Wiktionary:About Chinese/Gan

Definition from Wiktionary, the free dictionary
Jump to navigation Jump to search

Wiktionary uses the following system to transcribe Nanchang dialect of Gan Chinese. See Module:gan-pron for the codes.

Initials[edit]

IPA Xiong (1979, 1994) MFCCD Transcription Example Notes
/p/ p p b
/pʰ/ p‘ p
/m/ m m m
/f/ f f f
/t/ t t d
/tʰ/ t‘ t
/l/ l l l
/t͡s/ ts ʦ z
/t͡sʰ/ ts‘ ʦʰ c
/s/ s s s
/t͡ɕ/ ʨ j only before high front vowels
/t͡ɕʰ/ tɕ‘ ʨʰ q only before high front vowels
/n̠ʲ/ ȵ ȵ ny only before high front vowels
/ɕ/ ɕ ɕ x only before high front vowels
/k/ k k g
/kʰ/ k‘ k
/ŋ/ ŋ ŋ ng
/h/ h h h

Rhymes[edit]

IPA Xiong (1994) MFCCD Transcription Example Notes
/z̩/ ɿ ɿ i only after /t͡s/, /t͡sʰ/, /s/
/i/ i i i
/u/ u u u
/y/ y y y
/a/ a ɑ a
/ia/ ia ia
/ua/ ua ua
/o/ o o o
/uo/ uo uo uo
/e/ e e e
/ie/ ie ie ie
/ue/ ue - ue -
/ye/ ye ye ye
/ɵ/ ɵ ɵ eo
/m̩/ - m zero initial
/n̩/ n zero initial
/ŋ̍/ ŋ̍ ŋ̍ ng zero initial
/ai/ ai ai ai
/uai/ uai uai uai
/oi/ oi - oi - only used for interjections
/ei/ ei - ei - only used in contractions
/ɨi/ ɨi ɨi i only after /f/
/ui/ ui ui ui
/au/ au ɑu au
/ɛu/ ɛu ɛu eu
/iɛu/ iɛu iɛu ieu
/ɨu/ ɨu ɨu iu only after /t͡s/, /t͡sʰ/, /s/
/iu/ iu iu iu
/an/ an an an
/uan/ uan uan uan
/ɵn/ on ɵn on
/uɵn/ uon uɵn uon
/yɵn/ yon yɵn yon
/ɛn/ ɛn ɛn en
/iɛn/ iɛn iɛn ien
/ɨn/ ɨn ɨn iin
/in/ in in in
/un/ un un un
/yn/ yn yn yn
/aŋ/ ɑŋ ang
/iaŋ/ iaŋ iɑŋ iang
/uaŋ/ uaŋ uɑŋ uang
/ɔŋ/ ɔŋ ɔŋ ong
/iɔŋ/ iɔŋ iɔŋ iong
/uɔŋ/ uɔŋ uɔŋ uong
/uŋ/ ung
/iuŋ/ iuŋ iuŋ iung
/at̚/ at at
/uat̚/ uat uaʔ uat
/ɵt̚/ ot ɵʔ ot
/uɵt̚/ uot uɵʔ uot
/yɵt̚/ yot yɵʔ yot
/ɛt̚/ ɛt ɛʔ et
/iɛt̚/ iɛt iɛʔ iet
/uɛt̚/ uɛt uɛʔ uet
/ɨt̚/ ɨt ɨʔ iit
/it̚/ it it
/ut̚/ ut uɨʔ ut
/yt̚/ yt yt
/aʔ/ ɑʔ ah
/iaʔ/ iaʔ iɑʔ iah
/uaʔ/ uaʔ - uah -
/ɔʔ/ ɔʔ ɔʔ oh
/iɔʔ/ iɔʔ iɔʔ ioh
/uɔʔ/ uɔʔ uɔʔ uoh
/uʔ/ uh
/iuʔ/ iuʔ iuʔ iuh

Suprasegmentals[edit]

Tones[edit]

Tone name Tone value (Wiktionary; Xiong, 1979, 1994) Tone value (MFCCD) Transcription Example Notes
dark level 42 42 1
light level (A) 24 24 2 only with aspirated initials
rising 213 213 3
dark departing (or light level B) 35 45 4 only with unaspirated initials
light departing 11 21 5
dark checked 5 5 6
light checked 2 2 7
neutral (unmarked)

Tone sandhi[edit]

Stress[edit]

Stress is indicated by an apostrophe (') before the syllable.

今日 'jin1 nyit6
水果 sui3 'guo3

References[edit]

  • 熊正辉 [Xiong Zhenghui] (1979-11-24), “南昌方言的声调及其演变”, in 方言, issue 4, year 1979, pages 275–283
  • 熊正辉 [Xiong Zhenghui], editor (1994) Great Dictionary of Modern Chinese Dialects: Dictionary of the Nanchang Dialect