengdu /sa⁵⁵/
Guiyang /sa⁵⁵/
Kunming /ʂa̠⁴⁴/
Nanjing /ʂɑ³¹/
Hefei /ʂa²¹/
Jin Taiyuan /sa¹¹/
Pingyao /sɑ¹³/
Hohhot /sa³¹/
Wu Shanghai /so⁵³/
Suzhou /so⁵⁵/
Hangzhou /sɑ³³/
Wenzhou /so³³/
Hui Shexian /sa³¹/
Tunxi /sɔ¹¹/
Xiang Changsha /sa³³/
Xiangtan /dɒ³³/
Gan Nanchang /sɑ⁴²/
Hakka Meixian /sa⁴⁴/
Taoyuan /sɑ²⁴/
Cantonese Guangzhou /sa⁵³/
Nanning /sa⁵⁵/
Hong Kong /sa⁵⁵/
Min Xiamen (Hokkien) /sa⁵⁵/
/sua⁵⁵/
Fuzhou (Eastern Min) /sa⁴⁴/
Jian'ou (Northern Min) /suɛ⁵⁴/
/sa⁵⁴/
Shantou (Teochew) /sua³³/
Haikou (Hainanese) /sa²³/
/tua²³/

Rime
Character
Reading # 1/2 2/2
Initial () (21) (21)
Final () (98) (98)
Tone (調) Level (Ø) Departing (H)
Openness (開合) Open Open
Division () II II
Fanqie
Baxter srae sraeH
Reconstructions
Zhengzhang
Shangfang
/ʃˠa/ /ʃˠaH/
Pan
Wuyun
/ʃᵚa/ /ʃᵚaH/
Shao
Rongfen
/ʃa/ /ʃaH/
Edwin
Pulleyblank
/ʂaɨ/ /ʂaɨH/
Li
Rong
/ʃa/ /ʃaH/
Wang
Li
/ʃa/ /ʃaH/
Bernard
Karlgren
/ʂa/ /ʂaH/
Expected
Mandarin
Reflex
shā shà
Expected
Cantonese
Reflex
saa1 saa3
BaxterSagart system 1.1 (2014)
Character
Reading # 1/1
Modern
Beijing
(Pinyin)
shā
Middle
Chinese
‹ sræ ›
Old
Chinese
/*sˁraj/
English sand

Notes for Old Chinese notations in the Baxter–Sagart system:

* Parentheses "()" indicate uncertain presence;
* Square brackets "[]" indicate uncertain identity, e.g. *[t] as coda may in fact be *-t or *-p;
* Angle brackets "<>" indicate infix;
* Hyphen "-" indicates morpheme boundary;

* Period "." indicates syllable boundary.
Zhengzhang system (2003)
Character
Reading # 1/2 2/2
No. 11025 11035
Phonetic
component
Rime
group
Rime
subdivision
1 1
Corresponding
MC rime
Old
Chinese
/*sraːl/ /*sraːls/
Definitions
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  1. sand
      ―  shā  ―  silt
      ―  shā  ―  desert
  2. (usually used in place names) shoal
  3. something granular
      ―  dòushā  ―  red bean paste
  4. mushy and rough (as sand), texture of a watermelon of good quality.
      ―  shāráng  ―  mushy watermelon pulp, Refers to the watermelon when the flesh becomes loose and fine-grained
      ―  shā  ―  Pyrus pyrifolia
    西  ―  shāguā  ―  alternative of (shā guā)
  5. (of a voice) hoarse; husky
      ―  shā  ―  hoarse
    [Cantonese, trad.]
    [Cantonese, simp.]
    giu3 dou3 baa2 seng1 saa1 saai3 [Jyutping]
    shout so much that one's voice is all hoarse
  6. (Buddhism) the number 10-8
  7. Short for 沙皇 (shāhuáng).
      ―  Shā  ―  Russian Empire
  8. (Malaysia, Singapore) Short for 沙巴 (Shābā, “Sabah”).
  9. (Mainland China) Short for 沙特阿拉伯 (Shātè Ālābó, “Saudi Arabia”).
  10. (Hong Kong) Short for 沙田 (shātián, “Sha Tin”).
  11. a surname
  12. (Teochew) This term needs a translation to English. Please help out and add a translation, then remove the text {{rfdef}}.
Synonyms
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  • (sand):
Compounds
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Descendants
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  • Proto-Tai: *zwɯəjᴬ

Pronunciation 2

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Definitions
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  1. (dialectal) to shake in order to gather impurities to be removed

Pronunciation 3

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Definitions
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  1. (alt. form ) to twirl; to whirl
  2. (alt. form ) to fondle; to caress
Compounds
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Etymology 2

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For pronunciation and definitions of – see .
(This character is the second-round simplified form of ).
Notes:

References

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Japanese

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Kanji

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(Jōyō kanji)

Readings

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Etymology 1

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Noun

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(すな) (suna

  1. sand

Etymology 2

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Noun

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(いさご) (isago

  1. small rock
  2. sand

Etymology 3

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Noun

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() or (しゃ) (sa or sha

  1. Number of units, 1 of 100 million parts.

Korean

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Etymology

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From Middle Chinese (MC srae|sraeH). Recorded as Middle Korean (sa) (Yale: sa) in Hunmong Jahoe (訓蒙字會 / 훈몽자회), 1527.

Hanja

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Korean Wikisource has texts containing the hanja:

Wikisource

(eumhun 모래 (morae sa))

  1. Hanja form? of (sand).
    Synonym: ( (sa))

Compounds

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References

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  • 국제퇴계학회 대구경북지부 (國際退溪學會 大邱慶北支部) (2007). Digital Hanja Dictionary, 전자사전/電子字典. [3]

Vietnamese

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Han character

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: Hán Nôm readings: sa

  1. This term needs a translation to English. Please help out and add a translation, then remove the text {{rfdef}}.

References

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  • Nom Foundation
  • Thiều Chửu : Hán Việt Tự Điển Hà Nội 1942
  • Trần Văn Chánh: Từ Điển Hán Việt NXB Trẻ, Ho Chi Minh Ville, 1999
  • Vũ Văn Kính: Đại Tự Điển Chữ Nôm, NXB Văn Nghệ, Ho Chi Minh Ville